Oral Vaccination: Attenuated and Gene-Based

  • Wendy Peters
  • Ciaran D. Scallan
  • Sean N. Tucker


The ability to deliver vaccines by a pill, capsule, chewable candy, or even as a liquid slurry represents a delivery improvement over injected vaccines. Besides the pain of watching our young children return from the pediatrician with multiple band-aids on their legs and tears in the eyes, vaccines that can be administered in the absence of needles have several advantages. Distribution and manufacturing are greatly simplified. A pill can be handed out by anyone, not necessarily by qualified medical support. No sterile filling of syringes or vials is necessary because the stomach and intestinal track handle non-sterile food all the time. Unwanted needle sticks and sharps disposal are avoided. From a performance improvement standpoint, delivering a vaccine mucosally could improve the immune responses mucosally since 90 % of pathogens invade by this route and parenteral delivery is not particularly adept at inducing immunity at a mucosal surface. Several approved oral vaccines have been developed, and several oral platform approaches are under investigation that might expand the available pool of vaccines. This chapter reviews the history of oral vaccines, both approved and vaccines in early stages of development.


Protective Efficacy Oral Vaccine Vaccine Vector Modify Vaccinia Ankara Cholera Vaccine 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy Peters
    • 1
  • Ciaran D. Scallan
    • 1
  • Sean N. Tucker
    • 1
  1. 1.Vaxart, Inc.San FranciscoUSA

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