Sleep and Stress

  • George S. EverlyJr.
  • Jeffrey M. Lating


We spend roughly one-third of our lives craving, pursuing, forgoing, and savoring sleep. While it is apparent that sleep, which is considered a “complex amalgam of physiologic and behavioral processes” (Carskadon & Dement, 2011, p. 16) is universal and has vital life-preserving functions, its essential purpose remains unknown (Goldsmith & Casola, 2006; Hirshkowitz, Moore, & Minhoto, 1997; Horne, 2006). Theories suggest that sleep restores homeostasis in the central nervous system, conserves energy, regulates heat, or allows for processing of affective information (Goldsmith & Casola; Schwartz & Roth, 2008). While none of these theories have been supported definitively, what is accepted is that sleep is an intricate and active process involving many parts of the brain and is associated with health and personal well-being (Horne, 2006; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS, 2008). For example, sleep loss has been associated with compromising the immune system, including reducing lymphocyte count and Natural Killer cell activity, making people with decreased sleep more vulnerable to infection (Kendall-Tackett, 2009). Before discussing more of the specifics the impact of stress on sleep, it seems prudent to provide a brief overview of the basic constructs of sleep.


Shift Work Alarm Clock Dream Content Dream Report National Sleep Foundation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. (2003). ACGME duty hours standards fact sheet. Retreived, from Scholar
  2. Åkerstedt, T. (1998). Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Sleep Medicine Review, 2, 117–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Åkerstedt, T. (2006). Psychosocial stress and impaired sleep. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 32(6), 493–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Åkerstedt, T., Kecklund, G., & Axelsson, G. (2007). Impaired sleep after bedtime stress and worries. Biological Psychology, 76, 170–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Åkerstedt, T., Perski, A., & Kecklund, G. (2011). Sleep, stress, and burnout. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 814–821). St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, (n.d). Retreived, from Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Edition, Text revision. Washington, DC: Author. Arendt, J., Skene, D., Middleton, B., Lockley, S. W., & Deacon, S. (1997). Efficacy of melatonin treatment in jet lag, shift work, and blindness. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 12(6), 604–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Association of Sleep Disorders Centres. (1979). Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders. Sleep, 2, 1–137.Google Scholar
  9. Barger, L. K., Wright, K. P., Jr., Hughes, R. J., & Czeisler, C. A. (2004). Daily exercise facilitates phase delays of circadian rhythm in very dim light. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 286(6), R1077–R1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonnet, M. H., & Arand, D. L. (1996). Metabolic rate and the restorative function of sleep. Physiology and Behavior, 59, 777–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourgeois-Bougrine, S., Carbon, P., Gounelle, C., Mollard, R., & Coblentz, A. (2003). Perceived fatigue for short-and long-haul flights: A survey of 739 airline pilots. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 74(10), 1072–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bulkeley, K., & Kahan, T. L. (2008). The impact of September 11 on dreaming. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(4), 1248–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgess, H. J., Crowley, S. J., Gazda, C. J., Fogg, L. F., & Eastman, C. I. (2003). Preflight adjustment to eastward travel: 3 days of advancing sleep with and without morning bright light. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 18(4), 318–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burgess, H. J., Revell, V. L., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). A three pulse phase response curve to three milligrams of melatonin in humans. The Journal of Physiology, 586, 639–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burgess, H. J., Sharkey, K. M., & Eastman, C. I. (2002). Bright light, dark and melatonin can promote circadian adaptation in night shift workers. Sleep Medicine Review, 6, 407–420.Google Scholar
  16. Caldwell, J. A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caldwell, B. A., & Redeker, N. S. (2009). Sleep patterns and psychological distress in women living in and inner city. Research in Nursing and Health, 32(2), 177–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carskadon, M. A., & Dement, W. C. (2000). Normal human sleep: An overview. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (3rd ed., pp. 134–154). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.Google Scholar
  19. Carskadon, M. A., & Dement, W. C. (2011). Normal human sleep: An overview. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 16–26). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Czeisler, C. A., Johnson, M. P., Duffy, J. F., Brown, E. N., Ronda, J. M., & Kronauer, R. E. (1990). Exposure to bright light and darkness to treat physiologic maladaptation to night work. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 1253–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. David, D., & Mellman, T. A. (1997). Dreams following hurricane Andrew. Dreaming, 7, 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dement, W. C. (2011). History of sleep physiology and medicine. In M. H. Kyger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 3–15). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dement, W., & Kleitman, N. (1957). The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: An objective method for the study of dreaming. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53, 339–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dikeos, D. G., & Soldatos, C. R. (2005). The condition of insomnia: Etiopathogenetic considerations and their impact on treatment practices. International Review of Psychiatry, 17(4), 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Drake, C. L., Roehrs, T., Richardson, G., Walsh, J. K., & Roth, T. (2004). Shift work sleep disorder: Prevalence and consequences beyond that of symptomatic day workers. Sleep, 27(8), 1453–1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Drake, C. L., & Wright, K. P., Jr. (2011). Shift work, shift-work disorder, and jet lag. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 784–798). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duke, T., & Davidson, J. (2002). Ordinary and recurrent dream recall of active, past and non-recurrent dreamers during and after academic stress. Dreaming, 12, 185–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eastman, C. I., Gazda, C. J., Burgess, H. J., Crowley, S. J., & Fogg, L. F. (2005). Advancing circadian rhythms before eastward flight: A strategy to prevent or reduce jet lag. Sleep, 28(1), 33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Edinger, J. D., Means, M. K., Carney, C. E., & Manber, R. (2011). Psychological and behavioral treatments for insomnia II: Implementation and specific populations. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 884–904). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Esposito, K., Benitez, A., Barza, L., & Mellman, T. (1999). Evaluation of dream content in combat-related PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 681–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fletcher, K. E., Underwood, W., III, Davis, S. Q., Mangrulkar, R. S., McMohan, L. F., Jr., & Saint, S. (2004). Systematic review: Effects of resident work hours on patient safety. Annals of Internal Medicine, 141(11), 851–857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldsmith, J. R., & Casola, P. G. (2006). The basics for psychiatrists: An overview of sleep, sleep disorders, and psychiatric medications’ effects on sleep. Psychiatric Annals, 36(12), 833–840.Google Scholar
  33. Gooley, J. J. (2008). Treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders with light. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 37(8), 669–676.Google Scholar
  34. Graeber, R. C. (1988). Fatigue and circadian rhythmicity. In E. L. Weiner & D. C. Nagel (Eds.), Aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythmicity (pp. 305–344). New York, NY: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Guardiola-Lemaȋtre, B., & Quera-Salva, M. A. (2011). Melatonin and the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 420–430). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hartmann, E., & Basile, R. (2003). Dream imagery becomes more intense after 9/11/01. Dreaming, 13, 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hayashi, M., & Abe, A. (2008). Short daytime naps in a car seat to counteract daytime sleepiness: The effect of backrest angle. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 6, 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hayashi, M., & Hori, T. (1998). The effects of a 20-min nap before post-lunch dip. Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 52(2), 203–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hayashi, M., Ito, S., & Hori, T. (1999). The effects of a 20-min nap at noon on sleepiness, performance and EEG activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 32, 173–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hirshkowitz, M., Moore, C. A., & Minhoto, G. (1997). Understanding sleep: The evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders. In R. Mark & W. C. Orr (Eds.), Application and practice in health psychology (pp. 11–34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  41. Holdstock, T. L. & Verschoor, G. J. (1974). Student sleep patterns before, during and after an examination period. South African Journal of Psychology, 4, 16–24. Horne, J. (2006). Sleepfaring: A journey through the science of sleep. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Howard, S. K., Rosekind, M. R., Katz, J. D., & Berry, A. J. (2002). Fatigue in anesthesia: Implications and strategies for patient and provider safety. Anesthesiology, 97, 1281–1294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howard, D., Silber, J., & Jobes, D. (2004). Do regulations limiting resident’s work hours affect patient mortality? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19, 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Iber, C., Ancoli-Israel, S., Chesson, A., & Quan, S. F. (2007). The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: Rules, terminology, and technical specifications. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Retreived from: Scholar
  45. Jamieson, A. O., Zammit, G. K., Rosenberg, R. S., Davis, J. R., & Walsh, J. K. (2001). Zolpidem reduces the sleep disturbance of jet lag. Sleep Medicine, 2(5), 423–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jansson, M. & Linton, S. J. (2006). Psychosocial work stressors in the development and maintenance of insomnia: A prospective study.Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11(3), 241–248.Google Scholar
  47. Karacan, I., & Moore, C. A. (1979). Genetics and human sleep. Psychiatric Annals, 9, 11–23.Google Scholar
  48. Kendall-Tackett, K. (2009). Psychological trauma and physical health: A psychoneuroimmunology approach to etiology of negative health effects and possible interventions. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 35–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klein, T. P., Devoe, E. R., Miranda-Julian, C., & Linas, K. (2009). Young children’s responses to September 11th: The New York City experience. Infant Mental Health Journal, 30(1), 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kroth, J., Thompson, L., Jackson, J., Pascali, L., & Ferreira, M. (2002). Dream characteristics of stock brokers after a major market downturn. Psychological Reports, 90, 1097–1100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Leger D., Philip, P., Jarriault, P., Metlaine, A., & Choudat, D. (2009). Effects of a combination of napping and bright light pulses on shift workers’ sleepiness at the wheel: A pilot study. Journal of Sleep Research, 18(4), 472–479. Levin, A. (2010). Air India pilot’s “sleep inertia” caused crash. USA Today, Available online: Scholar
  52. Linton, S. J. (2004). Does work stress predict insomnia? A prospective study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 127–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lydic, R., Schoene, W. C., Czeisler, C. A., & Moore-Ede, M. C. (1980). Suprachiasmatic region of the human hypothalamus: Homolog to the primate circadian pacemaker? Sleep, 2, 355–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Marshall, R. D., & Galea, S. (2004). Science for the community. Assessing mental health after 9/11. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McEwen, B. S. (1998). Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mellman, T. A., David, D., Bustamante, V., Torres, J., & Fins, A. (2001). Dreams in the acute aftermath of trauma and their relationship to PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 241–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mellman, T. A., & Hipolito, M. M. (2006). Sleep disturbances in the aftermath of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectrums, 11, 611–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mellman, T. A., & Pigeon, W. R. (2011). Dreams and nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 613–619). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mitler, M. M., Carskadon, M. A., Czeisler, C. A., Dement, W. C., Dinges, D. F., & Graeber, R. C. (1988). Catastrophes, sleep and public policy: Consensus Report. Sleep, 11(1), 100–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Morin, C. M. (2011). Psychological and behavioral treatments for insomnia I: Approaches and efficacy. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 866–883). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Morin, C. M., Rodrique, S., & Ivers, H. (2003). Role of stress, arousal, and coping skills in primary insomnia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 259–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moss, T. H., & Sills, D. L. (Eds.) (1981). The Three Mile Island nuclear accident: Lessons and implications. New York. New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  63. National Heart Lung & Blood Institute. (2012). How much sleep is enough? Retreived from: Scholar
  64. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2008). Brain basics-understanding sleep. Retrieved from: (6/10/08).Google Scholar
  65. National Sleep Foundation. (2011a). Can’t sleep? What to know about insomnia. Retreived from: Scholar
  66. National Sleep Foundation. (2011b). How much sleep do we really need? Retreived from: Scholar
  67. National Transportation Safety Board (1990). Grounding of US tankship Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef, Prince William Sound near Valdez, AK, March 24, 1989. Washington, DC: National Transportation Safety Board. National Transportation Safety Board. (2010a). Loss of control on approach Colgan Air, Inc. Operating as Continental connection flight 3407 Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ Clarence Center, New York February 12, 2009. Accident report. Retreived from: Scholar
  68. National Transportation Safety Board. (2010b). Remarks of Honorable Deborah A. P. Hersman, Chairman, NTSB before the National Sleep Foundation. Washington, D.C., March 5, 2010. Retreived from: Scholar
  69. Nursing Online Education Database. (2008). 50 ways to boost your energy without caffeine. Retreived from: Scholar
  70. Opalic, P., & Psihijatrija, D. (2000). Research of the dreams of traumatized subjects. Psihijatrija Danas, 32, 129–147.Google Scholar
  71. Paparrigopoulos, T., Tsavara, C., Theleritis, C., Soldatos, C., & Tountas, Y. (2010). Physical activity may promote sleep in cardiac patients suffering from insomnia. International Journal of Cardiology, 143(2), 209–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Passos, G. S., Poyares, D., Santana, M. G., Garbuio, S. A., Tufik, S., & Mello, M. T. (2010). Effect of acute physical exercise on patients with chronic primary insomnia. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6(3), 270–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Perlis, M. L., Giles, D. E., Mendelson, W. B., Bootzin, R. R., & Wyatt, J. K. (1997). Psychophysiological insomnia: The behavioural model and a neurocognitive perspective. Journal of Sleep Research, 6, 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Perlis, M., Shaw, P. J., Cano, G., & Espie, C. A. (2011). Models of insomnia. In M. H. Kryger, T. Roth, & W. C. Dement (Eds.), Principles and practice of sleep medicine (5th ed., pp. 850–865). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Petrilli, R. M., Roach, G. D., Dawson, D., & Lamond, N. (2006). The sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention of commercial airline pilots during an international pattern. Chronobiology International, 23(6), 1347–1362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Propper, R. E., Stickgold, R., Keeley, R., & Christman, S. D. (2007). Is television traumatic? Dreams, stess and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2011. Psychological Science, 18(4), 334–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rechtschaffen, A. & Kales, A. (1968). A manual of standardized terminology, techniques, and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects (National Institutes of Health Publication No. 204). Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  78. Reid, K. J., Baron, K. G., Lu, B., Naylor, E., Wolfe, L., & Zee, P. C. (2010). Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia. Sleep Medicine, 11(9), 934–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reilly, T. (2009). How can travelling athletes deal with jet-lag? Kinesiology, 41(2), 128–135.Google Scholar
  80. Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. II. (1986). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  81. Rupp, T. L., Acebo, C., Van Reen, E., & Carskadon, M. A. (2007). Effects of a moderate evening alcohol dose. I: Sleepiness. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 31, 1358–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sack, R. L. (2010). Jet lag. The New England Journal of Medicine, 362, 440–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sadeh, A. (1996). Stress, trauma, and sleep in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5(3), 685–700.Google Scholar
  84. Schuster, M. A., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Collins, R. L., Marshall, G. N., Elliott, M. N., & Berry, S. H. (2001). A national survey of stress reactions after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The New England Journal of Medicine, 345(20), 1507–1512Google Scholar
  85. Schwartz, J. R. L., & Roth, T. (2008). Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: Basic science and clinical implications. Current Neuropharmacology, 6(4), 367–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schweitzer, P. K., Randazzo, A. C., Stone, K., Erman, M., & Walsh, J. K. (2006). Laboratory and field studies of naps and caffeine as practical countermeasures for sleep-wake problems associated with night work. Sleep, 29(1), 39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Shiota, M., Sudou, M., & Ohshima, M. (1996). Using outdoor exercise to decrease jet lag in airline crew members. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 67, 1155–1160.Google Scholar
  88. Silva, E. J., & Duffy, J. F. (2008). Sleep inertia varies with circadian phase and sleep stage in older adults. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(4), 928–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith, M. R., & Eastman, C. I. (2008). Night shift performance is improved by a compromise circadian phase position: Study 3. Circadian phase after 7 nights shifts with an intervening weekend off. Sleep, 31(12), 1639–1645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Spielman, A. J., Saskin, P., & Thorpy, M. J. (1987). Treatment of chronic insomnia by restriction of time in bed. Sleep, 10, 45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Stein, B. D., Elliott, M. N., Jaycox, L. H., Collins, R. L., Barry, S. H., Klein, D. J., & Schuster, M. A. (2004). A national longitudinal study of the psychological consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks: Reactions, impairment, and help-seeking. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 67(2), 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tang, N. K. Y., & Harvey, A. G. (2004). Effects of cognitive arousal and physiological arousal on sleep perception. Sleep, 27, 69–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Thorpy, M. J. (2010). Managing the patient with shift-work disorder. Journal of Family Practice, 59, S24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Tietzel, A., & Lack, L. C. (2002). The recuperative value of brief and ultra-brief naps on alertness and cognitive performance. Journal of Sleep Research, 11(3), 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Torsvall, L., Åkerstedt, T., Gillander, K., & Knutsson, A. (1989). Sleep on the night shift: 24-hour EEG monitoring of spontaneous sleep/wake behavior. Psychophysiology, 3, 352–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Reen, E., Jenni, O., & Carskadon, M. A. (2006). Effects of alcohol on sleep and the sleep electroencephalogram in healthy young women. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 30(6), 974–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walsh, J. K., Schweitzer, P. K., Anch, A. M., Muehlbach, M. J., Jenkins, N. A., & Dickins, Q. S. (1991). Sleepiness/alertness on a simulated night shift following sleep at home with triazolam. Sleep, 14(2), 140–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Waterhouse, J., Nevill, A., Finnegan, J., Williams, P., Edwards, B., Kao, S.-Y., & Reilly, T. (2005). Further assessments of the relationship between jet lab and some of its symptoms. Chronobiology International, 22(1), 121–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Waterhouse, J., Reilly, T., Atkinson, G., & Edwards, B. (2007). Jet lag: Trends and coping ­strategies. The Lancet, 369, 1117–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. West, C. P., Tan, A. D., Habermann, T. M., Sloan, J. A., & Shanafelt, T. A. (2009). Association of resident fatigue and distress with perceived medical errors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1294–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams, R. L., Karacan, I., & Hursch, C. J. (1974). EEG of human sleep: Clinical applications. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  102. Williamson, A. M., & Feyer, A. M. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 649–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. World Health Organization. (2011). The ICD-1- classification of mental and behavioral disorders. Geneva: Author. Retreived from:­diagnostic-criteria-for-non.html
  104. Zisapel, N. (2001). Circadian rhythm sleep disorders: Pathophysiology and potential approaches to management. CNS Drugs, 15(4), 311–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • George S. EverlyJr.
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Lating
    • 2
  1. 1.School of MedicineThe Johns Hopkins UniversitySeverna ParkUSA
  2. 2.Loyola University MaylandBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations