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Diabetes pp 288-309 | Cite as

The Pancreatic β Cells in Human Type 2 Diabetes

  • Piero Marchetti
  • Marco Bugliani
  • Ugo Boggi
  • Matilde Masini
  • Lorella Marselli
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB)

Abstract

β-cell (beta-cell) impairment is central to the development and progression of human diabetes, as a result of the combined effects of genetic and acquired factors. Reduced islet number and/or reduced β cells amount in the pancreas of individuals with Type 2 diabetes have been consistently reported. This is mainly due to increased β cell death, not adequately compensated for by regeneration. In addition, several quantitative and/or qualitative defects of insulin secretion have been observed in Type 2 diabetes, both in vivo and ex vivo with isolated islets. All this is associated with modifications of islet cell gene and protein expression. With the identification of several susceptible Type 2 diabetes loci, the role of genotype in affecting β-cell function and survival has been addressed in a few studies and the relationships between genotype and β-cell phenotype investigated. Among acquired factors, the importance of metabolic insults (in particular glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity) in the natural history of β-cell damage has been widely underlined. Continuous improvements in our knowledge of the β cells in human Type 2 diabetes will lead to more targeted and effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

Keywords

Insulin Secretion Beta Cell Chronic Pancreatitis Pancreatic Islet Human Islet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Piero Marchetti
    • 1
  • Marco Bugliani
    • 1
  • Ugo Boggi
    • 1
  • Matilde Masini
    • 1
  • Lorella Marselli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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