Optimization by Ad Libitum Mixing and the Just-About-Right Scale

  • Harry T. Lawless
Part of the Food Science Text Series book series (FSTS, volume 2)


This exercise demonstrates the use of two methods for optimization of an ingredient level (sugar content) that influences sweetness and product acceptability in a beverage system. Two methods are used, the just-about-right scale (JAR) and a method of adjusting the sample to taste preference. The adjustment method is prone to a context effect in which the taster is likely to undershoot the true optimum when either ascending (adding) or descending (diluting) the sweetness level. The JAR scale method is prone to a centering bias, in which the middle concentration in a series is more likely to be called “just right” or optimal. A method for graphically interpolating the true JAR point from two overlapping concentration series is illustrated.


Sugar Content Adjustment Method Taste Preference Salty Taste Sweetness Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry T. Lawless
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food ScienceCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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