The Role of Media Content in the Genesis of School Shootings: The Contemporary Discussion

  • Peter Sitzer


This literature review provides an overview of scholarly debate on the role of media content in the genesis of school shootings. It begins by showing that the idea that media depictions of violence have a general violence-promoting effect is scientifically contested. Published research is inconclusive on the question whether school shooters represent a risk group with a special susceptibility to negative effects of violent media content, but empirical findings supply clear indications that reporting of school shootings, especially in the mass media and the internet, can disseminate scripts potentially connected with copycat acts. The concept of cultural scripts of hegemonic masculinity explains why school shootings are committed predominantly by young males and accounts for the importance of a prior interest in violent media content and school shootings. Given the public communicative dimension of these acts and the enormous media attention they attract, there is a case for critical consideration of the way they are treated in the media.


Aggressive Behavior Violent Crime Violent Behavior Hegemonic Masculinity School Shooting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2002). Media violence harms children. In J. D. Torr (Ed.), Is media violence a problem? (pp. 10–12). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C. (2004). An update on the effects of playing violent video games. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 113–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C., & Dill, K. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, psychological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 960–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., et al. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 151–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baier, D., Pfeiffer, C., Simonson, J., & Rabold, S. (2010). Kinder und Jugendliche in Deutschland: Gewalterfahrungen, Integration, Medienkonsum: Zweiter Bericht zum gemeinsamen Forschungsprojekt des Bundesministeriums des Innern und des KFN (KFN-Forschungsbericht 109). Hannover: KFN.Google Scholar
  8. Baier, D., Pfeiffer, C., Windzio, M., & Rabold, S. (2006). Schülerbefragung 2005: Gewalterfahrungen, Schulabsentismus und Medienkonsum von Kindern und Jugendlichen: Abschlussbericht über eine repräsentative Befragung von Schülerinnen und Schülern der 4. und 9. Jahrgangsstufe. Hannover: Kriminologisches Forschungsinstitut Niedersachsen.Google Scholar
  9. Bannenberg, B. (2010). Amok: Ursachen erkennen—Warnsignale verstehen—Katastrophen verhindern. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Google Scholar
  10. Benson, L. (2005, March 24). Web postings hold clues to Weise’s actions. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from
  11. Böckler, N. (2012). Mediale Selbstdarstellungen jugendlicher Amokläufer. Paper presented at the conference on Mörderische Phantasien—Mediale Selbstdarstellung jugendlicher Amokläufer, Akademie für politische Bildung Tutzing, Bayreuth, Germany, April 21, 2012.Google Scholar
  12. Böckler, N., & Seeger, T. (2010). Schulamokläufer: Eine Analyse medialer Täter-Eigendarstellungen und deren Aneignung durch jugendliche Rezipienten. Weinheim & Munich: Juventa.Google Scholar
  13. Böckler, N., Seeger, T., & Heitmeyer, W. (2010). School shooting: A double loss of control. In W. Heitmeyer, H.-G. Haupt, S. Malthaner, & A. Kirschner (Eds.), Control of violence (pp. 261–294). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Böckler, N., Seeger, T., & Sitzer, P. (2012). Media dynamics in school shootings: A socialization theory perspective. In G. W. Muschert & J. Sumiala (Eds.), School shootings: Mediatized violence in a global age. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  15. Bofinger, J. (2001). Kinder—Freizeit—Medien: Eine empirische Untersuchung zum Freizeit- und Medienverhalten 10- bis 17-jähriger Schülerinnen und Schüler. Munich: Kopaed.Google Scholar
  16. Bollen, K. A., & Phillips, D. P. (1981). Suicidal motor vehicle fatalities in Detroit: a replication. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 404–412.Google Scholar
  17. Bollen, K. A., & Phillips, D. P. (1982). Imitative suicides: a national study of effects of television news stories. American Sociological Review, 47, 802–809.Google Scholar
