Polio and Its Epidemiology

  • Lester M. ShulmanEmail author


The word “polio ” has been used to describe both a disease and the disease agent. Among current methods to measure the importance of or interest in a topic is to run a general web search for the term and to search the scientific literature in PubMed. A Google web search of the word “polio” in Aug 2010 yielded 31,100,000 hits, while a search in PubMed yielded 22,000 articles and 826 review articles. This review will concentrate on those aspects of the epidemiology of polio as it relates to disease eradication and the sustainability of this effort. The terms “polio” and “poliomyelitis ” will be used when describing the disease and “poliovirus” and related terms such as “polio vaccine ” will be used to describe the agent that causes the disease.


Internal Ribosome Entry Site Acute Flaccid Paralysis Polio Eradication Environmental Surveillance Inactivate Poliovirus Vaccine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Advisory Committee on Polio Eradication


Acute flaccid paralysis.

AFP surveillance

Characterization of enteroviruses in stool samples from all AFP cases especially in individuals under 15 years of age to rule-in or rule-out etiology by polioviruses.


A vaccine-derived poliovirus isolate whose evolutionary path is unknown or ambiguous.


Bivalent oral polio vaccine (usually containing serotypes 1 and 3).


Biosafety standard level.


The protein shell that surrounds a virus particle.


One of the individual morphological units that make up the viral capsid.


US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CD155 or PVr

The human encoded cell receptor for poliovirus, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily.


A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides on a strand of DNA or RNA that specifies which specific amino acid will be incorporated into a protein.

Codon bias

Unequal usage of synonymous codons (different codons that specify the same amino acid)


Cytopathic effect.


A circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus, that is, a poliovirus that has evolved from vaccine during person-to-person transmission.


Enhanced inactivated polio vaccine.


The appearance of a pathogen in a previously pathogen-free area.


The constant presence of a disease to a greater or lesser extent in a particular locality.


Any of >80 different species of polioviruses, coxsackie viruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae.

Environmental surveillance (as related to polioviruses)

Investigation of sewage and recreational water for the presence of poliovirus as an indication of the presence of poliovirus-infected individuals in a community.


Expanded Program on Immunization.


A rapid spread of disease into a disease-free area or spread of a disease to more than the usual number of persons affected in a region with disease.


The component of an antigen that is recognized by and binds to an antibody.


The complete elimination of all incidence of disease and/or the presence of the agent that causes the disease.


Change in the genetic composition of a population or the genome of a given organism during successive generations.


Global action plan for laboratory containment.


GAP phase I – plan for identifying all known and potential sources of poliovirus especially wild polioviruses within each country.


GAP phase II – plan for laboratory containment of wild polioviruses.


GAP phase III – plan to minimize post-eradication poliovirus facility-associated risks.


Global alliance for vaccines and immunization

Genetic recombination (of polioviruses)

A situation where one portion of the genome of a poliovirus is replaced through a covalent linkage with the equivalent segment from another poliovirus or non-polio enterovirus.


He genetic makeup of an organism as distinguished from its physical characteristics.


Geometric mean titer, usually calculated according to Karber.


Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network.


The Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative of the WHO, adopted in 1988.


Global Polio Laboratory Network.

Hydrophobic pocket

A hydrophobic space located under the binding site for the host encoded viral receptor that is located on the bottom of the canyon surrounding the fivefold axis of symmetry of the enteroviral capsid.

Hydrophobic pocket factors

Small hydrophobic molecules that occupy the hydrophobic pocket and that may regulate the host receptor viral capsid interaction.


Lacking one of the components of the immune system.


The relative ability of a molecule to elicit an immune response.


Intradermal or under the skin.










Establishment and growth of an infectious agent in the body.


Inactivated poliovirus vaccine.


Internal ribosome entry site.


Intratypic differentiation (determination if a virus isolate is vaccine, vaccine-derived, or wild).


A vaccine-derived poliovirus that has diverged from its respective oral poliovirus serotype during persistent infection of an immunodeficient host.


A group of organisms that are closely related genetically.


Mutant analysis by PCR and restriction fragment enzyme cleavage to measure reversion of attenuation sites in vaccine strains.


Monkey neurovirulence test, an in vivo neurovirulence test in monkeys.


Monovalent OPV.


The ability of the poliovirus to infect and damage nerve cells causing disease of the nervous system.

Neurovirulence attenuation sites

Specific nucleotide positions along the poliovirus genome where the specific nucleotide present at that site will influence whether or not an individual polioviral isolate will be neurovirulent.

Neutralizing antigenic sites

Epitopes of the poliovirus that induce neutralizing antibodies.


National immunization day.


Non-Sabin-like (wild) virus of vaccine-derived poliovirus (based on results of certain ITD tests).

Major disease

Poliomyelitis, AFP, or cases of infection with polio that involves invasion and permanent damage to the nervous system.


A technology used to study many genes at once using thousands of different short molecular sequences at known position on solid support to hybridize to complementary nucleic acid sequences from different sources.

Minor disease

Nonspecific illness caused by poliovirus that may include upper respiratory tract symptoms (sore throat and fever), gastroenteritis (nausea vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation or diarrhea), and influenza-like illness.


National Certification Committees.


Nongovernmental organizations.


National immunization days.


Non-polio enteroviruses.

Nonstructural genes

Viral genes encoding proteins that are not incorporated into the structure of the capsid.


A short sequence of nucleotides frequently synthetic.


Live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine.


(Under eradication conditions) even the presence of a single case of paralytic poliomyelitis.

Persistent poliovirus infection

An infection associated with an immunodeficient host where virus is not cleared but continues to replicate for an indefinite period of time.

Phylogenetic tree

A diagram with branches showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological entities.


A viral family made up of the small (18–30nm) ether-sensitive single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that lack an envelope.


The infectious disease caused by poliovirus involving inflammation of motor neurons of the spinal cord and brainstem that leads to acute paralysis followed by atrophy of the muscles enervated by the infected motor neurons.


One of three serotypes of picornaviruses that can cause acute flaccid paralysis and whose cell receptor is CD155.


A small molecule constructed from linked amino acids.

Postpolio syndrome

Slow progressive muscle pain and weakness that reappears 30 or 40 years after paralysis caused by a poliovirus infection affecting muscles previously affected by polio as well as muscles that may not have been affected.

Posttranslational processing

Any modification of a protein after it has been translated.

Provoked poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis resulting from physical trauma during infection with poliovirus.


An enzymatic process that checks whether a newly incorporated nucleotide in a nascent chain is the correct compliment of its corresponding nucleotide in the template.


The poliovirus receptor, CD155.

PVR Tg21 transgenic mouse

A mouse that has been genetically modified to express the human poliovirus receptor.


A term used to describe a cluster, cloud, or swarm of viruses with minor differences in nucleotide sequence that arise during replication as a consequence of polymerase incorporation errors.

Rearrangement (in relation to polioviruses)

A structural alteration in the genomic sequence occurring during coinfection with two or more viruses resulting in a new genome in which parts are from different parental polio or non-polio enteroviruses


Emergence after an absence.


Regional Certification Committees.


Reproductive capacity temperature, the temperature at which viruses can replicate.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

A viral encoded polymerase that synthesizes a complimentary RNA strand from an RNA template.


Regional Reference Laboratory of the Global Polio Laboratory Network.


Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization.


A group of closely related virus expressing a common set of antigens.


Appearance of antibodies following exposure to antigen in seronegative person, or ≥4-fold increase in titer of previously immune person.

Seroconversion index

The mean seroconversion rate against all three poliovirus serotypes.


Sabin-like poliovirus (based on result from some ITD tests).


Supplemental immunization activities (such as NIDs, SNIDS, and mop-ups).

Silent circulation

Person-to-person transmission of virus in a community in the absence of cases of AFP.

Silent infection

Asymptomatic infection.

Silent presence

The presence of a virus in the absence of clinical cases and the absence of person-to-person transmission.


Sub-national Immunization Days.


All governmental and nongovernmental agencies involved in the GPEI.

Structural genes (in relation to polio)

Genes encoding viral capsid proteins.

Synonymous nucleotide substitutions

Changes in the nucleotide sequence that do not result in a change in encoded amino acid.


Technical Advisory Group.


Typic differentiation (determination of the serotype of a poliovirus isolate).


Trivalent oral polio vaccine containing all three serotypes of attenuated poliovirus.


The substitution of a purine nucleotide with the other purine, or a pyrimidine nucleotide with the other pyrimidine.


The substitution of a pyrimidine nucleotide by a purine nucleotide or vice versa.


United Nations Children’s Fund.

Vaccine strains

Poliovirus strains approved by the WHO for production of live and inactivated polio vaccines.


Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.


A vaccine-derived poliovirus that has diverged through evolution from its respective live poliovirus vaccine strain serotype by more than 1% (serotypes 1 and 3) or more than 0.6% (serotype 2) of its respective VP1 capsid protein.


The presence of virus in the bloodstream during an infection.


Viral protein genome linked – 22 amino acid protein covalently linked to genome and complimentary negative strand.


Viral capsid protein 1.


Viral capsid protein 2.


Viral capsid protein 3.


Viral capsid protein 4.


World Health Assembly.


World Health Organization.

WPV or wild poliovirus

Any poliovirus that is not derived from attenuated oral polio vaccine strains


The untranslated region of the polioviral genome that is located 3′ of the open reading frame that encodes the viral polyprotein.


Viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.


A highly structured, untranslated area of the polioviral genome located 5′ to the open reading frame that encodes the viral polyprotein. The 5’UTR is covalently linked on its 5′ base to viral protein VPg.


