Advertisement

Borrelial Complement-Binding Proteins

  • Peter Kraiczy
  • Reinhard Wallich
Chapter

Abstract

Spirochetes causing Lyme disease or relapsing fever exploit an array of sophisticated means to establish infection and to combat innate and adaptive immune responses of the human host. One central immune escape mechanism of serum-resistant spirochetes involves the inactivation of host complement attack through binding of distinct complement regulatory proteins, including factor H (CFH), factor H-like protein 1 (FHL1), factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR1), CFHR2, CFHR5, C4b-binding protein (C4Bp), and/or C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh) to the cell surface (Fig. 4.1) (Alitalo et al. 2001; Bhide et al. 2009; Grosskinsky et al. 2009; Haupt et al. 2007; Hellwage et al. 2001; Kraiczy et al. 2001a, b; McDowell et al. 2003a; Pietikainen et al. 2010; Rossmann et al. 2007; Schott et al. 2010; Siegel et al. 2010; Stevenson et al. 2002; Meri et al. 2006).

Keywords

Lyme Disease Complement Regulator Lectin Pathway Relapse Fever Lyme Disease Spirochete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank all of our colleagues whose research has contributed to an increased understanding of the role of borrelial complement-binding proteins in immune evasion of these emerging pathogens. Many thanks to Brian Stevenson for critical review of the manuscript and fruitful discussions, and Arno Koenigs for help with the graphics. Research in the authors’ labs was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Kr3383/1-2, Wa533/7-1, and Wa533/8-1).

References

  1. Akins DR, Porcella SF, Popova TG, Shevchenko D, Baker SI, Li M, Norgard MV, Radolf JD (1995) Evidence for in vivo but not in vitro expression of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein F (OspF) homologue. Mol Microbiol 18(3):507–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alitalo A, Meri T, Ramo L, Jokiranta TS, Heikkila T, Seppala IJT, Oksi J, Viljanen M, Meri S (2001) Complement evasion by Borrelia burgdorferi: serum-resistant strains promote C3b inactivation. Infect Immun 69(6):3685–3691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alitalo A, Meri T, Chen T, Lankinen H, Cheng Z-Z, Jokiranta TS, Seppala IJT, Lahdenne P, Hefty PS, Akins DR et al (2004) Lysine-dependent multipoint binding of the Borrelia burgdorferi virulence factor outer surface protein E to the C terminus of factor H. J Immunol 172(10):6195–6201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alitalo A, Meri T, Comstedt P, Jeffery L, Tornberg J, Strandin T, Lankinen H, Bergström S, Cinco M, Vuppala SR et al (2005) Expression of complement factor H binding immunoevasion proteins in Borrelia garinii isolated from patients with neuroborreliosis. Eur J Immunol 35(10):3043–3053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ben-Menachem G, Kubler-Kielb J, Coxon B, Yergey A, Schneerson R (2003) A newly discovered cholesteryl galactoside from Borrelia burgdorferi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(13):7913–7918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhide MR, Escudero R, Camafeita E, Gil H, Jado I, Anda P (2009) Complement factor H binding by different Lyme disease and relapsing fever Borrelia in animals and human. BMC Res Notes 2:134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blom AM (2002) Structural and functional studies of complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein. Biochem Soc Trans 30(Pt 6):978–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brissette CA, Cooley AE, Burns LH, Riley SP, Verma A, Woodman ME, Bykowski T, Stevenson B (2008) Lyme borreliosis spirochete Erp proteins, their known host ligands, and potential roles in mammalian infection. Int J Med Microbiol 298(Suppl 1):257–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brissette CA, Haupt K, Barthel D, Cooley AE, Bowman A, Skerka C, Wallich R, Zipfel PF, Kraiczy P, Stevenson B (2009) Borrelia burgdorferi infection-associated surface proteins ErpP, ErpA, and ErpC bind human plasminogen. Infect Immun 77(1):300–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks CS, Vuppala SR, Jett AM, Alitalo A, Meri S, Akins DR (2005) Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 imparts resistance to human serum in Borrelia burgdorferi. J Immunol 175(5):3299–3308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bykowski T, Woodman ME, Cooley AE, Brissette CA, Brade V, Wallich R, Kraiczy P, Stevenson B (2007) Coordinated expression of Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins during the Lyme disease spirochete’s mammal-tick infection cycle. Infect Immun 75(9):4227–4236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Casjens, S., R. van Vugt, K. Tilly, P. A. Rosa, and B. Stevenson (1997) Homology throughout the multiple 32-kilobase circular plasmids present in Lyme disease spirochetes. J Bacteriol 179(1):217-227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Casjens S, Palmer N, van Vugt R, Huang WM, Stevenson B, Rosa P, Lathigra R, Sutton G, Peterson J, Dodson RJ et al (2000) A bacterial genome in flux: the twelve linear and nine circular extrachromosomal DNAs in an infectious isolate of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia ­burgdorferi. Mol Microbiol 35(3):490–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Coleman AS, Yang X, Kumar M, Zhang X, Promnares K, Shroder D, Kenedy MR, Anderson JF, Akins DR, Pal U (2008) Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 does not contribute to complement resistance or host infectivity. PLoS One 3(8):3010ePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cordes FS, Roversi P, Kraiczy P, Simon MM, Brade V, Jahraus O, Wallis R, Skerka C, Zipfel PF, Wallich R et al (2005) A novel fold for the factor H-binding protein BbCRASP-1 of Borrelia burgdorferi. Nat Struct Mol Biol 12(3):276–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cordes FS, Kraiczy P, Roversi P, Simon MM, Brade V, Jahraus O, Wallis R, Goodstadt L, Ponting CP, Skerka C et al (2006) Structure-function mapping of BbCRASP-1, the key complement factor H and FHL-1 binding protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. Int J Med Microbiol 296(Suppl 40):177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Dahlback B, Stenflo J (1981) High molecular weight complex in human plasma between vitamin K-dependent protein S and complement component C4b-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78(4):2512–2516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Das S, Barthold SW, Giles SS, Montgomery RR, Telford SR III, Fikrig E (1997) Temporal pattern of Borrelia burgdorferi p21 expression in ticks and the mammalian host. J Clin Invest 99(5):987–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis AE III, Mejia P, Lu F (2008) Biological activities of C1 inhibitor. Mol Immunol 45(16): 4057–4063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dieterich R, Hammerschmidt C, Richter D, Skerka C, Wallich R, Matuschka FR, Zipfel PF, Kraiczy P (2010) Inadequate binding of immune regulator factor H is associated with sensitivity of Borrelia lusitaniae to human complement. Infect Immun 78(11):4467–4476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dworkin MS, Schwan TG, Anderson DE Jr (2002) Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. Med Clin North Am 86(2):417–433, viii–ixPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Estaller C, Koistinen V, Schwaeble W, Dierich MP, Weiss EH (1991) Cloning of the 1.4-kb mRNA species of human complement factor H reveals a novel member of the short consensus repeat family related to the carboxy terminal of the classical 150-kDa molecule. J Immunol 146(9): 3190–3196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fraser CM, Casjens S, Huang WM, Sutton GG, Clayton R, Lathigra R, White O, Ketchum KA, Dodson R, Hickey EK et al (1997) Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Nature 390(6660):580–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fujita T, Nussenzweig V (1979) The role of C4-binding protein and beta 1 H in proteolysis of C4b and C3b. J Exp Med 150(2):267–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fujita T, Gigli I, Nussenzweig V (1978) Human C4-binding protein. II. Role in proteolysis of C4b by C3b-inactivator. J Exp Med 148(4):1044–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fujita T, Matsushita M, Endo Y (2004) The lectin-complement pathway—its role in innate immunity and evolution. Immunol Rev 198:185–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Grosskinsky S, Schott M, Brenner C, Cutler SJ, Kraiczy P, Zipfel PF, Simon MM, Wallich R (2009) Borrelia recurrentis employs a novel multifunctional surface protein with anti-complement, anti-opsonic and invasive potential to escape innate immunity. PLoS One 4(3):e4858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grosskinsky S, Schott M, Brenner C, Cutler SJ, Simon MM, Wallich R (2010) Human complement regulators C4b-binding protein and C1 esterase inhibitor interact with a novel outer surface protein of Borrelia