Etiology

Chapter
Part of the Contemporary Social Work Practice book series (Contemp. Social Work Practice)

Abstract

Etiology is the study of causes and knowledge of the causal factors that contribute to the development and expression of addictive behaviors and dependence syndromes is important for social workers to understand. Taking a cell to society perspective this chapter examines the etiology of addiction as a result of a complex interplay between genes, neural substrates, social cognition, and proximal and distal environments. A number of genes have been found to play an important role in the causal nexus of addiction including GABRA2, OPRM1, OPRK1, OPRD1, CHRM2, and 5-HTT. Findings from brain scan studies indicate clear involvement of biochemical, structural, functional, and metabolic processes in the brain that have an influence on reward, decision-making, planning, and craving. Cognitive biases aid in maintaining addiction and some form of cognitive structuring is needed to disengage the repeated and habituated thoughts and behaviors associated with an addictive lifestyle. Proximal environmental factors such as peers, family, and neighborhoods that individuals have direct contact with have a role in the development, maintenance, and desistance from addiction. Distal environmental factors such as the causal impact of climate in the growing of drugs of abuse and the role of political-economic conditions in their availability are explored.

Keywords

Dopamine Transportation Nicotine Morphine Serotonin 

References

  1. Agrawal, A., Edenberg, H. J., Foroud, T., Bierut, L. J., Dunne, G., Hinrichs, et al. (2006). Association of GABRA2 with drug dependence in the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism sample. Behavioral Genetics, 36(5), 640–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, A. K., George, D. T., Masahiro, F., Jeih-San, L., Masanori, I., Hibbeln, J., et al. (2007). PET [11C] DASB imaging of serotonin transporters in patients with alcoholism. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(1), 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Castro, F. G., Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., & Rubenstone, E. (2006). Paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors as predictors of youth stage of substance use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 25, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chakravarti, A., & Little, P. (2003). Nature, nurture and human disease. Nature, 421, 412–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Childress, A. R. (2006). What can human brain imaging tell us about vulnerability to addiction and to relapse? In W. R. Miller & K. M. Carroll (Eds.), Rethinking substance abuse what the science shows, and what we should do about it (pp. 46–60). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  9. Cloninger, C. R. (1987). Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science, 236, 410–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Covault, J., Gelernter, J., Hesselbrock, V., Nellissery, M., & Kranzler, H. R. (2004). Allelic and haplotypic association of GABRA2 with alcohol dependence. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 129B(1), 104–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dick, D. M., & Agrawal, A. (2008). Genetics of alcohol and other drug dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 31, 111–118.Google Scholar
  12. Dick, D. M., Latendresse, S. J., Lansford, J. E., Budde, J. P., Goate, A., Dodge, K. A., et al. (2009). Role of GABRA2 in trajectories of externalizing behavior across development and evidence of moderation by parental monitoring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 649–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edenberg, H. J., Dick, D. M., Xuei, X., Tian, H., Almasy, L., Bauer, L. O., et al. (2004). Variations in GABRA2, encoding the alpha 2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor, are associated with alcohol dependence and with brain oscillations. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74, 705–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fehr, C., Sander, T., Tadic, A., Lenzen, K. P., Anghelescu, I., Klawe, C., et al. (2006). Confirmation of association of the GABRA2 gene with alcohol dependence by subtype-specific analysis. Psychiatric Genetics, 16(1), 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fowler, J. S., Volkow, N. D., Kassed, C. A., & Chang, L. (2007). Imaging the addicted human brain. NIDA Science and Practice Perspectives, 3(2), 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glantz, M. D. (2010). Theories of substance dependence etiology. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of drug use etiology: Theory, methods, and empirical findings. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  17. Gunning, M., Sussman, S., Rohrbach, L. A., Kniazev, V., & Masagutov, R. (2009). Concurrent predictors of cigarette and alcohol use among U.S. and Russian adolescents. Journal of Drug Education, 39, 385–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo, G., Wilhelmsen, K., & Hamilton, N. (2007). Gene-lifecourse interaction for alcohol consumption in adolescence and young adulthood: Five monoamine genes. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics), 144B, 417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koob, G., & LeMoal, M. (2006). Neurobiology of addiction. London: Elsevier Academic.Google Scholar
  20. Koob, G., & LeMoal, M. (2008). Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 29–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lambert, S. F., Brown, T. L., Phillips, C. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2004). The relationship between perceptions of neighborhood characteristics and substance use among urban African American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 205–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leshner, A. I. (1997). Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters. Science, 278, 45–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lubman, D. I., Yucel, M., & Pantelis, C. (2004). Addiction, a condition of compulsive behaviour? Neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence of inhibitory dysregulation. Addiction, 99, 1491–1502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Markou, A., Kosten, T. R., & Koob, G. F. (1998). Neurobiological similarities in depression and drug dependence: a self-medication hypothesis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 18, 135–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McCusker, C. G. (2001). Cognitive biases and addiction: an evolution in theory and method. Addiction, 96, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Weinberger, D. R. (2006). Intermediate phenotypes and genetic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 818–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). ‘Life-course persistent’ and ‘adolescence-limited’ antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moffitt, T. E. (2003). Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: A 10-year research review and a research agenda. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 49–75). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Nash, S. G., McQueen, A., & Bray, J. H. (2005). Pathways to adolescent alcohol use: An examination of mediating and moderating effects. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 509–528.Google Scholar
  31. Nelson, R. J., & Chiavegatto, S. (2001). Molecular basis of aggression. Trends in Neuroscience, 24, 713–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Noble, E. P. (2000). Addiction and its reward process through polymorphisms of the D2 dopamine receptor gene: A review. European Psychiatry, 15, 7–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Plomin, R., & Rutter, M. (1998). Child development, molecular genetics, and what to do with genes once they are found. Child Development, 69, 1223–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Poelen, E. A., Scholte, R. H., Willemsen, G., Boomsma, D. I., & Engels, C. M. (2007). Drinking by parents, siblings, and friends as predictors of regular alcohol use in adolescents and young adults: A longitudinal twin-family study. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 42, 362–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ray, L. A., & Hutchison, K. E. (2004). A polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor gene (oprm1) and sensitivity to the effects of alcohol in humans. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(12), 1789–1795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rutter, M., Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2006). Gene-environment interplay and psychopathology: Multiple varieties but real effects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 226–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Samochowiec, J., Lesch, K. P., Rottman, M., Smolka, M., Syagailo, Y. V., Okladnova, O., et al. (1999). Association of a regulatory polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene with antisocial alcoholism. Psychiatric Research, 86, 67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sampson, R., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scheier, L. M. (2010). Social-cognitive models of drug use etiology. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of drug use etiology: Theory, methods, and empirical findings. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  40. Scholte, R. H., Poelen, E. A., Willemsen, G., Boomsmsa, D. I., & Engels, R. C. (2007). Relative risks of adolescent and young adult alcohol use: The role of drinking fathers, mothers, siblings, and friends. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Soyka, M., Preuss, U. W., Hesselbrock, V., Zill, P., Koller, G., & Bondy, B. (2008). GABA-A2 receptor subunit gene (GABRA2) polymorphisms and risk for alcohol dependence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Steinberg, L. (2007). Risk-taking in adolescence: New perspectives from brain and behavioral science. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tarter, R. E. (2002). Etiology of adolescent substance abuse: A developmental perspective. American Journal of Addiction, 11, 171–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tarter, R. E., Kirisci, L., Habeych, M., Reynolds, M., & Vanyukov, M. (2003). Neurobehavior disinhibition in childhood predisposes boys to substance use disorder by young adulthood: direct and mediated etiologic pathways. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1078–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tobler, A. L., Komro, K. A., & Maldonado-Molina, M. M. (2009). Relationship between neighborhood context, family management practices and alcohol use among urban, multi-ethnic, young adolescents. Prevention Science, 10, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vaughn, M. G. (2007). Biosocial dynamics: A transdisciplinary approach to violence. In M. DeLisi & P. J. Conis (Eds.), Violent offenders: theory, research, public policy, & practice (pp. 63–77). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  47. Vaughn, M. G., Beaver, K. M., & DeLisi, M. (2009a). A general biosocial paradigm of antisocial behavior: A preliminary test in a sample of adolescents. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 7, 279–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vaughn, M. G., Beaver, K. M., DeLisi, M., Howard, M. O., & Perron, B. E. (2009b). Dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism associated with binge drinking attitudinal phenotype. Alcohol, 43, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Volkow, N. D. (2003). The addicted brain: Why such poor decisions? NIDA Notes, 18, 1–15.Google Scholar
  50. Xu, K., Westly, E., Taubman, J., Astor, W., Lipsky, R. H., & Goldman, D. (2004). Linkage disequilibrium relationships among GABRA cluster genes located on chromosome 4 with alcohol dependence in two populations. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 48.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Saint Louis UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations