In 1981, five homosexual men were reported to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (Centers for Disease Control, 1981b). Kaposi sarcoma was detected in 26 others (Centers for Disease Control, 1981a). Both conditions were later found to be the result of an underlying immune deficiency (Gottlieb et al., 1981; Masur et al., 1981). First referred to as gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) and attributed to lifestyle choices (Centers for Disease Control, 1986), reports soon surfaced of its detection in nongay individuals, prompting the identification of “risk groups”: homosexuals, heroin users, Haitians, and hemophiliacs (New York City Commission on Human Rights, 1986, 1987; Shilts, 1987). The identification of risk groups rather than risk behaviors and the emphasis on transmission through unprotected male–male sex and intravenous drug use severely hampered the detection of the illness in women and the prevention of the disease across populations (American Public Health Association, 1991; Mays & Cochran, 1987).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Severe Mental Illness Unprotected Anal Intercourse American Public Health Association 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

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