recurrentis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(6):e698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Hallström T, Haupt K, Kraiczy P, Hortschansky P, Wallich R, Skerka C, Zipfel PF (2010) Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of Borrelia burgdorferi binds to human bone morphogenic protein 2, several extracellular matrix proteins, and plasminogen. J Infect Dis 202(3):490–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hammerschmidt C, Hallström T, Skerka C, Wallich R, Stevenson B, Zipfel PF, Kraiczy P (2012) Contribution of the infection-associated complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 4 (ErpC) to complement resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Dev Immunol 2012:349657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Harris CL, Rushmere NK, Morgan BP (1999) Molecular and functional analysis of mouse decay accelerating factor (CD55). Biochem J 341(Pt 3):821–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hartmann K, Corvey C, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Karas M, Brade V, Miller JC, Stevenson B, Wallich R, Zipfel PF et al (2006) Functional characterization of BbCRASP-2, a distinct outer membrane protein of Borrelia burgdorferi that binds host complement regulators factor H and FHL-1. Mol Microbiol 61(5):1220–1236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Haupt K, Kraiczy P, Wallich R, Brade V, Skerka C, Zipfel P (2007) Binding of human factor H-related protein 1 to serum-resistant Borrelia burgdorferi is mediated by borrelial complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins. J Infect Dis 196(1):124–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hefty PS, Jolliff SE, Caimano MJ, Wikel SK, Radolf JD, Akins DR (2001) Regulation of OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp lipoproteins of Borrelia burgdorferi strain 297 by mammalian host-specific signals. Infect Immun 69(6):3618–3627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hefty PS, Brooks CS, Jett AM, White GL, Wikel SK, Kennedy RC, Akins DR (2002) OspE-related, OspF-related, and Elp lipoproteins are immunogenic in baboons experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and in human lyme disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 40(11):4256–4265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Heinen, S., A. Hartmann, N. Lauer, U. Wiehl, H. M. Dahse, S. Schirmer, K. Gropp, T. Enghardt, R. Wallich, S. Halbich, M. Mihlan, U. Schlotzer-Schrehardt, P. F. Zipfel, and C. Skerka (2009) Factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR-1) inhibits complement C5 convertase activity and terminal complex formation. Blood 114(12):2439–2447Google Scholar
  37. Hellwage J, Meri T, Heikkila T, Alitalo A, Panelius J, Lahdenne P, Seppala IJT, Meri S (2001) The complement regulator factor H binds to the surface protein OspE of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Biol Chem 276(11):8427–8435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Herzberger P, Siegel C, Skerka C, Fingerle V, Schulte-Spechtel U, van Dam A, Wilske B, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R et al (2007) Human pathogenic Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. resists complement-mediated killing by direct binding of immune regulators factor H and factor H-like protein 1. Infect Immun 75(10):4817–4825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Herzberger P, Siegel C, Skerka C, Fingerle V, Schulte-Spechtel U, Wilske B, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R, Kraiczy P (2009) Identification and characterization of the factor H and FHL-1 binding complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov. Int J Med Microbiol 299(2):141–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hovis KM, McDowell JV, Griffin L, Marconi RT (2004) Identification and characterization of a linear-plasmid-encoded factor H-binding protein (FhbA) of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii. J Bacteriol 186(9):2612–2618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hovis KM, Tran E, Sundy CM, Buckles E, McDowell JV, Marconi RT (2006a) Selective binding of Borrelia burgdorferi OspE paralogs to factor H and serum proteins from diverse animals: possible expansion of the role of OspE in Lyme disease pathogenesis. Infect Immun 74(3):1967–1972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hovis KM, Jones JP, Sadlon T, Raval G, Gordon DL, Marconi RT (2006b) Molecular analyses of the interaction of Borrelia hermsii FhbA with the complement regulatory proteins factor H and factor H-like protein 1. Infect Immun 74(4):2007–2014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hovis KM, Freedman JC, Zhang H, Forbes JL, Marconi RT (2008) Identification of an antiparallel coiled-coil/loop domain required for ligand binding by the Borrelia hermsii FhbA protein: additional evidence for the role of FhbA in the host-pathogen interaction. Infect Immun 76(5):2113–2122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Iyer R, Liveris D, Adams A, Nowakowski J, McKenna D, Bittker S, Cooper D, Wormser GP, Schwartz I (2001) Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from erythema migrans lesions: interrelationship of three molecular typing methods. J Clin Microbiol 39(8):2954–2957PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Józsi M, Zipfel PF (2008) Factor H family proteins and human diseases. Trends Immunol 29(8):380–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kenedy MR, Akins DR (2011) The OspE-related proteins inhibit complement deposition and enhance serum resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete. Infect Immun 79(4):1451–1457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kenedy MR, Vuppala SR, Siegel C, Kraiczy P, Akins DR (2009) CspA-mediated binding of human factor H inhibits complement deposition and confers serum resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 77(7):2773–2782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kirjavainen V, Jarva H, Biedzka-Sarek M, Blom AM, Skurnik M, Meri S (2008) Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and Ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. PLoS Pathog 4(8):e1000140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kisova-Vargova L, Mucha R, Cernanka D, Bhide M (2011) Host-dependent differential expression of factor H binding proteins, their affinity to factor H and complement evasion by Lyme and relapsing fever borreliae. Vet Microbiol 148(2–4):341–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kraiczy P, Skerka C, Brade V, Zipfel PF (2001a) Further characterization of complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 69(12):7800–7809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kraiczy P, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Brade V, Zipfel Peter F (2001b) Immune evasion of Borrelia burgdorferi by acquisition of human complement regulators FHL-1/reconectin and Factor H. Eur J Immunol 31(6):1674–1684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kraiczy P, Skerka C, Zipfel PF, Brade V (2002) Complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi: a new protein family involved in complement resistance. Wien Klin Wochenschr 114(13–14):568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kraiczy P, Hellwage J, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R (2003) Immune evasion of Borrelia burgdorferi: mapping of a complement-inhibitor factor H-binding site of BbCRASP-3, a novel member of the Erp protein family. Eur J Immunol 33(3):697–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kraiczy P, Hellwage J, Skerka C, Becker H, Kirschfink M, Simon MM, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R (2004a) Complement resistance of Borrelia burgdorferi correlates with the expression of BbCRASP-1, a novel linear plasmid-encoded surface protein that interacts with human factor H and FHL-1 and is unrelated to Erp proteins. J Biol Chem 279(4):2421–2429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kraiczy P, Hartmann K, Hellwage J, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Brade V, Zipfel PF, Wallich R, Stevenson B (2004b) Immunological characterization of the complement regulator factor H-binding CRASP and Erp proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. Int J Med Microbiol 293(37):152–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kraiczy P, Rossmann E, Brade V, Simon MM, Skerka C, Zipfel PF, Wallich R (2006) Binding of human complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H to CRASP-1 orthologs of Borrelia burgdorferi. Wien Klin Wochenschr 118(21–22):669–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kraiczy P, Seling A, Brissette CA, Rossmann E, Hunfeld KP, Bykowski T, Burns LH, Troese MJ, Cooley AE, Miller JC et al (2008) Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 (CspZ) as a serological marker of human Lyme disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15(3):484–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kraiczy P, Hanssen-Hubner C, Kitiratschky V, Brenner C, Besier S, Brade V, Simon MM, Skerka C, Roversi P, Lea SM et al (2009) Mutational analyses of the BbCRASP-1 protein of Borrelia burgdorferi identify residues relevant for the architecture and binding of host complement regulators FHL-1 and factor H. Int J Med Microbiol 299(4):255–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lam TT, Nguyen TP, Montgomery RR, Kantor FS, Fikrig E, Flavell RA (1994) Outer surface proteins E and F of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. Infect Immun 62(1):290–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Larsson C, Lundqvist J, van Rooijen N, Bergstrom S (2009) A novel animal model of Borrelia recurrentis louse-borne relapsing fever borreliosis using immunodeficient mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3(9):e522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lederer S, Brenner C, Stehle T, Gern L, Wallich R, Simon MM (2005) Quantitative analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression in naturally (tick) infected mouse strains. Med Microbiol Immunol 194(1–2):81–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lescot M, Audic S, Robert C, Nguyen TT, Blanc G, Cutler SJ, Wincker P, Couloux A, Claverie JM, Raoult D et al (2008) The genome of Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of deadly louse-borne relapsing fever, is a degraded subset of tick-borne Borrelia duttonii. PLoS Genet 4(9):e1000185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ma YJ, Doni A, Hummelshoj T, Honore C, Bastone A, Mantovani A, Thielens NM, Garred P (2009) Synergy between ficolin-2 and pentraxin 3 boosts innate immune recognition and complement deposition. J Biol Chem 284(41):28263–28275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McDowell JV, Sung SY, Labandeira-Rey M, Skare JT, Marconi RT (2001a) Analysis of mechanisms associated with loss of infectivity of clonal populations of Borrelia burgdorferi B31MI. Infect Immun 69(6):3670–3677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. McDowell JV, Sung SY, Price G, Marconi RT (2001b) Demonstration of the genetic stability and temporal expression of select members of the lyme disease spirochete OspF protein family during infection in mice. Infect Immun 69(8):4831–4838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. McDowell JV, Wolfgang J, Tran E, Metts MS, Hamilton D, Marconi RT (2003a) Comprehensive analysis of the factor H binding capabilities of Borrelia species associated with Lyme disease: delineation of two distinct classes of factor H binding proteins. Infect Immun 71(6): 3597–3602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McDowell JV, Tran E, Hamilton D, Wolfgang J, Miller K, Marconi RT (2003b) Analysis of the ability of spirochete species associated with relapsing fever, avian borreliosis, and epizootic bovine abortion to bind factor H and cleave C3b. J Clin Microbiol 41(8):3905–3910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McDowell JV, Wolfgang J, Senty L, Sundy CM, Noto MJ, Marconi RT (2004) Demonstration of the involvement of outer surface protein E coiled-coil structural domains and higher order structural elements in the binding of infection-induced antibody and the complement-regulatory protein, factor H. J Immunol 173(12):7471–7480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. McDowell JV, Harlin ME, Rogers EA, Marconi RT (2005) Putative coiled-coil structural elements of the BBA68 protein of Lyme disease spirochetes are required for formation of its factor H binding site. J Bacteriol 187(4):1317–1323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McDowell JV, Hovis KM, Zhang H, Tran E, Lankford J, Marconi RT (2006) Evidence that the BBA68 protein (BbCRASP-1) of the Lyme disease spirochetes does not contribute to factor H-mediated immune evasion in humans and other animals. Infect Immun 74(5):3030–3034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. McRae JL, Cowan PJ, Power DA, Mitchelhill KI, Kemp BE, Morgan BP, Murphy BF (2001) Human factor H-related protein 5 (FHR-5). A new complement-associated protein. J Biol Chem 276(9):6747–6754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McRae JL, Duthy TG, Griggs KM, Ormsby RJ, Cowan PJ, Cromer BA, McKinstry WJ, Parker MW, Murphy BF, Gordon DL (2005) Human factor H-related protein 5 has cofactor activity, inhibits C3 convertase activity, binds heparin and C-reactive protein, and associates with lipoprotein. J Immunol 174(10):6250–6256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Meri T, Cutler SJ, Blom AM, Meri S, Jokiranta TS (2006) Relapsing fever spirochetes Borrelia recurrentis and B. duttonii acquire complement regulators C4b-binding protein and factor H. Infect Immun 74(7):4157–4163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Metts MS, McDowell JV, Theisen M, Hansen PR, Marconi RT (2003) Analysis of the OspE determinants involved in binding of factor H and OspE-targeting antibodies elicited during Borrelia burgdorferi infection in mice. Infect Immun 71(6):3587–3596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller JC, Stevenson B (2006) Borrelia burgdorferi erp genes are expressed at different levels within tissues of chronically infected mammalian hosts. Int J Med Microbiol 296(Suppl 40):185–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller JC, von Lackum K, Babb K, McAlister JD, Stevenson B (2003) Temporal analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Erp protein expression throughout the mammal-tick infectious cycle. Infect Immun 71(12):6943–6952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Nagasawa S, Mizuguchi K, Ichihara C, Koyama J (1982) Limited chymotryptic cleavage of human C4-binding protein: isolation of a carbohydrate-containing core domain and an active fragment. J Biochem 92(4):1329–1332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Nguyen TP, Lam TT, Barthold SW, Telford SR III, Flavell RA, Fikrig E (1994) Partial destruction of Borrelia burgdorferi within ticks that engorged on OspE- or OspF-immunized mice. Infect Immun 62(5):2079–2084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Nordstrom T, Blom AM, Forsgren A, Riesbeck K (2004) The emerging pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis interacts with complement inhibitor C4b binding protein through ubiquitous surface proteins A1 and A2. J Immunol 173(7):4598–4606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Norman MU, Moriarty TJ, Dresser AR, Millen B, Kubes P, Chaconas G (2008) Molecular mechanisms involved in vascular interactions of the Lyme disease pathogen in a living host. PLoS Pathog 4(10):e1000169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pietikainen J, Meri T, Blom AM, Meri S (2010) Binding of the complement inhibitor C4b-binding protein to Lyme disease Borreliae. Mol Immunol 47(6):1299–1305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Porcella SF, Raffel SJ, Anderson DE Jr, Gilk SD, Bono JL, Schrumpf ME, Schwan TG (2005) Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America. Infect Immun 73(10):6647–6658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Prasadarao NV, Blom AM, Villoutreix BO, Linsangan LC (2002) A novel interaction of outer membrane protein A with C4b binding protein mediates serum resistance of Escherichia coli K1. J Immunol 169(11):6352–6360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ram S, Cullinane M, Blom AM, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Boden R, Monks BG, O’Connell C, Elkins C, Pangburn MK et al (2001a) C4bp binding to porin mediates stable serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Int Immunopharmacol 1(3):423–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ram S, Cullinane M, Blom AM, Gulati S, McQuillen DP, Monks BG, O’Connell C, Boden R, Elkins C, Pangburn MK et al (2001b) Binding of C4b-binding protein to porin: a molecular mechanism of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Exp Med 193(3):281–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rogers EA, Marconi RT (2007) Delineation of species-specific binding properties of the CspZ protein (BBH06) of Lyme disease spirochetes: evidence for new contributions to the pathogenesis of Borrelia spp. Infect Immun 75(11):5272–5281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rogers EA, Abdunnur SV, McDowell JV, Marconi RT (2009) Comparative analysis of the properties and ligand binding characteristics of CspZ, a factor H binding protein, derived from Borrelia burgdorferi isolates of human origin. Infect Immun 77(10):4396–4405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Rooijakkers SH, Ruyken M, Roos A, Daha MR, Presanis JS, Sim RB, van Wamel WJ, van Kessel KP, van Strijp JA (2005) Immune evasion by a staphylococcal complement inhibitor that acts on C3 convertases. Nat Immunol 6(9):920–927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rossmann E, Kitiratschky V, Hofmann H, Kraiczy P, Simon MM, Wallich R (2006) Borrelia ­burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of the Lyme disease spirochetes is expressed in humans and induces antibody responses restricted to nondenatured structural determinants. Infect Immun 74(12):7024–7028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rossmann E, Kraiczy P, Herzberger P, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Simon MM, Zipfel PF, Wallich R (2007) Dual binding specificity of a Borrelia hermsii-associated complement regulator-acquiring surface protein for factor H and plasminogen discloses a putative virulence factor of relapsing fever spirochetes. J Immunol 178(11):7292–7301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Scharfstein J, Ferreira A, Gigli I, Nussenzweig V (1978) Human C4-binding protein. I. Isolation and characterization. J Exp Med 148(1):207–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Schott M, Grosskinsky S, Brenner C, Kraiczy P, Wallich R (2010) Molecular characterization of the interaction of Borrelia parkeri and Borrelia turicatae with human complement regulators. Infect Immun 78(5):2199–2208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Schutzer SE, Fraser-Liggett CM, Casjens SR, Qiu WG, Dunn JJ, Mongodin EF, Luft BJ (2011) Whole genome sequences of thirteen isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Bacteriol 193(4): 1018–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Schwalbe R, Dahlback B, Hillarp A, Nelsestuen G (1990a) Assembly of protein S and C4b-binding protein on membranes. J Biol Chem 265(27):16074–16081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Schwalbe RA, Dahlback B, Nelsestuen GL (1990b) Independent association of serum amyloid P component, protein S, and complement C4b with complement C4b-binding protein and subsequent association of the complex with membranes. J Biol Chem 265(35):21749–21757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Seling A, Siegel C, Fingerle V, Jutras BL, Brissette CA, Skerka C, Wallich R, Zipfel PF, Stevenson B, Kraiczy P (2010) Functional characterization of Borrelia spielmanii outer surface proteins that interact with distinct members of the human factor H protein family and with plasminogen. Infect Immun 78(1):39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Siegel C, Schreiber J, Haupt K, Skerka C, Brade V, Simon MM, Stevenson B, Wallich R, Zipfel PF, Kraiczy P (2008) Deciphering the ligand-binding sites in the Borrelia burgdorferi complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 2 required for interactions with the human immune regulators factor H and factor H-like protein 1. J Biol Chem 283(50):34855–34863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Siegel C, Hallström T, Skerka C, Eberhardt H, Uzonyi B, Beckhaus T, Karas M, Wallich R, Stevenson B, Zipfel PF et al (2010) Complement factor H-related proteins CFHR2 and CFHR5 represent novel ligands for the infection-associated CRASP proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi. PLoS One 5(10):e13519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Skerka C, Zipfel PF (2008) Complement factor H related proteins in immune diseases. Vaccine 26(Suppl 8):I9–I14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Skerka C, Horstmann RD, Zipfel PF (1991) Molecular cloning of a human serum protein structurally related to complement factor H. J Biol Chem 266(18):12015–12020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Skerka C, Timmann C, Horstmann RD, Zipfel PF (1992) Two additional human serum proteins structurally related to complement factor H. Evidence for a family of factor H-related genes. J Immunol 148(10):3313–3318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Stevenson B (2001) Borrelia burgdorferi: a (somewhat) clonal bacterial species. Trends Microbiol 9(10):471–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Stevenson B (2002) Borrelia burgdorferi erp (ospE-related) gene sequences remain stable during mammalian infection. Infect Immun 70(9):5307–5311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Stevenson B, Miller JC (2003) Intra- and interbacterial genetic exchange of Lyme disease spirochete erp genes generates sequence identity amidst diversity. J Mol Evol 57(3):309–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Stevenson B, Schwan TG, Rosa PA (1995) Temperature-related differential expression of antigens in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 63(11):4535–4539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Stevenson B, Tilly K, Rosa PA (1996) A family of genes located on four separate 32-kilobase circular plasmids in Borrelia burgdorferi B31. J Bacteriol 178(12):3508–3516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Stevenson B, Bono JL, Schwan TG, Rosa P (1998) Borrelia burgdorferi Erp proteins are immunogenic in mammals infected by tick bite, and their synthesis is inducible in cultured bacteria. Infect Immun 66(6):2648–2654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Stevenson B, Zückert WR, Akins DR (2001) Repetition, conservation, and variation: the multiple cp32 plasmids of Borrelia species. In: Saier MH, Garcia-Lara J (eds) The spirochetes: molecular and cellular biology. Horizon Press, Oxford, pp 87–100Google Scholar
  109. Stevenson B, El-Hage N, Hines MA, Miller JC, Babb K (2002) Differential binding of host complement inhibitor factor H by Borrelia burgdorferi Erp surface proteins: a possible mechanism underlying the expansive host range of Lyme disease spirochetes. Infect Immun 70(2):491–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Stevenson B, Bykowski T, Cooley AE, Babb K, Miller JC, Woodman ME, von Lakum K, Riley SP (2006) The Lyme disease spirochetes Erp protein family: structure, function, and regulation of gene expression. In: Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Hulinska D (eds) Molecular biology of spirochetes. Ios Press, Amsterdam, pp 352–372Google Scholar
  111. Stubs G, Fingerle V, Wilske B, Gobel UB, Zahringer U, Schumann RR, Schroder NW (2009) Acylated cholesteryl galactosides are specific antigens of Borrelia causing lyme disease and frequently induce antibodies in late stages of disease. J Biol Chem 284(20):13326–13334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. van Burgel ND, Kraiczy P, Schuijt TJ, Zipfel PF, van Dam AP (2010) Identification and functional characterisation of complement regulator acquiring surface protein-1 of serum resistant Borrelia garinii OspA serotype 4. BMC Microbiol 10:43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. von Lackum K, Miller JC, Bykowski T, Riley SP, Woodman ME, Brade V, Kraiczy P, Stevenson B, Wallich R (2005) Borrelia burgdorferi regulates expression of complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 during the mammal-tick infection cycle. Infect Immun 73(11):7398–7405Google Scholar
  114. Wallich R, Brenner C, Kramer MD, Simon MM (1995) Molecular cloning and immunological characterization of a novel linear-plasmid-encoded gene, pG, of Borrelia burgdorferi expressed only in vivo. Infect Immun 63(9):3327–3335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Wallich R, Jahraus O, Stehle T, Tran TT, Brenner C, Hofmann H, Gern L, Simon MM (2003) Artificial-infection protocols allow immunodetection of novel Borrelia burgdorferi antigens suitable as vaccine candidates against Lyme disease. Eur J Immunol 33(3):708–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wallich R, Pattathu J, Kitiratschky V, Brenner C, Zipfel PF, Brade V, Simon MM, Kraiczy P (2005) Identification and functional characterization of complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 of the Lyme disease spirochetes Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Infect Immun 73(4):2351–2359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Walport MJ (2001) Complement—first of two parts. N Engl J Med 344(14):1058–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Wormser GP, Brisson D, Liveris D, Hanincova K, Sandigursky S, Nowakowski J, Nadelman RB, Ludin S, Schwartz I (2008) Borrelia burgdorferi genotype predicts the capacity for hematogenous dissemination during early Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 198(9):1358–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Wywial E, Haven J, Casjens SR, Hernandez YA, Singh S, Mongodin EF, Fraser-Liggett CM, Luft BJ, Schutzer SE, Qiu WG (2009) Fast, adaptive evolution at a bacterial host-resistance locus: the PFam54 gene array in Borrelia burgdorferi. Gene 445(1–2):26–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Zipfel PF (2009) Complement and immune defense: from innate immunity to human diseases. Immunol Lett 126:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Zipfel PF, Skerka C (2009) Complement regulators and inhibitory proteins. Nat Rev Immunol 9(10):729–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Zipfel PF, Skerka C, Hellwage J, Jokiranta ST, Meri S, Brade V, Kraiczy P, Noris M, Remuzzi G (2002) Factor H family proteins: on complement, microbes and human diseases. Biochem Soc Trans 30(Pt 6):971–978PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection ControlUniversity Hospital of Frankfurt am MainFrankfurt/MainGermany
  2. 2.Institute of ImmunologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations