In the first chapter, we provided the following working definition of the stress response: “Stress is a physiological response that serves as a mechanism of mediation linking any given stressor to its target-organ effect.” By viewing the phenomenology of stress within the context of a “linking” mechanism, we can answer one of the most critical questions in psychosomatic medicine, that is, through what mechanisms can stressor stimuli, such as life events, lead to disease and dysfunction? The response to that query will be addressed within the next two chapters.
- Stress Response
- Adrenal Medulla
- Locus Ceruleus
- Affective Domain
- Thyroid Axis
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
It is highly dishonorable for a Reasonable Soul to live in so Divinely built a Mansion as the Body she resides in, altogether unacquainted with the exquisite structure of it.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Aggleton, J. P. (Ed.). (1992). The Amygdala. New York, NY: Wiley-Liss.
Arnold, M. (1970). Feelings and emotions. New York, NY: Academic.
Arnold, M. (1984). Memory and the brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Axelrod, J., & Reisine, T. (1984). Stress hormones. Science, 224, 452–459.
Cannon, W. B. (1914). The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and in the major emotions. American Journal of Physiology, 33, 356–372.
Cannon, W. B. (1953). Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear, and rage. Boston, MA: Branford.
Cannon, W. B., & Paz, D. (1911). Emotional stimulation of adrenal secretion. American Journal of Physiology, 28, 64–70.
Carruthers, M., & Taggart, P. (1973). Vagotonicity of violence. British Medical Journal, 3, 384–389.
Cassel, J. (1974). Psychosocial processes and stress: The behavioral sciences and preventive medicine. Washington, DC: Public Health Service.
Cohen, F., & Lazarus, R. S. (1979). Coping with the stresses of illness. In G. Stone, F. Cohen, & N. Adler (Eds.), Health psychology (pp. 217–254). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Corson, S., & Corson, E. (1971). Psychosocial influences on renal function: Implications for human pathophysiology. In L. Levi (Ed.), Society, stress, and disease (Vol. 1, pp. 338–351). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Cullinan, W., Herman, J. P., Helmreich, D., & Watson, S. (1995). A neuroanatomy of stress. In M. J. Friedman, D. Charney, & A. Deutch (Eds.), Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress (pp. 3–26). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.
Entringer, S., Kumsta, R., Hellhammer, D. H., Wadhwa, P. D., & Wust, S. (2009). Prenatal exposure to maternal psychosocial stress and HPA axis regulation in young adults. Hormones and Behavior, 55, 292–298.
Everly, G. S., Jr. (1978). The Organ Specificity Score as a measure of psychophysiological stress reactivity. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park.
Everly, G. S., Jr. (1979a). Strategies for coping with stress: An assessment scale. Washington, DC: Office of Health Promotion, Department of Health and Human Services.
Everly, G. S., Jr. (1986). A “biopsychosocial analysis” of psychosomatic disease. In T. Millon & G. Kierman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology (pp. 535–551). New York, NY: Guilford.
Everly, G. S., Jr., & Benson, H. (1989). Disorders of arousal and the relaxation response. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 36, 15–21.
Everly, G. S., Jr., Davy, J. A., Smith, K. J., Lating, J. M., & Nucifora, F. C., Jr. (2011). A defining aspect of human resilience in the workplace: A structural modeling approach. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 5(2), 98–105.
Everly, G. S., Jr., Smith, K. J., & Lating, J. M. (2009). A rationale for cognitively-based resilience and psychological first aid (PFA) training: A structural modeling analysis. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 11(4), 249–262.
Florian, J. P., & Pawelczyk, J. A. (2010). Non-esterified fatty acids increase arterial pressure via central sympathetic activation in humans. Clinical Science, 118, 61–69.
Foley, P., & Kirschbaum, C. (2010). Human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute psychosocial stress in laboratory settings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 91–96.
Folkow, B., & Neil, E. (1971). Circulation. London: Oxford University Press.
Frankenhaeuser, M. (1980). Psychoneuroendocrine approaches to the study of stressful person-environment transactions. In H. Selye (Ed.), Selye’s guide to stress research (pp. 46–70). New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Ganong, W. F. (1997). Review of medical physiology (18th ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.
Gellhorn, E. (1957). Autonomic imbalance and the hypothalamus. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Gellhorn, E. (1958a). The physiological basis of neuromuscular relaxation. Archives of Internal Medicine, 102, 392–399.
Gellhorn, E. (1958b). The influence of curare on hypothalamic excitability and the electroencephalogram. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 697–703.
Gellhorn, E. (1964a). Motion and emotion. Psychological Review, 71, 457–472.
Gellhorn, E. (1964b). Sympathetic reactivity in hypertension. Acta Neurovegetative, 26, 35–44.
Gellhorn, E. (1965). The neurophysiological basis of anxiety. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 8, 488–515.
Gellhorn, E. (1967). Principles of autonomic-somatic integrations. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Gellhorn, E. (1968). Central nervous system tuning and its implications for neuropsychiatry. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 148–162.
Gellhorn, E. (1969). Further studies on the physiology and pathophysiology of the tuning of the central nervous system. Psychosomatics, 10, 94–104.
Gellhorn, E., & Loofburrow, G. (1963). Emotions and emotional disorders. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Gevarter, W. (1978).Psychotherapy and the brain. Unpublished paper, NASA, Washington, DC.
Gifford, S., & Gunderson, J. G. (1970). Cushing’s disease as a psychosomatic disorder: A selective review. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 13, 169–221.
Girdano, D., Dusek, D., & Everly, G. (2009). Controlling stress and tension. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Guyenet, P. G. (2006). The sympathetic control of blood pressure. Nature Reviews/Neuroscience, 7, 335–346.
Hall, J. E. (2011). Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.
Harper, H. A. (1975). Review of physiological chemistry. Los Altos, CA: Lange.
Hassett, J. (1978). A primer of psychophysiology. San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman.
Heim, C. & Nemeroff, C. B. (2009). Neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectrum, 14(1) (Suppl 1), 13–24.
Henry, J. P., & Ely, D. (1976). Biologic correlates of psychosomatic illness. In R. Grenen & S. Galay (Eds.), Biological foundations of psychiatry (pp. 945–986). New York, NY: Raven Press.
Henry, J. P., & Stephens, P. (1977). Stress, health, and the social environment. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
Hess, W. (1957). The functional organization of the diencephalon. New York, NY: Grune &Stratton.
Johnson, R. H., & Spalding, J. M. (1974). Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. Philadelphia: Davis.
Kopin, L. (1976). Catecholamines, adrenal hormones, and stress. Hospital Practice, 11, 49–55.
Krishnan, V., & Nestler, E. J. (2008). The molecular neurobiology of depression. Nature, 455(16), 894–902.
Lachman, S. (1972). Psychosomatic disorders: A behavioristic interpretation. New York: Wiley.
Lang, I. M. (1975). Limbic involvement in the vagosympathetic arterial pressor response of the rat. Unpublished master’s thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, R. S. (1982). Thoughts on the relations between emotions and cognition. American Psychologist, 37, 1019–1024.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lazarus, R. S. (2006). Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Le Blanc, J. (1976, July). The role of catecholamines in adaptation to chronic and acute stress. Paper presented at the proceedings of the International Symposium on Catecholamines and Stress, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.
Levi, L. (1972). Psychosocial stimuli, psychophysiological reactions and disease. Acta Medico Scandinavica (entire Suppl. 528).
Lomax, A. E., Sharkey, K. A., & Furness, J. B. (2010). The participation of the sympathetic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract in disease states. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 22, 7–18.
Lundberg, U., & Forsman, L. (1978). Adrenal medullary and adrenal cortical responses to under-stimulation and overstimulation (Report No. 541). Stockholm: Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm.
Macfarlane, D. P., Forbes, S., & Walker, B. R. (2008). Glucocoticoids and fatty acid metabolism in humans: fuelling fat redistribution in the metabolic syndrome. Journal of Endocrinology, 197, 189–204.
MacLean, P. D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the “visceral brain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 11, 338–353.
MacLean, P. D. (1975). On the evolution of three mentalities. Man-Environment System, 5, 213–994.
Makara, G., Palkovits, M., & Szentagothal, J. (1980). The endocrine hypothalamus and the hormonal response to stress. In H. Selye (Ed.), Selye’s guide to stress research (pp. 280–337). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Malmo, R. B. (1975). On emotions, needs, and our archaic brain. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Maranon, G. (1924). Contribution a 1’etude de 1’action emotive de 1’ademaline. Revue Francais d’Endrocrinologie, 2, 301–325.
Mason, J. W. (1968a). A review of psychendocrine research on the sympathetic–adrenal medullary system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 631–653.
Mason, J. W. (1968b). Organization of psychoendocrine mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30 (entire P. 2).
Mason, J. W. (1968c). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary–adrenal–cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–607.
Mason, J. W. (1972). Organization of psychoendocrine mechanisms: A review and reconsideration of research. In N. Greenfield & R. Sternbach (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology (pp. 3–76). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Mason, J. W., Wang, S., Yehuda, R., Bremner, J. D., Riney, S., Lubin, H., & Charney, D. (1995). Some approaches to the study of clinical implications of thyroid alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder. In M. J. Friedman, D. Charney, & A. Deutch (Eds.), Neurobiological, and clinical consequences of stress, (pp. 367–380). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Mazeh, H., Paldor, I., & Chen, H. (2012). The endocrine system: Pituitary and adrenal glands. ACS Surgery: Principles and Practice, 1–13
McCabe, P., & Schneiderman, N. (1984). Psychophysiologic reactions to stress. In N. Schneiderman & J. Tapp (Eds.), Behavioral medicine (pp. 3–32). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
McCorry, L. K., PhD. (2007). Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(4), 1–78.
Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress innoculation training. New York: Plenum Press.
Meichenbaum, D., & Jaremko, M. (1983). Stress reduction and prevention. New York: Plenum Press.
Miller, N. E. (1978). Biofeedback and visceral learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 29, 373–404.
Miller, N. E. (1979). General discussion and a review of recent results with paralyzed patients. In R. Gatchel & K. Price (Eds.), Clinical applications of biofeedback (pp. 215–225). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Millon, T., & Everly, G. S., Jr. (1985). Personality and its disorders. New York: Wiley.
Millon, T., Grossman, S., Millon, C., Meagher, S., & Ramnath, R. (2004). Personality disorders in modern life. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Nauta, W. (1979). Expanding borders of the limbic system concept. In T. Rasmussen & R. Marino (Eds.), Functional neurosurgery (pp. 7–23). New York: Raven Press.
Nauta, W., & Domesick, V. (1982). Neural associations of the limbic system. In A. Beckman (Ed.), Neural substrates of behavior (pp. 3–29). New York: Spectrum.
Omer, H., & Everly, G. S., Jr. (1988). Psychological influences on pre-term labor. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(12), 1507–1513.
Penfield, W. (1975). The mystery of the mind. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ray, C. A. & Carter, J. R. (2010). Effects of aerobic exercise training on sympathetic and renal responses to mental stress in humans. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 298, H229–H234.
Redmond, D. E. (1979). New and old evidence for the involvement of a brain norepinephrine system in anxiety. In W. Fann, I. Karacan, A. Pikomey, & R. Williams (Eds.), Phenomenology and treatment of anxiety (pp. 153–204). New York: Spectrum.
Reiman, E., Raichle, M. E., Robins, E., Butler, F. K., Herscovitch, P., Fox, P., & Perlmutter, J. (1986). The application of positron emission tomography to the study of panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 469–477.
Rochefort, G. J., Rosenberger, J., & Saffran, M. (1959). Depletion of pituitary corticotropin by various stresses and by neurohypophyseal preparations. Journal of Physiology, 146, 105–116.
Roldan, E., Alvarez-Pelaez, P., & de Molina, F. (1974). Electrographic study of the amygdaloid defense response. Physiology and Behavior, 13, 779–787.
Rossier, J., Bloom, F., & Guillemin, R. (1980). In H. Selye (Ed.), Selye’s guide to stress research (pp. 187–207). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Schwarz, N. A., Rigby, B. R., La Bounty, P., Shelmadine, B., & Bowden, R. G. (2011). A review of weight control strategies and their effects on the regulation of hormonal balance. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2011, 1–15.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Selye, H. (1976). Stress in health and disease. Boston: Butterworth.
Smith, K. J., Everly, G. S., & Johns, T. (1992, December). A structural modeling analysis of the mediating role of cognitive-affective arousal in the relationship between job stressors and illness among accountants. Paper presented to the Second APA/NIOSH Conference on Occupational Stress, Washington, DC.
Smith, K. J., Everly, G. S., & Johns, T. (1993). The role of stress arousal in the dynamics of the stressor-to-illness process among accountants. Contemporary Accounting Research, 9, 432–449.
Sowers, J. R., Carlson, H. E., Brautbar, N., & Hershman, J. M. (1977). Effect of dexamethasone on prolactin and TSH responses to TRH and metoclopramide in man. The Journal of Clinical Ednocrinology and Metabolism, 44(2), 237–241.
Sternbach, R. (1966). Principles of psychophysiology: An introductory text and readings. Oxford, England: Academic Press.
Surges, R., Thijs, R. D., Tan, H. L., & Sander, J. W. (2009). Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: risk factors and potential pathomechanisms. Nature Reviews/Neurology, 5, 492–504.
Taylor, S. E. (2006). Tend and befriend: Biobehavioral bases of affiliation under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(6), 273–277.
Usdin, E., Kretnansky, R., & Kopin, L. (1976). Catecholamines and stress. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
van Raalte, D. H., Ouwens, D. M., & Diamant, M. (2009). Novel insights into glucocorticoid-mediated diabetogenic effects: towards expansion of therapeutic options? European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 39(2), 81–93.
Weil, J. (1974). A neurophysiological model of emotional and intentional behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Wenger, M. A., Clemens, T., Darsie, M. L., Engel, B. T., Estess, F. M., & Sonnenschien, R. R. (1960). Autonomic response patterns during intravenous infusion of epinephrme and norepinephrine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 22, 294–307.
Widmaier, E. P., Raff, H., & Strang, K. T. (2004). Vander, Sherman, Luciano’s Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Williams, R. B. (1986). Patterns of reactivity and stress. In K. Matthews, R. R. Williams, S. B. Manuck, B. Faulkner, T. Dembroski, T. Detre, & S. M. Weiss (Eds.), Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease (pp. 109–125). New York: Wiley.
Yehuda, R., Giller, E., Levengood, R., Southwick, S., & Siever, L. (1995). Hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal-functioning in post-traumatic stress disorder. In M. J. Friedman, D. Charney, & A. Deutch (Eds.), Neurobiological, and clinical consequences of stress (pp. 351–366). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
Yuwiler, A. (1976). Stress, anxiety and endocrine function. In R. Grenell & S. Gabay (Eds.), Biological foundations of psychiatry (pp. 889–943). New York: Raven Press.
Zimmermann, U. S., Buchmann, A. F., Spring, C., Uhr, M., Holsboer, F., & Wittchen, H.-U. (2009). Ethanol administration dampens the prolactin response to psychosocial stress exposure in sons of alcohol-dependent fathers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34, 996–1003.
Rights and permissions
© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Everly, G.S., Lating, J.M. (2013). The Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Stress Response. In: A Clinical Guide to the Treatment of the Human Stress Response. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5538-7_2
Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY
Print ISBN: 978-1-4614-5537-0
Online ISBN: 978-1-4614-5538-7
eBook Packages: Behavioral ScienceBehavioral Science and Psychology (R0)