Effects of the Interleukin-1 Cytokine Family on Bone
Cytokines are major regulators of bone homeostasis and influence the function of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. For instance, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and an essential mediator of osteoclastogenesis. Apart from RANKL, proinflammatory cytokines modulate osteoclast differentiation, amongst them TNF-α is a potent stimulator of osteoclastogenesis. Other proinflammatory cytokines like IL-17 and IL-11 are also stimulators of bone resorption by inducing osteoclast differentiation, whereas others such as interferon-(IFN)-γ and IL-12 suppress osteoclastogenesis and balance enhanced bone resorption. In this chapter, we focus on the IL-1 of cytokine family and summarize their role on bone homeostasis. Members of the IL-1 cytokine family are involved in multiple cellular functions including the innate and adaptive immune system. They are key mediators of inflammation and govern the complex processes of cell trafficking, cytokine and matrix enzyme release, fever responses, and metabolic changes during inflammatory disease.
KeywordsMigration Arthritis Polypeptide Interferon Gout