  1. 1.
    Lahariya C (2007) Global eradication of polio: the case for “finishing the job”. Bull World Health Organ 85(6):487–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daniel TM, Robbins FC (1997) A history of poliomyelitis. In: Daniel TM, Robbins FC (eds) Polio. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, pp 5–22Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kew OM, Sutter RW, de Gourville EM, Dowdle WR, Pallansch MA (2005) Vaccine-derived polioviruses and the endgame strategy for global polio eradication. Annu Rev Microbiol 59:587–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sutter RW, Kew OM, Cochi SL (2008) Poliovirus vaccine – live. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA (eds) Vaccines, 5th edn. W.B. Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 631–685Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnet FM, MacNamara J (1931) Immunological differences between strains of poliomyelitic virus. Br J Exp Pathol 12:57–61Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wyatt HV (1985) Provocation of poliomyelitis by multiple injections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79(3):355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Enders J, Weller T, Robbins FC (1949) Cultivation of the lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science 109(2822):85–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dulbecco R, Vogt M (1954) Plaque formation and isolation of pure lines with poliomyelitis viruses. J Exp Med 99(2):167–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    van Wezel AL (1967) Growth of cell-strains and primary cells on micro-carriers in homogeneous culture. Nature 216(5110):64–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cockburn WC (1988) The work of the WHO consultative group on poliomyelitis vaccines. Bull World Health Organ 66(2):143–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mendelsohn CL, Wimmer E, Racaniello VR (1989) Cellular receptor for poliovirus: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Cell 56(5):855–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dragunsky E, Nomura T, Karpinski K, Furesz J, Wood DJ, Pervikov Y et al (2003) Transgenic mice as an alternative to monkeys for neurovirulence testing of live oral poliovirus vaccine: validation by a WHO collaborative study. Bull World Health Organ 81(4):251–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wood DJ, Hull B (1999) L20B cells simplify culture of polioviruses from clinical samples. J Med Virol 58(2):188–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brodie M (1935) Active immunization against poliomyelitis. Am J Public Health Nations Health 25(1):54–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kolmer JA (1936) Vaccination against acute anterior poliomyelitis. Am J Public Health Nations Health 26(2):126–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salk JE (1953) Studies in human subjects on active immunization against poliomyelitis. I. A preliminary report of experiments in progress. J Am Med Assoc 151(13):1081–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Salk JE, Bazeley PL, Bennett BL, Krech U, Lewis LJ, Ward EN et al (1954) Studies in human subjects on active immunization against poliomyelitis. II. A practical means for inducing and maintaining antibody formation. Am J Public Health Nations Health 44(8):994–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koprowski H, Jervis G, Norton T (1952) Immune responses in human volunteers upon oral administration of a rodent-adapted strain of poliomyelitis virus. Am J Epidemiol 55(1):108–126Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koprowski H (2006) First decade (1950–1960) of studies and trials with the polio vaccine. Biologicals 34(2):81–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sabin AB (1957) Properties and behavior of orally administered attenuated poliovirus vaccine. J Am Med Assoc 164(11):1216–1223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cox HR, Cabasso VJ, Markham FS, Moses MJ, Moyer AW, Roca-Garcia M et al (1959) Immunological response to trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine. Br Med J 2(5152):591–597PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Furesz J (2006) Developments in the production and quality control of poliovirus vaccines – historical perspectives. Biologicals 34(2):87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    John TJ (2001) Anamalous observations on IPV and OPV vaccination. In: Brown F (ed) Progress in polio eradication: vaccine strategies for the end game. Karger, Basel, pp 197–208Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Davidson I, Shulman LM (2008) Unraveling the puzzle of human anellovirus infections by comparison with avian infections with the chicken anemia virus. Virus Res 137(1):1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Racaniello VR et al (2007) Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Chief E-I, Knipe DM, Howley PM, Editors A, Griffin DE, Lamb RA (eds) Fields virology, 5th edn. Wolters Klewer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 795–838Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wimmer E, Hellen CU, Cao X (1993) Genetics of poliovirus. Annu Rev Genet 27:353–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wimmer E (2006) The test-tube synthesis of a chemical called poliovirus. The simple synthesis of a virus has far-reaching societal implications. EMBO Rep 7:S3–S9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Molla A, Paul AV, Wimmer E (1991) Cell-free, de novo synthesis of poliovirus. Science 254(5038):1647–1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Poyry T, Kinnunen L, Hovi T (1992) Genetic variation in vivo and proposed functional domains of the 5′ noncoding region of poliovirus RNA. J Virol 66(9):5313–5319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pilipenko EV, Blinov VM, Romanova LI, Sinyakov AN, Maslova SV, Agol VI (1989) Conserved structural domains in the 5′-untranslated region of picornaviral genomes: an analysis of the segment controlling translation and neurovirulence. Virology 168(2):201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Skinner MA, Racaniello VR, Dunn G, Cooper J, Minor PD, Almond JW (1989) New model for the secondary structure of the 5′ non-coding RNA of poliovirus is supported by biochemical and genetic data that also show that RNA secondary structure is important in neurovirulence. J Mol Biol 207(2):379–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pelletier J, Sonenberg N (1988) Internal initiation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA. Nature 334(6180):320–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jang SK, Krausslich HG, Nicklin MJ, Duke GM, Palmenberg AC, Wimmer E (1988) A segment of the 5′ nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA directs internal entry of ribosomes during in vitro translation. J Virol 62(8):2636–2643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gamarnik AV, Andino R (1997) Two functional complexes formed by KH domain containing proteins with the 5′ noncoding region of poliovirus RNA. RNA 3(8):882–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Liu HM, Zheng DP, Zhang LB, Oberste MS, Kew OM, Pallansch MA (2003) Serial recombination during circulation of type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses in China. J Virol 77(20):10994–11005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Racaniello VR (2001) Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields BN, Knipe N, Howley P (eds) Virology, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 685–722Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krausslich HG, Nicklin MJ, Lee CK, Wimmer E (1988) Polyprotein processing in picornavirus replication. Biochimie 70(1):119–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shulman LM, Handsher R, Yang CF, Yang SJ, Manor J, Vonsover A et al (2000) Resolution of the pathways of poliovirus type 1 transmission during an outbreak. J Clin Microbiol 38(3):945–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Jorba J, Campagnoli R, De L, Kew O (2008) Calibration of multiple poliovirus molecular clocks covering an extended evolutionary range. J Virol 82(9):4429–4440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bouchard MJ, Lam DH, Racaniello VR (1995) Determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity in the type 1 poliovirus Sabin vaccine. J Virol 69(8):4972–4978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bergamini G, Preiss T, Hentze MW (2000) Picornavirus IRESes and the poly(A) tail jointly promote cap-independent translation in a mammalian cell-free system. RNA 6(12):1781–1790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crawford NM, Baltimore D (1983) Genome-linked protein VPg of poliovirus is present as free VPg and VPg-pUpU in poliovirus-infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80(24):7452–7455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kuhn RJ, Tada H, Ypma-Wong MF, Dunn JJ, Semler BL, Wimmer E (1988) Construction of a “mutagenesis cartridge” for poliovirus genome-linked viral protein: isolation and characterization of viable and nonviable mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85(2):519–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ambros V, Pettersson RF, Baltimore D (1978) An enzymatic activity in uninfected cells that cleaves the linkage between poliovirion RNA and the 5′ terminal protein. Cell 15(4):1439–1446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wien MW, Chow M, Hogle JM (1996) Poliovirus: new insights from an old paradigm. Structure 4(7):763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Li Q, Yafal AG, Lee YM, Hogle J, Chow M (1994) Poliovirus neutralization by antibodies to internal epitopes of VP4 and VP1 results from reversible exposure of these sequences at physiological temperature. J Virol 68(6):3965–3970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harkonen T, Lankinen H, Davydova B, Hovi T, Roivainen M (2002) Enterovirus infection can induce immune responses that cross-react with beta-cell autoantigen tyrosine phosphatase IA-2/IAR. J Med Virol 66(3):340–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Page GS, Mosser AG, Hogle JM, Filman DJ, Rueckert RR, Chow M (1988) Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus serotype 1 neutralizing determinants. J Virol 62(5):1781–1794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bodian D, Morgan IM, Howe HA (1949) Differentiation of types of poliomyelitis viruses; the grouping of 14 strains into three basic immunological types. Am J Hyg 49(2):234–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Harber J, Bernhardt G, Lu HH, Sgro JY, Wimmer E (1995) Canyon rim residues, including antigenic determinants, modulate serotype-specific binding of polioviruses to mutants of the poliovirus receptor. Virology 214(2):559–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hogle JM, Chow M, Filman DJ (1985) Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus at 2.9 A resolution. Science 229(4720):1358–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Filman DJ, Syed R, Chow M, Macadam AJ, Minor PD, Hogle JM (1989) Structural factors that control conformational transitions and serotype specificity in type 3 poliovirus. EMBO J 8(5):1567–1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Koike S, Ise I, Nomoto A (1991) Functional domains of the poliovirus receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88(10):4104–4108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Belnap DM, McDermott BM Jr, Filman DJ, Cheng N, Trus BL, Zuccola HJ et al (2000) Three-dimensional structure of poliovirus receptor bound to poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97(1):73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    WHO t (1998) Scheme adopted for use for L20B cells. Polio LaB network quarterly update IV(4):1–2Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zurbriggen S, Tobler K, Abril C, Diedrich S, Ackermann M, Pallansch MA et al (2008) Isolation of sabin-like polioviruses from wastewater in a country using inactivated polio vaccine. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(18):5608–5614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Abe S, Ota Y, Koike S, Kurata T, Horie H, Nomura T et al (1995) Neurovirulence test for oral live poliovaccines using poliovirus-sensitive transgenic mice. Virology 206(2):1075–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Horie H, Koike S, Kurata T, Sato-Yoshida Y, Ise I, Ota Y et al (1994) Transgenic mice carrying the human poliovirus receptor: new animal models for study of poliovirus neurovirulence. J Virol 68(2):681–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ren RB, Costantini F, Gorgacz EJ, Lee JJ, Racaniello VR (1990) Transgenic mice expressing a human poliovirus receptor: a new model for poliomyelitis. Cell 63(2):353–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Smyth M, Pettitt T, Symonds A, Martin J (2003) Identification of the pocket factors in a picornavirus. Arch Virol 148(6):1225–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Salvati AL, De Dominicis A, Tait S, Canitano A, Lahm A, Fiore L (2004) Mechanism of action at the molecular level of the antiviral drug 3(2H)-isoflavene against type 2 poliovirus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48(6):2233–2243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Martin J (2006) Vaccine-derived poliovirus from long term excretors and the end game of polio eradication. Biologicals 34(2):117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    MacLennan C, Dunn G, Huissoon AP, Kumararatne DS, Martin J, O’Leary P et al (2004) Failure to clear persistent vaccine-derived neurovirulent poliovirus infection in an immunodeficient man. Lancet 363(9420):1509–1513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Domingo E, Martinez-Salas E, Sobrino F, de la Torre JC, Portela A, Ortin J et al (1985) The quasispecies (extremely heterogeneous) nature of viral RNA genome populations: biological relevance–a review. Gene 40(1):1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kinnunen L, Huovilainen A, Poyry T, Hovi T (1990) Rapid molecular evolution of wild type 3 poliovirus during infection in individual hosts. J Gen Virol 71(Pt 2):317–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Crotty S, Cameron CE, Andino R (2001) RNA virus error catastrophe: direct molecular test by using ribavirin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(12):6895–6900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Eigen M (2002) Error catastrophe and antiviral strategy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(21):13374–13376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Racaniello VR, Baltimore D (1981) Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells. Science 214(4523):916–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pollard SR, Dunn G, Cammack N, Minor PD, Almond JW (1989) Nucleotide sequence of a neurovirulent variant of the type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine. J Virol 63(11):4949–4951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    van der Werf S, Bradley J, Wimmer E, Studier FW, Dunn JJ (1986) Synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA by purified T7 RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83(8):2330–2334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E (2002) Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template. Science 297(5583):1016–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Melnick JL (1996) Current status of poliovirus infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 9(3):293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gustin KE, Sarnow P (2002) Inhibition of nuclear import and alteration of nuclear pore complex composition by rhinovirus. J Virol 76(17):8787–8796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fox MP, Otto MJ, McKinlay MA (1986) Prevention of rhinovirus and poliovirus uncoating by WIN 51711, a new antiviral drug. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 30(1):110–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zeichhardt H, Otto MJ, McKinlay MA, Willingmann P, Habermehl KO (1987) Inhibition of poliovirus uncoating by disoxaril (WIN 51711). Virology 160(1):281–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jurgens CK, Barton DJ, Sharma N, Morasco BJ, Ogram SA, Flanegan JB (2006) 2Apro is a multifunctional protein that regulates the stability, translation and replication of poliovirus RNA. Virology 345(2):346–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Takegami T, Kuhn RJ, Anderson CW, Wimmer E (1983) Membrane-dependent uridylylation of the genome-linked protein VPg of poliovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80(24):7447–7451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Eigen M (1993) Viral quasispecies. Sci Am 269(1):42–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gavrilin GV, Cherkasova EA, Lipskaya GY, Kew OM, Agol VI (2000) Evolution of circulating wild poliovirus and of vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient: a unifying model. J Virol 74(16):7381–7390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Cherkasova E, Laassri M, Chizhikov V, Korotkova E, Dragunsky E, Agol VI et al (2003) Microarray analysis of evolution of RNA viruses: evidence of circulation of virulent highly divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(16):9398–9403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guillot S, Caro V, Cuervo N, Korotkova E, Combiescu M, Persu A et al (2000) Natural genetic exchanges between vaccine and wild poliovirus strains in humans. J Virol 74(18):8434–8443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Dahourou G, Guillot S, Le Gall O, Crainic R (2002) Genetic recombination in wild-type poliovirus. J Gen Virol 83(Pt 12):3103–3110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Zhang Y, Wang H, Zhu S, Li Y, Song L, Liu Y et al (2010) Characterization of a rare natural intertypic type 2/type 3 penta-recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus isolated from a child with acute flaccid paralysis. J Gen Virol 91(Pt 2):421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tao Z, Wang H, Xu A, Zhang Y, Song L, Zhu S et al (2010) Isolation of a recombinant type 3/type 2 poliovirus with a chimeric capsid VP1 from sewage in Shandong, China. Virus Res 150(1–2):56–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Blomqvist S, Savolainen-Kopra C, Paananen A, El Bassioni L, El Maamoon Nasr EM, Firstova L et al (2010) Recurrent isolation of poliovirus 3 strains with chimeric capsid protein Vp1 suggests a recombination hot-spot site in Vp1. Virus Res 151(2):246–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Brown B, Oberste MS, Maher K, Pallansch MA (2003) Complete genomic sequencing shows that polioviruses and members of human enterovirus species C are closely related in the noncapsid coding region. J Virol 77(16):8973–8984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jiang P, Faase JA, Toyoda H, Paul A, Wimmer E, Gorbalenya AE (2007) Evidence for emergence of diverse polioviruses from C-cluster coxsackie A viruses and implications for global poliovirus eradication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(22):9457–9462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Riquet FB, Blanchard C, Jegouic S, Balanant J, Guillot S, Vibet MA et al (2008) Impact of exogenous sequences on the characteristics of an epidemic type 2 recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus. J Virol 82(17):8927–8932PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kirkegaard K, Baltimore D (1986) The mechanism of RNA recombination in poliovirus. Cell 47(3):433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, Burns C, Shaw J, Garib Z et al (2002) Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296(5566):356–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Estivariz CF, Watkins MA, Handoko D, Rusipah R, Deshpande J, Rana BJ et al (2008) A large vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreak on Madura Island–Indonesia, 2005. J Infect Dis 197(3):347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cherkasova EA, Korotkova EA, Yakovenko ML, Ivanova OE, Eremeeva TP, Chumakov KM et al (2002) Long-term circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus that causes paralytic disease. J Virol 76(13):6791–6799PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chumakov KM, Norwood LP, Parker ML, Dragunsky EM, Ran YX, Levenbook IS (1992) RNA sequence variants in live poliovirus vaccine and their relation to neurovirulence. J Virol 66(2):966–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Reyes GR (2001) Ribavirin: recent insights into antiviral mechanisms of action. Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 4(5):651–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Georgescu MM, Balanant J, Ozden S, Crainic R (1997) Random selection: a model for poliovirus infection of the central nervous system. J Gen Virol 78(Pt 8):1819–1828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pfeiffer JK, Kirkegaard K (2005) Increased fidelity reduces poliovirus fitness and virulence under selective pressure in mice. PLoS Pathog 1(2):e11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Burns CC, Campagnoli R, Shaw J, Vincent A, Jorba J, Kew O (2009) Genetic inactivation of poliovirus infectivity by increasing the frequencies of CpG and UpA dinucleotides within and across synonymous capsid region codons. J Virol 83(19):9957–9969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vignuzzi M, Stone JK, Arnold JJ, Cameron CE, Andino R (2006) Quasispecies diversity determines pathogenesis through cooperative interactions in a viral population. Nature 439(7074):344–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tao B, Fultz PN (1995) Molecular and biological analyses of quasispecies during evolution of a virulent simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVsmmPBj14. J Virol 69(4):2031–2037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    de la Torre JC, Holland JJ (1990) RNA virus quasispecies populations can suppress vastly superior mutant progeny. J Virol 64(12):6278–6281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kew OM, Mulders MN, Lipskaya GY, de Silva E, Pallansch MA (1995) Molecular epidemiology of polioviruses. Sem Virol 6:401–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Manor Y, Blomqvist S, Sofer D, Alfandari J, Halmut T, Abramovitz B et al (2007) Advanced environmental surveillance and molecular analyses indicate separate importations rather than endemic circulation of wild type 1 poliovirus in Gaza district in 2002. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(18):5954–5958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Boot HJ, Sonsma J, van Nunen F, Abbink F, Kimman TG, Buisman AM (2007) Determinants of monovalent oral polio vaccine mutagenesis in vaccinated elderly people. Vaccine 25(24):4706–4714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kew OM, Sutter RW, Nottay BK, McDonough MJ, Prevots DR, Quick L et al (1998) Prolonged replication of a type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient. J Clin Microbiol 36(10):2893–2899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kew OM, Wright PF, Agol VI, Delpeyroux F, Shimizu H, Nathanson N et al (2004) Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge. Bull World Health Organ 82(1):16–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jenkins HE, Aylward RB, Gasasira A, Donnelly CA, Mwanza M, Corander J et al (2010) Implications of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria. N Engl J Med 362(25):2360–2369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Martin J, Dunn G, Hull R, Patel V, Minor PD (2000) Evolution of the Sabin strain of type 3 poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient during the entire 637-day period of virus excretion. J Virol 74(7):3001–3010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Martin J, Odoom K, Tuite G, Dunn G, Hopewell N, Cooper G et al (2004) Long-term excretion of vaccine-derived poliovirus by a healthy child. J Virol 78(24):1310–13847Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Sofer D, Handsher R, Swartz T, Delpeyroux F et al (2006) Neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses in sewage from highly immune populations. PLoS One 1:e69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yang CF, Chen HY, Jorba J, Sun HC, Yang SJ, Lee HC et al (2005) Intratypic recombination among lineages of type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus emerging during chronic infection of an immunodeficient patient. J Virol 79(20):12623–12634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    van der Sanden S, Pallansch MA, van de Kassteele J, El-Sayed N, Sutter RW, Koopmans M et al (2009) Shedding of vaccine viruses with increased antigenic and genetic divergence after vaccination of newborns with monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine. J Virol 83(17):8693–8704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yakovenko ML, Cherkasova EA, Rezapkin GV, Ivanova OE, Ivanov AP, Eremeeva TP et al (2006) Antigenic evolution of vaccine-derived polioviruses: changes in individual epitopes and relative stability of the overall immunological properties. J Virol 80(6):2641–2653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Domingo E, Diez J, Martinez MA, Hernandez J, Holguin A, Borrego B et al (1993) New observations on antigenic diversification of RNA viruses. Antigenic variation is not dependent on immune selection. J Gen Virol 74(Pt 10):2039–2045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Agol VI (2006) Vaccine-derived polioviruses. Biologicals 34(2):103–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Blomqvist S, Savolainen C, Laine P, Hirttio P, Lamminsalo E, Penttila E et al (2004) Characterization of a highly evolved vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 isolated from sewage in Estonia. J Virol 78(9):4876–4883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Sofer D (2010) Poliovirus vaccine and vaccine-derived polioviruses. N Engl J Med 363(19):1870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Korotkova EA, Park R, Cherkasova EA, Lipskaya GY, Chumakov KM, Feldman EV et al (2003) Retrospective analysis of a local cessation of vaccination against poliomyelitis: a possible scenario for the future. J Virol 77(23):12460–12465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gumede N, Venter M, Lentsoane O, Muyembe-Tamfum J, Yogolelo R, Puren A et al (2010) Identification of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVS) in the DRC from 2005 to 2010. Commun Dis Sur Bull 8(3):43–45Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Resik S, Tejeda A, Lago PM, Diaz M, Carmenates A, Sarmiento L et al (2010) Randomized controlled clinical trial of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered intradermally by needle-free device in Cuba. J Infect Dis 201(9):1344–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mohammed AJ, AlAwaidy S, Bawikar S, Kurup PJ, Elamir E, Shaban MM et al (2010) Fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Oman. N Engl J Med 362(25):2351–2359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nirmal S, Cherian T, Samuel BU, Rajasingh J, Raghupathy P, John TJ (1998) Immune response of infants to fractional doses of intradermally administered inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Vaccine 16(9–10):928–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ehrenfeld E, Glass RI, Agol VI, Chumakov K, Dowdle W, John TJ et al (2008) Immunisation against poliomyelitis: moving forward. Lancet 371(9621):1385–1387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Yakovenko ML, Korotkova EA, Ivanova OE, Eremeeva TP, Samoilovich E, Uhova I et al (2009) Evolution of the Sabin vaccine into pathogenic derivatives without appreciable changes in antigenic properties: need for improvement of current poliovirus surveillance. J Virol 83(7):3402–3406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Modlin JF (2010) The bumpy road to polio eradication. N Engl J Med 362(25):2346–2349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Buttinelli G, Donati V, Fiore S, Marturano J, Plebani A, Balestri P et al (2003) Nucleotide variation in Sabin type 2 poliovirus from an immunodeficient patient with poliomyelitis. J Gen Virol 84(Pt 5):1215–1221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Arita I, Nakane M, Fenner F (2006) Public health. Is polio eradication realistic? Science 312(5775):852–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chumakov K, Ehrenfeld E, Wimmer E, Agol VI (2007) Vaccination against polio should not be stopped. Nat Rev Microbiol 5(12):952–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Sofer D, Mendelson E (2009) Type 2 polio still in our midst. Science 324(5925):334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Furione M, Guillot S, Otelea D, Balanant J, Candrea A, Crainic R (1993) Polioviruses with natural recombinant genomes isolated from vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. Virology 196(1):199–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lipskaya GY, Muzychenko AR, Kutitova OK, Maslova SV, Equestre M, Drozdov SG et al (1991) Frequent isolation of intertypic poliovirus recombinants with serotype 2 specificity from vaccine-associated polio cases. J Med Virol 35(4):290–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Georgescu MM, Delpeyroux F, Tardy-Panit M, Balanant J, Combiescu M, Combiescu AA et al (1994) High diversity of poliovirus strains isolated from the central nervous system from patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis. J Virol 68(12):8089–8101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Minor PD, John A, Ferguson M, Icenogle JP (1986) Antigenic and molecular evolution of the vaccine strain of type 3 poliovirus during the period of excretion by a primary vaccinee. J Gen Virol 67(Pt 4):693–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Sofer D, Swartz T, Mendelson E (2006) Oral poliovaccine: will it help eradicate polio or cause the next epidemic? Isr Med Assoc J 8(5):312–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dowdle W, van der Avoort H, de Gourville E, Delpeyroux F, Desphande J, Hovi T et al (2006) Containment of polioviruses after eradication and OPV cessation: characterizing risks to improve management. Risk Anal 26(6):1449–1469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wood DJ (2006) Polio vaccine: the first 50 years and beyond. Summary of the meeting and next steps. Biologicals 34(2):171–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Horstmann DM, Mc CR, Mascola AD (1954) Viremia in human poliomyelitis. J Exp Med 99(4):355–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Steigman AJ, Sabin AB (1949) Antibody response of patients with poliomyelitis to virus recovered from their own alimentary tract. J Exp Med 90(4):349–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Bodian D, Paffenbarger RS Jr (1954) Poliomyelitis infection in households; frequency of viremia and specific antibody response. Am J Hyg 60(1):83–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Racaniello VR, Ren R (1996) Poliovirus biology and pathogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 206:305–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Alexander JP Jr, Gary HE Jr, Pallansch MA (1997) Duration of poliovirus excretion and its implications for acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: a review of the literature. J Infect Dis 175(Suppl 1):S176–S182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Minor PD (1992) The molecular biology of poliovaccines. J Gen Virol 73(Pt 12):3065–3077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mas Lago P, Caceres VM, Galindo MA, Gary HE Jr, Valcarcel M, Barrios J et al (2001) Persistence of vaccine-derived poliovirus following a mass vaccination campaign in Cuba: implications for stopping polio vaccination after global eradication. Int J Epidemiol 30(5):1029–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hovi T, Shulman LM, van der Avoort H, Deshpande J, Roivainen M, de Gourville EM (2011) Role of environmental poliovirus surveilllance in global polio eradication and beyond, a review. Epidemiol Infect 18:1–13Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Cohen-Abbo A, Culley BS, Reed GW, Sannella EC, Mace RL, Robertson SE et al (1995) Seroresponse to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine as a function of dosage interval. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14(2):100–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gromeier M, Wimmer E (1998) Mechanism of injury-provoked poliomyelitis. J Virol 72(6):5056–5060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L (1992) Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 136(7):769–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gonzalez H, Olsson T, Borg K (2010) Management of postpolio syndrome. Lancet Neurol 9(6):634–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ogra PL (1995) Comparative evaluation of immunization with live attenuated and inactivated poliovirus vaccines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 754:97–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ogra PL, Karzon DT (1969) Distribution of poliovirus antibody in serum, nasopharynx and alimentary tract following segmental immunization of lower alimentary tract with poliovaccine. J Immunol 102(6):1423–1430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ogra PL, Karzon DT (1969) Poliovirus antibody response in serum and nasal secretions following intranasal inoculation with inactivated poliovaccine. J Immunol 102(1):15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sofer D, Handsher R, Abramovitz B, Shilon K, Manor Y, Halmut T, et al (2008) Determining vaccination efficacy: is the current minimum anti-polio neutralization antibody titer of >1:8 against Sabin strains high enough? Meeting of the three division of the international union of microbiological societies 5–15 Aug 2008, IstanbulGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Valtanen S, Roivainen M, Piirainen L, Stenvik M, Hovi T (2000) Poliovirus-specific intestinal antibody responses coincide with decline of poliovirus excretion. J Infect Dis 182(1):1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Nishio O, Sumi J, Sakae K, Ishihara Y, Isomura S, Inouye S (1990) Fecal IgA antibody responses after oral poliovirus vaccination in infants and elder children. Microbiol Immunol 34(8):683–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ogra PL, Fishaut M, Gallagher MR (1980) Viral vaccination via the mucosal routes. Rev Infect Dis 2(3):352–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Samoilovich E, Roivainen M, Titov LP, Hovi T (2003) Serotype-specific mucosal immune response and subsequent poliovirus replication in vaccinated children. J Med Virol 71(2):274–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Onorato IM, Modlin JF, McBean AM, Thoms ML, Losonsky GA, Bernier RH (1991) Mucosal immunity induced by enhance-potency inactivated and oral polio vaccines. J Infect Dis 163(1):1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vidor E, Caudrelier P, Plotkin S (1994) The place of DTP/eIPV vaccine in routine paediatric vaccination. Rev Med Virol 4(4):261–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Laassri M, Lottenbach K, Belshe R, Wolff M, Rennels M, Plotkin S et al (2005) Effect of different vaccination schedules on excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains. J Infect Dis 192(12):2092–2098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Swartz TA, Green MS, Handscher R, Sofer D, Cohen-Dar M, Shohat T et al (2008) Intestinal immunity following a combined enhanced inactivated polio vaccine/oral polio vaccine programme in Israel. Vaccine 26(8):1083–1090PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lasch EE, Livni E, Englander T, El-Massri M, Marcus O, Joshua H (1978) The cell mediated immune response in acute poliomyelitis and its use in early diagnosis. Dev Biol Stand 41:179–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Samuel BU, Cherian T, Sridharan G, Mukundan P, John TJ (1991) Immune response to intradermally injected inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Lancet 338(8763):343–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Katrak K, Mahon BP, Minor PD, Mills KH (1991) Cellular and humoral immune responses to poliovirus in mice: a role for helper T cells in heterotypic immunity to poliovirus. J Gen Virol 72(Pt 5):1093–1098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Minor PD (2004) Polio eradication, cessation of vaccination and re-emergence of disease. Nat Rev Microbiol 2(6):473–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Plotkin SA, Vidor E (2008) Poliovirus vaccine - inactivated. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA (eds) Vaccines, 5th edn. W.B. Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 605–629Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Paul J (1971) A history of poliomyelitis. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Griffiths E, Wood D, Barreto L (2006) Polio vaccine: the first 50 years and beyond. Biologicals 34(2):73–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Nathanson N, Langmuir AD (1963) The cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde- inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the Spring of 1955. I. Background. Am J Hyg 78:16–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Nathanson N, Langmuir AD (1963) The cutter incident. Poliomyelitis following formaldehyde- inactivated poliovirus vaccination in the United States during the Spring of 1955. II. Relationship of poliomyelitis to cutter vaccine. Am J Hyg 78:29–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Eddy BE, Borman GS, Berkeley WH, Young RD (1961) Tumors induced in hamsters by injection of rhesus monkey kidney cell extracts. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 107:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Shah K, Nathanson N (1976) Human exposure to SV40: review and comment. Am J Epidemiol 103(1):1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mortimer EA Jr, Lepow ML, Gold E, Robbins FC, Burton GJ, Fraumeni JF Jr (1981) Long-term follow-up of persons inadvertently inoculated with SV40 as neonates. N Engl J Med 305(25):1517–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Swartz TA (2008) The epidemiology of polio in Israel an historical perspective. Dyonon, Tel AvivGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Tulchinsky T, Abed Y, Handsher R, Toubassi N, Acker C, Melnick J (1994) Successful control of poliomyelitis by a combined OPV/IPV polio vaccine program in the West Bank and Gaza, 1978–93. Isr J Med Sci 30(5–6):489–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Tulchinsky TH, Goldblum N (2001) Polio immunization. N Engl J Med 344(1):61–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Slater PE, Orenstein WA, Morag A, Avni A, Handsher R, Green MS et al (1990) Poliomyelitis outbreak in Israel in 1988: a report with two commentaries. Lancet 335(8699):1192–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kawamura N, Kohara M, Abe S, Komatsu T, Tago K, Arita M et al (1989) Determinants in the 5′ noncoding region of poliovirus Sabin 1 RNA that influence the attenuation phenotype. J Virol 63(3):1302–1309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nomoto A, Omata T, Toyoda H, Kuge S, Horie H, Kataoka Y et al (1982) Complete nucleotide sequence of the attenuated poliovirus Sabin 1 strain genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79(19):5793–5797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Christodoulou C, Colbere-Garapin F, Macadam A, Taffs LF, Marsden S, Minor P et al (1990) Mapping of mutations associated with neurovirulence in monkeys infected with Sabin 1 poliovirus revertants selected at high temperature. J Virol 64(10):4922–4929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Macadam AJ, Pollard SR, Ferguson G, Skuce R, Wood D, Almond JW et al (1993) Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin type 2 vaccine strain of poliovirus in primates. Virology 192(1):18–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Ren RB, Moss EG, Racaniello VR (1991) Identification of two determinants that attenuate vaccine-related type 2 poliovirus. J Virol 65(3):1377–1382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Macadam AJ, Arnold C, Howlett J, John A, Marsden S, Taffs F et al (1989) Reversion of the attenuated and temperature-sensitive phenotypes of the Sabin type 3 strain of poliovirus in vaccinees. Virology 172(2):408–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Westrop GD, Wareham KA, Evans DM, Dunn G, Minor PD, Magrath DI et al (1989) Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine. J Virol 63(3):1338–1344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Minor PD, Macadam AJ, Stone DM, Almond JW (1993) Genetic basis of attenuation of the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccines. Biologicals 21(4):357–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Okonko IO, Babalola ET, Adedeji AO, Onoja BA, Ogun AA, Nkang AO et al (2008) The role of vaccine derived polioviruses in the global eradication of polio-the Nigeria experience as a case study. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 3(6):135–147Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sutter RW, Cochi SL, Melnick JL (1999) Live attenuated poliovirus vaccines. In: Plotkin S, Orenstein WA (eds) Vaccines, 3rd edn. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 364–408Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mmwr T (2001) Apparent global interruption of wild poliovirus type 2 trasmission. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50(12):222–224Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Grassly NC, Wenger J, Durrani S, Bahl S, Deshpande JM, Sutter RW et al (2007) Protective efficacy of a monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus vaccine: a case-control study. Lancet 369(9570):1356–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    WKly Epidemiol Rec (2009) Advisory committee on poliomyelitis eradication: recommendations on the use of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine types 1 and 3. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 84(29):289–290Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Salk JE, Krech U, Youngner JS, Bennett BL, Lewis LJ, Bazeley PL (1954) Formaldehyde treatment and safety testing of experimental poliomyelitis vaccines. Am J Public Health Nations Health 44(5):563–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Jenkins HE, Aylward RB, Gasasira A, Donnelly CA, Abanida EA, Koleosho-Adelekan T et al (2008) Effectiveness of immunization against paralytic poliomyelitis in Nigeria. N Engl J Med 359(16):1666–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wright PF, Modlin JF (2008) The demise and rebirth of polio–a modern phoenix? J Infect Dis 197(3):335–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Minor PD, Schild GC, Ferguson M, Mackay A, Magrath DI, John A et al (1982) Genetic and antigenic variation in type 3 polioviruses: characterization of strains by monoclonal antibodies and T1 oligonucleotide mapping. J Gen Virol 61(Pt 2):167–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Simoes EA, Padmini B, Steinhoff MC, Jadhav M, John TJ (1985) Antibody response of infants to two doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine of enhanced potency. Am J Dis Child 139(10):977–980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Samuel BU, Cherian T, Rajasingh J, Raghupathy P, John TJ (1992) Immune response of infants to inactivated poliovirus vaccine injected intradermally. Vaccine 10(2):135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2004) Conclusions and recommendations of the Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, Geneva, 21–22 September 2004. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 79(41):401–407Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    De Palma AM, Purstinger G, Wimmer E, Patick AK, Andries K, Rombaut B et al (2008) Potential use of antiviral agents in polio eradication. Emerg Infect Dis 14(4):545–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Pevear DC, Tull TM, Seipel ME, Groarke JM (1999) Activity of pleconaril against enteroviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(9):2109–2115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Oberste MS, Moore D, Anderson B, Pallansch MA, Pevear DC, Collett MS (2009) In vitro antiviral activity of V-073 against polioviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53(10):4501–4503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Levy AH (1962) The uses of gamma globulins in the prophylaxis of infection. J Chronic Dis 15:589–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    McKinney RE Jr, Katz SL, Wilfert CM (1987) Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis in agammaglobulinemic patients. Rev Infect Dis 9(2):334–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Breman JG, Arita I (1980) The confirmation and maintenance of smallpox eradication. N Engl J Med 303(22):1263–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Smith J, Leke R, Adams A, Tangermann RH (2004) Certification of polio eradication: process and lessons learned. Bull World Health Organ 82(1):24–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hull HF, Ward NA, Hull BP, Milstien JB, de Quadros C (1994) Paralytic poliomyelitis: seasoned strategies, disappearing disease. Lancet 343(8909):1331–1337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Dove AW, Racaniello VR (1997) The polio eradication effort: should vaccine eradication be next? Science 277(5327):779–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Hull HF, Aylward RB (1997) Ending polio immunization. Science 277(5327):780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wood DJ, Sutter RW, Dowdle WR (2000) Stopping poliovirus vaccination after eradication: issues and challenges. Bull World Health Organ 78(3):347–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wright PF, Kim-Farley RJ, de Quadros CA, Robertson SE, Scott RM, Ward NA et al (1991) Strategies for the global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000. N Engl J Med 325(25):1774–1779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    WHO (1996) Field guide for supplementary activities aimed at achieving polio eradication, 1996 Revision: WHO/EPI/GEN/95.01 Rev.1Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Hull BP, Dowdle WR (1997) Poliovirus surveillance: building the global polio laboratory network. J Infect Dis 175(Suppl 1):S113–S116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2002) Expanding contributions of the global laboratory network for poliomyelitis eradication, 2000-2001. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 77(17):133–137Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2003) Laboratory surveillance for wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses, January 2002-June 2003. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 78(39):341–346Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2004) Laboratory surveillance for wild and vaccine-derived polioviruses, January 2003-June 2004. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 79(44):393–398Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    de Gourville E, Duintjer Tebbens RJ, Sangrujee N, Pallansch MA, Thompson KM (2006) Global surveillance and the value of information: the case of the global polio laboratory network. Risk Anal 26(6):1557–1569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    van der Avoort HG, Hull BP, Hovi T, Pallansch MA, Kew OM, Crainic R et al (1995) Comparative study of five methods for intratypic differentiation of polioviruses. J Clin Microbiol 33(10):2562–2566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    De L, Nottay B, Yang CF, Holloway BP, Pallansch M, Kew O (1995) Identification of vaccine-related polioviruses by hybridization with specific RNA probes. J Clin Microbiol 33(3):562–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kilpatrick DR, Nottay B, Yang CF, Yang SJ, Mulders MN, Holloway BP et al (1996) Group-specific identification of polioviruses by PCR using primers containing mixed-base or deoxyinosine residue at positions of codon degeneracy. J Clin Microbiol 34(12):2990–2996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Balanant J, Guillot S, Candrea A, Delpeyroux F, Crainic R (1991) The natural genomic variability of poliovirus analyzed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Virology 184(2):645–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Kilpatrick DR, Yang CF, Ching K, Vincent A, Iber J, Campagnoli R et al (2009) Rapid group-, serotype-, and vaccine strain-specific identification of poliovirus isolates by real-time reverse transcription-PCR using degenerate primers and probes containing deoxyinosine residues. J Clin Microbiol 47(6):1939–1941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    WHO (2004) Polio laboratory manual 4th edn, 2004. WHO/IVB/04.10 (database on the internet)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2006) Resurgence of wild poliovirus type 1 transmission and effect of importation into polio-free countries, 2002–2005. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 81(7):63–68Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2010) Poliomyelitis in Tajikistan - first importation since Europe certified polio-free. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85(18):157–158Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Deshpande JM, Shetty SJ, Siddiqui ZA (2003) Environmental surveillance system to track wild poliovirus transmission. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(5):2919–2927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    WHO (2003) Guidelines for environmental surveillance of poliovirus circulation (database on the internet). WHO, Dept of Vaccines and Biologicals; Available from:
  224. 224.
    Manor Y, Handsher R, Halmut T, Neuman M, Abramovitz B, Mates A et al (1999) A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(4):1794–1797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Handsher R, Delpeyroux F, McDonough MJ, Halmut T et al (2000) Molecular and antigenic characterization of a highly evolved derivative of the type 2 oral poliovaccine strain isolated from sewage in Israel. J Clin Microbiol 38(10):3729–3734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Nakano JH, Hatch MH, Thieme ML, Nottay B (1978) Parameters for differentiating vaccine-derived and wild poliovirus strains. Prog Med Virol 24:178–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Vinje J, Gregoricus N, Martin J, Gary HE Jr, Caceres VM, Venczel L et al (2004) Isolation and characterization of circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus from sewage and stream waters in Hispaniola. J Infect Dis 189(7):1168–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Manor Y, Handsher R, Halmut T, Neuman M, Bobrov A, Rudich H et al (1999) Detection of poliovirus circulation by environmental surveillance in the absence of clinical cases in Israel and the Palestinian authority. J Clin Microbiol 37(6):1670–1675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Ranta J, Hovi T, Arjas E (2001) Poliovirus surveillance by examining sewage water specimens: studies on detection probability using simulation models. Risk Anal 21(6):1087–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    WHO (2004) Immunization, vaccines and biologicals. Polio laboratory manual, 4th edn. World Health Organization, Geneva, WHO/IVB/04.10Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Hovi T, Stenvik M, Partanen H, Kangas A (2001) Poliovirus surveillance by examining sewage specimens. Quantitative recovery of virus after introduction into sewerage at remote upstream location. Epidemiol Infect 127(1):101–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hovi T (2006) Surveillance for polioviruses. Biologicals 34(2):123–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Roivainen M, Blomqvist S, Al-Hello H, Paananen A, Delpeyreux F, Kuusi M et al (2010) Highly divergent neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses of all three serotypes are recurrently detected in Finnish sewage. Euro Surveill 15(19):pii/19566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2008) Conclusions and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, Geneva, 27–28 November 2007. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 83(3):25–35Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Kapp C (2003) Surge in polio spreads alarm in northern Nigeria. Rumors about vaccine safety in Muslim-run states threaten WHO’s eradication programme. Lancet 362(9396):1631–1632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Samba E, Nkrumah F, Leke R (2004) Getting polio eradication back on track in Nigeria. N Engl J Med 350(7):645–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2009) Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication: recommendations on the use of bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine types 1 and 3. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 84(29):289–290Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    John TJ (1972) Problems with oral poliovaccine in India. Indian Pediatr 9(5):252–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    John TJ (1976) Antibody response of infants in tropics to five doses of oral polio vaccine. Br Med J 1(6013):812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Grassly NC, Fraser C, Wenger J, Deshpande JM, Sutter RW, Heymann DL et al (2006) New strategies for the elimination of polio from India. Science 314(5802):1150–1153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Grassly NC, Jafari H, Bahl S, Durrani S, Wenger J, Sutter RW et al (2009) Mucosal immunity after vaccination with monovalent and trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in India. J Infect Dis 200(5):794–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Gary HE Jr, Smith B, Jenks J, Ruiz J, Sessions W, Vinje J et al (2008) Failure to detect infection by oral polio vaccine virus following natural exposure among inactivated polio vaccine recipients. Epidemiol Infect 136(2):180–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Wringe A, Fine PE, Sutter RW, Kew OM (2008) Estimating the extent of vaccine-derived poliovirus infection. PLoS One 3(10):e3433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Mmwr T (2007) Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses–worldwide, January 2006-August 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56(38):996–1001Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    MMWR (2009) Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses – worldwide, January 2008-June 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58(36):1002–1006Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Dowdle W, Kew O (2006) Vaccine-derived polioviruses: is it time to stop using the word “rare?”. J Infect Dis 194(5):539–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Halsey NA, Pinto J, Espinosa-Rosales F, Faure-Fontenla MA, da Silva E, Khan AJ et al (2004) Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Bull World Health Organ 82(1):3–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2010) Progress toward interrupting wild poliovirus transmission worldwide. 2009. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85(18):178–184Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hovi T, Lindholm N, Savolainen C, Stenvik M, Burns C (2004) Evolution of wild-type 1 poliovirus in two healthy siblings excreting the virus over a period of 6 months. J Gen Virol 85(Pt 2):369–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Pelletier I, Duncan G, Pavio N, Colbere-Garapin F (1998) Molecular mechanisms of poliovirus persistence: key role of capsid determinants during the establishment phase. Cell Mol Life Sci 54(12):1385–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Roivainen M, Blomqvist S, Al-Hello H, Paananen A, Delpeyroux F, Kuusi M et al (2010) Highly divergent neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses of all three serotypes are recurrently detected in Finnish sewage. Euro Surveill 15(19):pii/19566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    ECDC (2009) Risk assessment from the ECDC on the finding of vaccine-derived polio virus in Finland February 17, 2009. \Documents and Settings\daah\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\OLK35A\Risk assessment polio 2009_027-JG (2).docGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Pavlov DN (2006) Poliovirus vaccine strains in sewage and river water in South Africa. Can J Microbiol 52(8):717–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Yoshida H, Horie H, Matsuura K, Miyamura T (2000) Characterisation of vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from sewage and river water in Japan. Lancet 356(9240):1461–1463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Paximadi E, Karakasiliotis I, Papaventsis D, Papageorgiou G, Markoulatos P (2008) Recombinant Sabin environmental isolates in Greece and Cyprus. J Appl Microbiol 104(4):1153–1162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    CDC (2009) Update on vaccine-derived polioviruses – worldwide, January 2008-June 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58(36):1002–1006Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Arya SC, Agarwal N (2007) Global polio laboratory network: future pursuit and commitments. J Clin Virol 38(4):362–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Maderova E, Slacikova M, Cernakova B, Sobotova Z, Nadova K (2005) First isolation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in Slovakia. Euro Surveill 10(8):E050818 3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Alexander JP, Ehresmann K, Seward J, Wax G, Harriman K, Fuller S et al (2009) Transmission of imported vaccine-derived poliovirus in an undervaccinated community in Minnesota. J Infect Dis 199(3):391–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    MMWR (1994) Certification of poliomyelitis eradication – the Americas, 1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 43(39):720–722Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Strebel PM, Sutter RW, Cochi SL, Biellik RJ, Brink EW, Kew OM et al (1992) Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the United States one decade after the last reported case of indigenous wild virus-associated disease. Clin Infect Dis 14(2):568–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    MMWR (2001) Erratum: apparent global interruption of wild poliovirus type 2 transmission. MMWR 50(12):249Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    MMWR (2001) Certification of poliomyelitis eradication--Western Pacific Region, October 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50(1):1–3Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Wkly Epidemiol Record (2005) Conclusions and recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Poliomyelitis Eradication, Geneva, 11–12 Oct 2005. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80(47):410–416Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Heymann DL, Sutter RW, Aylward RB (2006) A vision of a world without polio: the OPV cessation strategy. Biologicals 34(2):75–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Ehrenfeld E, Modlin J, Chumakov K (2009) Future of polio vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines 8(7):899–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Jenkins PC, Modlin JF (2006) Decision analysis in planning for a polio outbreak in the United States. Pediatrics 118(2):611–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Tebbens RJ, Pallansch MA, Alexander JP, Thompson KM (2010) Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio. Vaccine 28(26):4312–4327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    WHO (2005) WHO framework for national policy makers in OPV-using countries – Cessation of routine oral polio vaccine (OPV) use after global polio eradication 05.02.: WHO/POLIO/05.02Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Wagner BG, Earn DJ (2008) Circulating vaccine derived polio viruses and their impact on global polio eradication. Bull Math Biol 70(1):253–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Fine PE, Sutter RW, Orenstein WA (2001) Stopping a polio outbreak in the post-eradication era. Dev Biol (Basel) 105:129–147Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Tebbens RJ, Pallansch MA, Kew OM, Caceres VM, Jafari H, Cochi SL et al (2006) Risks of paralytic disease due to wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus after eradication. Risk Anal 26(6):1471–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Oliver Wyman Inc (2010) The supply landscape and economics of IPV-containing combination vaccines: Key findings. May 2010: Commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates FoundationGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Chumakov K, Ehrenfeld E (2008) New generation of inactivated poliovirus vaccines for universal immunization after eradication of poliomyelitis. Clin Infect Dis 47(12):1587–1592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Baca-Estrada M, Griffiths E (2006) Regulation and standardization of IPV and IPV combination vaccines. Biologicals 34(2):159–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Duchene M (2006) Production, testing and perspectives of IPV and IPV combination vaccines: GSK biologicals’ view. Biologicals 34(2):163–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Graf H (2006) Manufacturing and supply of monovalent oral polio vaccines. Biologicals 34(2):141–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    El-Sayed N, El-Gamal Y, Abbassy AA, Seoud I, Salama M, Kandeel A et al (2008) Monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine in newborns. N Engl J Med 359(16):1655–1665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Farag MM (2006) Licensing of monovalent OPV1 vaccine. Biologicals 34(2):145–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Caceres VM, Sutter RW (2001) Sabin monovalent oral polio vaccines: review of past experiences and their potential use after polio eradication. Clin Infect Dis 33(4):531–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Plotkin JB, Dushoff J (2003) Codon bias and frequency-dependent selection on the hemagglutinin epitopes of influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(12):7152–7157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Macadam AJ, Ferguson G, Stone DM, Meredith J, Knowlson S, Auda G et al (2006) Rational design of genetically stable, live-attenuated poliovirus vaccines of all three serotypes: relevance to poliomyelitis eradication. J Virol 80(17):8653–8663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Eichner M, Dietz K (1996) Eradication of poliomyelitis: when can one be sure that polio virus transmission has been terminated? Am J Epidemiol 143(8):816–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Vashishtha VM (2004) But do we have other options? Indian J Pediatr 71(2):183–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Yang CF, Naguib T, Yang SJ, Nasr E, Jorba J, Ahmed N et al (2003) Circulation of endemic type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Egypt from 1983 to 1993. J Virol 77(15):8366–8377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Shulman LM, Manor J, Sofer D, Mendelsohn E (2009) Environmental surveillance for polioviruses in Israel: Bio-error, Bio-terror or just mother nature. In: Marks RS, Lobel L, Amadou SA (eds) Advanced detection of viral pathognes. Neobionics, Omer, Israel, pp 111–121Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Nathanson N (2008) The pathogenesis of poliomyelitis: what we don’t know. Adv Virus Res 71:1–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Minor P (2006) Gaps in scientific knowledge for the post eradication world. Biologicals 34(2):167–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Willerth SM, Pedro HA, Pachter L, Humeau LM, Arkin AP, Schaffer DV (2010) Development of a low bias method for characterizing viral populations using next generation sequencing technology. PLoS One 5(10):e13564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Kitamura N, Semler BL, Rothberg PG, Larsen GR, Adler CJ, Dorner AJ et al (1981) Primary structure, gene organization and polypeptide expression of poliovirus RNA. Nature 291(5816):547–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Shulman LM, Manor Y, Sofer D, Mendelson E (2012) Environmental surveillance for poliovirus in Israel. In: Marks RS (eds) Bio-error, Bio-terror, or just mother nature. In viral detection biosensors, Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore (In press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Virology Laboratory, Laboratory of Environmental Virology at Sheba Medical CenterPublic Health Services, Israel Ministry of HealthTel HaShomerIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

Personalised recommendations