  18. Bortz, J., & Döring, N. (2006). Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation: für Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  19. Borum, R., Cornell, D. G., Modzeleski, W., & Jimersonet, S. R. (2010). What can be done about school shootings? A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boxer, P., Huesmann, L. R., Bushman, B. J., O’Brien, M., & Moceri, D. (2008). The role of violent media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Browne, K., & Pennell, A. (1998). The effects of video violence on young offenders. London: Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate. Research findings, No. 65, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  22. Bushman, B., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the generalized aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679–1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bushman, B. J. (1995). Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 950–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56(6/7), 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2001). Effects of televised violence on aggression. In D. G. Singer & J. L. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of children and the media (pp. 223–254). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160, 348–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman, L. (2004). The copycat effect: How the media and popular culture trigger the mayham in tomorrow’s headlines. New York: Paraview.Google Scholar
  28. Colwell, J., & Kato, M. (2003). Investigation of the relationship between social isolation, self-esteem, aggression and computer game play in Japanese adolescents. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 6, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Connell, R.W. (1993): The Big Picture: Masculinities in Recent World History. In: Theory and Society, 22, 597–623.Google Scholar
  30. Connell, R. (2005). Masculinities (Vol. 1). Cambridge, UK: Polity.Google Scholar
  31. Cullen, D. (1999, September 30). Who said “yes?” Retrieved May 4, 2012, from
  32. Deutscher Presserat. (2010). Berichterstattung über Amokläufe: Empfehlungen für Redaktionen. Berlin: Deutscher Presserat. Retrieved March 6, 2012, from
  33. Engels, H. (2007). Das School Shooting von Emsdetten—der letzte Ausweg aus dem Tunnel!? Eine Betrachtung aus Sicht des Leiters der kriminalpolizeilichen Ermittlungen. In J. Hoffmann & I. Wondrak (Eds.), Amok und zielgerichtete Gewalt an Schulen: Früherkennung/Risikomanagement/Kriseneinsatz/Nachbetreuung (pp. 35–56). Frankfurt: Polizeiwissenschaft.Google Scholar
  34. Expertenkreis Amok. (2009). Prävention, Intervention, Opferhilfe, Medien: Konsequenzen aus dem Amoklauf in Winnenden und Wendlingen am 11. März 2009. Baden-Württemberg: Expertenkreis Amok.Google Scholar
  35. Fast, J. (2008). Ceremonial violence: A psychological explanation of school shootings. New York: Overlook.Google Scholar
  36. Feasey, R. (2008). Masculinity and popular television. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferguson, C. J. (2007). Evidence for publication bias in video game violence effects literature: A meta-analytic review. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 12, 470–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ferguson, C. J., & Kilburn, J. (2009). The public health risks of media violence: A meta-analytic review. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154(5), 759–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ferguson, C. J., Rueda, S. M., Cruz, A. M., Ferguson, D. E., Fritz, S., & Smith, S. M. (2008). Violent video games and aggression. Causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(3), 311–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ferguson, C. J., San Miguel, C., Garza, A., & Jerabeck, J. M. (2012). A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(2), 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ferguson, C. J., San Miguel, C., & Hartley, R. D. (2009). A multivariate analysis of youth violence and aggression: The influence of family, peers, depression, and media violence. The Journal of Pediatrics, 155(6), 904–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Funk, J. B. (2003). Violent video games: Who’s at risk?’. In D. Ravitch & J. P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid stuff: Marketing sex and violence to America’s children (pp. 168–192). Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gibbs, N., & Roche, T. (1999, December 12). The Columbine tapes. Time. Retrieved April 26, 2012, from,9171,35870,00.html.
  44. Giumetti, G. W., & Markey, P. M. (2007). Violent video games and anger as predictors of aggression. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(6), 1234–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gould, M., Jamieson, P., & Romer, D. (2003). Media contagion and suicide among the young. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(9), 1269–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gould, M. S., Shaffer, D., & Kleinman, M. (1988). The impact of suicide in television movies: Replication and commentary. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 90–99.Google Scholar
  47. Grimm, J. (1999). Fernsehgewalt: Zuwendungsattraktivität, Erregungsverläufe, sozialer Effekt: Zur Begründung und praktischen Anwendung eines kognitiv-physiologischen Ansatzes der Medienrezeptionsforschung am Beispiel von Gewaltdarstellungen. Opladen & Wiesbaden: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  48. Grimm, J. (2002). Wirkungsforschung II: Differentiale der Mediengewalt—Ansätze zur Überwindung der Individualisierungs- und Globalisierungsfalle innerhalb der Wirkungsforschung. In T. Hausmanninger & T. Bohrmann (Eds.), Mediale Gewalt: Interdisziplinäre und ethische Perspektiven (pp. 160–176). Munich: Fink.Google Scholar
  49. Harding, D. J., Fox, C., & Mehta, J. D. (2002). Studying rare events through qualitative case studies: Lessons from a study of rampage school shootings. Sociological Methods & Research, 31(2), 174–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hawton, K., Simkin, S., Deeks, J. J., O’Connor, S., Keen, A., Altman, D. G., et al. (1999). Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self-poisoning: Time series and questionnaire study. British Medical Journal, 318, 972–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hearold, S. (1986). A synthesis of 1043 effects of television on social behavior. In G. Comstock (Ed.), Public communication and behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 65–133). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  52. Hoffmann, J. (2007). Tödliche Verzweiflung—der Weg zu zielgerichteten Gewalttaten an Schulen. In J. Hoffmann & I. Wondrak (Eds.), Amok und zielgerichtete Gewalt an Schulen: Früherkennung/Risikomanagement/Kriseneinsatz/Nachbetreuung (pp. 25–34). Frankfurt: Polizeiwissenschaft.Google Scholar
  53. Hogben, M. (1998). Factors moderating the effect of television aggression on viewer behavior. Communication Research, 25, 220–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hopf, W. H. (2004). Mediengewalt, Lebenswelt und Persönlichkeit—eine Problemgruppenanalyse bei Jugendlichen. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 16(3), 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hopf, W. H., Huber, G. L., & Weiß, R. H. (2008). Media violence and youth violence: A 2-year longitudinal study. Journal of Media Psychology, 20(3), 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Huesmann, L. R. (2007). The impact of electronic media violence: Scientific theory and research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S6–S13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C. L., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977–1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ich will R.A.C.H.E. (2006, November 21). Telepolis. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from
  59. Irwin, A. R., & Gross, A. M. (1995). Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Johnson, D. J., Cohen, P., Smailes, E. M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295, 2468–2471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jonas, K. (1992). Modeling and suicide: A test of the Werther effect. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Josephson, W. L. (1987). Television violence and children’s aggression: Testing the priming, social script, and disinhibition predictions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 882–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kalish, R., & Kimmel, M. (2010). Suicide by mass murder: Masculinity, aggrieved entitlement, and rampage school shootings. Health Sociology Review, 19(4), 451–464.Google Scholar
  64. Katz, J., & Jhally, S. (1999, May 2). The national conversation in the wake of Littleton is missing the mark. The Boston Globe, E1.Google Scholar
  65. Kidd, S. T., & Meyer, C. L. (2002). Similarities of school shootings in rural and small communities. Journal of Rural Community Psychology, E5(1). Retrieved March 6, 2012, from
  66. Kimmel, M. S., & Mahler, M. (2003). Adolescent masculinity, homophobia, and violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(10), 1439–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kostinsky, S., Bixler, E. O., & Kettl, P. A. (2001). Threats of school violence in Pennsylvania after media coverage of the Columbine high school massacre: Examining the role of imitation. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155, 994–1001.Google Scholar
  68. Kristen, A., Oppel, C., & von Salisch, M. (2007). Computerspiele mit und ohne Gewalt: Auswahl und Wirkung bei Kindern. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  69. Kunczik, M., & Zipfel, A. (2006). Gewalt und Medien: Ein Studienhandbuch. Cologne, Weimar, & Vienna: Böhlau.Google Scholar
  70. Larkin, R. W. (2007). Comprehending Columbine. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Larkin, R. W. (2009a). The Columbine legacy: Rampage shootings as political acts. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(9), 1309–1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Larkin, R. W. (2010). Masculinity, school shooters, and the control of violence. In W. Heitmeyer, H.-G. Haupt, S. Malthaner, & A. Kirschner (Eds.), Control of violence (pp. 315–344). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  73. Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., Smith, L., & Phillips, S. (2003). Teasing, rejection, and violence: Case studies of the school shootings. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 202–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lehnberger, G. (2009). Abschließender Pressebericht i. S. Amoklauf Ansbach – neue Erkenntnisse über Tathergang und Tatmotiv. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from
  75. Maguire, B., Weatherby, G. A., & Mathers, R. A. (2002). Network news coverage of school shootings. The Social Science Journal, 39, 465–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McGee, J. P., & DeBernardo, C. R. (1999). The classroom avenger. The Forensic Examiner, 8, 1–16.Google Scholar
  77. Meloy, J. R., Hempel, A. G., Mohandie, K., Shiva, A. A., & Gray, B. T. (2001). Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of adolescent mass murderers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(6), 719–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Melzer, W., & Rostampour, P. (1998). Prädiktoren schulischer Gewalt im außerschulischen Bereich. In Arbeitsgruppe Schulevaluation (Eds.), Gewalt als soziales Problem in Schulen. Untersuchungsergebnis und Praäventionsstrategien (pp. 149–188). Opladen: Leske & Budrich.Google Scholar
  79. Messner, S. (1986). Television violence and violent crime: An aggregate analysis. Social Problems, 33, 218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ministry of Justice. (2009). Jokela School Shooting on 7 November 2007: Report of the Investigation Commission. Helsinki: Ministry of Justice.Google Scholar
  81. Modzeleski, W., Feucht, T., Hall, J. E., Simon, T. R., Butler, L., Taylor, A., et al. (2008). School-associated student homicides—United States, 1992–2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57(2), 33–36.Google Scholar
  82. Möller, I. (2011). Gewaltmedienkonsum und Aggression. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 2011(3), 921 18–23.Google Scholar
  83. Möller, I., & Krahé, B. (2009). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: A longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 35(1), 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moore, M. H., Petrie, C. V., Braga, A. A., & McLaughlin, B. L. (Eds.). (2003). Deadly lessons: Understanding lethal school violence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  85. Mößle, T., Kleimann, M., & Rehbein, F. (2007). Bildschirmmedien im Alltag von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Nomos: Baden-Baden.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Muscari, M. (2002). Media violence: Advice for parents. Pediatric Nursing, 28(6), 585–591.Google Scholar
  87. Muschert, G. W. (2007). The Columbine victims and the myth of the juvenile superpredator. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(4), 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Muschert, G. W., & Carr, D. (2006). Media salience and frame changing across events: Coverage of nine school shootings 1997–2001. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(4), 747–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Muschert, G. W., & Larkin, R. W. (2007). The Columbine high school shootings. In S. Chermak & F. Y. Bailey (Eds.), Crimes & trials of the century (pp. 253–266). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  90. Muschert, G. W., & Ragnedda, M. (2010). Media and control of violence: Communication in school shootings. In W. Heitmeyer, H.-G. Haupt, S. Malthaner, & A. Kirschner (Eds.), Control of violence (pp. 345–361). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  91. National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behavior: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties: Vol. 1. Summary report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  92. Neroni, H. (2000). The men of Columbine: Violence and masculinity in American culture and film. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, 5(2), 256–263.Google Scholar
  93. Newman, K. S., Fox, C., Harding, D. J., Mehta, J., & Roth, W. (2004). Rampage: The social roots of school shootings. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  94. Nolting, H.-P. (2004). Lernfall Aggression: Wie sie entsteht—wie sie zu verhindern ist. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  95. O’Toole, M. E. (1999). The school shooter: A threat assessment perspective. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation.Google Scholar
  96. Ogle, J. P., Eckman, M., & Leslie, C. A. (2003). Appearance cues and the shootings at Columbine High: Construction of a social problem in the print media. Sociological Inquiry, 73(1), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Oliver, M. B. (2000). The respondent gender gap. In D. Zillmann & P. Vorderer (Eds.), Media entertainment (pp. 215–234). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  98. Paik, H., & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 21, 516–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. (1999). Columbine shooting biggest news draw of 1999. Retrieved March 2, 2012, from
  100. Phillips, D. (1974). The influence of suggestion on suicide: Substantive and theoretical implications of the Werther effect. American Sociological Review, 39, 340–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Phillips, D. (1979). Suicide, motor vehicle fatalities, and the mass media: Evidence toward a theory of suggestion. The American Journal of Sociology, 84, 1150–1174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Phillips, D., & Carstensen, L. L. (1986). Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicide. The New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 685–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Phillips, D. P., & Carstensen, L. L. (1988). The effect of suicide stories on various demographic groups, 1968–1985. In R. Maris (Ed.), Understanding and preventing suicide: Plenary papers of the first combined meeting of the AAS and IASP (pp. 100–114). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  104. Robertz, F. J. (2004). School Shootings: Über die Relevanz der Phantasie für die Begehung von Mehrfachtötungen durch Jugendliche. Frankfurt: Polizeiwissenschaft.Google Scholar
  105. Robertz, F. J. (2007). Nachahmung von Amoklagen: Über Mitläufer, Machtphantasien und Medienverantwortung. In J. Hoffmann & I. Wondrak (Eds.), Amok und Zielgerichtete Gewalt an Schulen: Früherkennung/Risikomanagement/Kriseneinsatz/Nachbetreuung (pp. 71–85). Polizeiwissenschaft: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  106. Robertz, F. J., & Wickenhäuser, R. (2010). Der Riss in der Tafel: Amoklauf und schwere Gewalt in der Schule (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  107. Robinson, T. N. (2003). The effects of cutting back on media exposure. In D. Ravitch & J. P. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid stuff: Marketing sex and violence to America’s children (pp. 193–213). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Robinson, T. N., Wilde, M. L., Navracruz, L. C., Haydel, K. F., & Varady, A. (2001). Effects of reducing children’s television and video game use on aggressive behavior. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155, 17–23.Google Scholar
  109. Savage, J. (2004). Does viewing violent media really cause criminal violence? A methodological review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10, 99–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Savage, J., & Yancey, C. (2008). The effects of media violence exposure on criminal aggression: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35, 772–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scheithauer, H., & Bondü, R. (2011). Amokläufe und School Shootings. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  112. Schmidtke, A., & Hafner, H. (1988). The Werther effect after television films: New evidence for an old hypothesis. Psychological Medicine, 18, 665–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schmidtke, A., Schaller, S., Stack, S., Lester, D., & Müller, I. (2005). Imitation of amok and amok-suicide. In J. McIntosh (Ed.), Suicide 2002: Proceedings of the 35th annual conference of the American Association of Suicidology (pp. 205–209). Washington, DC: American Association of Suicidology.Google Scholar
  114. Sherry, J. (2001). The effects of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis. Human Communication Research, 27, 409–431.Google Scholar
  115. Slater, M. D., Henry, K. L., Swaim, R. C., & Anderson, L. L. (2003). Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents: A downward spiral model. Communication Research, 30(6), 713–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sonneck, G., Etzersdorfer, E., & Nagel-Kuess, S. (1994). Imitative suicide on the Viennese subway. Social Science & Medicine, 38, 453–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Stack S (1996). The effect of the media on suicide: evidence from Japan. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 26, 405–414.Google Scholar
  118. Steiner, O. (2009). Neue Medien und Gewalt: Expertenbericht 04/09 (Beiträge zur sozialen Sicherheit). Bern: Bundesamt für Sozialversicherungen.Google Scholar
  119. Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior. (1972). Television and growing up: The impact of televised violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  120. Trudewind, C., & Steckel, R. (2002). Unmittelbare und langfristige Auswirkungen des Umgangs mit gewalthaltigen Computerspielen: Vermittelnde Mechanismen und Moderatorvariablen. Polizei und Wissenschaft, 1, 83–100.Google Scholar
  121. Unsworth, G., Devilly, G., & Ward, T. (2007). The effect of playing violent video games on adolescents: Should parents be quaking in their boots? Psychology, Crime and Law, 13, 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vandewater, E. A., Lee, J. H., & Shim, M. S. (2005). Family conflict and violent electronic media use in school-aged children. Media Psychology, 7(1), 73–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Verlinden, S., Hersen, M., & Thomas, J. (2000). Risk factors in school shootings. Clinical Psychology Review, 20, 3–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service & U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  125. Wallenius, M., Punamaki, R.-L., & Rimpela, A. (2007). Digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression in early adolescence: The roles of age, social intelligence, and parent–child communication. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Watson, J. (2002). The martyrs of Columbine: Faith and the politics of tragedy. New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  127. Wilgoren, J. (2005, 22 March). Shooting rampage by student leaves 10 dead on reservation. The New York Times, p. A1.Google Scholar
  128. Wood, W., Wong, F. Y., & Chachere, J. G. (1991). Effects of media violence on viewers’ aggression in unconstrained social interaction. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 371–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Educational Science/Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Conflict and ViolenceUniversity of BielefeldBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations