Introduction

Chapter

Abstract

In 1981, five homosexual men were reported to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (Centers for Disease Control, 1981b). Kaposi sarcoma was detected in 26 others (Centers for Disease Control, 1981a). Both conditions were later found to be the result of an underlying immune deficiency (Gottlieb et al., 1981; Masur et al., 1981). First referred to as gay-related immune deficiency (GRID) and attributed to lifestyle choices (Centers for Disease Control, 1986), reports soon surfaced of its detection in nongay individuals, prompting the identification of “risk groups”: homosexuals, heroin users, Haitians, and hemophiliacs (New York City Commission on Human Rights, 1986, 1987; Shilts, 1987). The identification of risk groups rather than risk behaviors and the emphasis on transmission through unprotected male–male sex and intravenous drug use severely hampered the detection of the illness in women and the prevention of the disease across populations (American Public Health Association, 1991; Mays & Cochran, 1987).

Keywords

Europe Pneumonia Syringe Sarcoma Kelly 

References

  1. American Public Health Association. (1991). Women and HIV disease: A report of the special initiative on AIDS of the American Public Health Association. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Aruffo, J., Cloverdale, J. H., Chacko, R. C., & Dworkin, R. J. (1990). Knowledge about AIDS among women psychiatric outpatients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41, 326–328.Google Scholar
  3. Barre-Sinoussi, F., Cherman, J. C., Rey, F., Chamaret, S., Gruest, J., Dauguet, C., et al. (1983). Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science, 220, 868–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campo, J., Perea, M. A., de Romero, J., Cano, J., Hernando, V., & Bascones, A. (2006). Oral transmission of HIV, reality or fiction? Oral Diseases, 12, 219–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Carey, M. P., Carey, K. B., & Kalichman, S. C. (1997). Risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons with severe mental illnesses. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 271–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carey, M. P., Carey, K. B., Weinhardt, L. S., & Gordon, C. M. (1997). Behavioral risk for HIV infection among adults with a severe and persistent mental illness: Patterns and psychological antecedents. Community Mental Health Journal, 33, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Centers for Disease Control. (1981a). Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men—New York and California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30, 305–308.Google Scholar
  8. Centers for Disease Control. (1981b). Pneumocystis pneumonia—Los Angeles. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 30, 250–252.Google Scholar
  9. Centers for Disease Control. (1986). Reports on AIDS published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, June, 1981 through February, 1986. Springfield, VA: National Technical Information Service.Google Scholar
  10. Centers for Disease Control. (1987). Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 36 (Suppl. 1S), 1S–3S.Google Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control. (1988). Transmission of HIV through bone transplantation: Case report and public health recommendation. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, 37, 597–599.Google Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). HIV/AIDS among Hispanics. Atlanta, GA: Author.Google Scholar
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, November). HIV in the United States. Retrieved December 29, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/PDF/us.pdf
  14. Chiasson, M. A., Stoneburner, R. L., & Joseph, S. C. (1990). Human immunodeficiency virus transmission through artificial insemination. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 3, 69–72.Google Scholar
  15. Colebunders, R., Kapita, B., Nekwei, W., Bahwe, Y., Lebughe, I., Oxtoby, M., et al. (1988). Breastfeeding and transmission of HIV. Lancet, 2, 1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cournos, F., Empfield, M., Horwath, E., McKinnon, K., Meyer, I., Schrage, H., et al. (1991). HIV seroprevalence among patients admitted to two psychiatric hospitals. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1225–1230.Google Scholar
  17. Cournos, F., Horwath, E., Guido, J. R., McKinnon, K., & Hopkins, N. (1994). HIV-1 infection at two public psychiatric hospitals in New York City. AIDS Care, 6, 443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Darrow, W. W., Echenberg, D. F., Jaffe, H. W., O’Malley, P. M., Byers, R. H., Getchell, J. P., et al. (1987). Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in homosexual men. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Detels, R., English, P., Visscher, B. R., Jacobson, L., Kingsley, L. A., Chmiel, J. S., et al. (1989). Seroconversion, sexual activity and condom use among 2915 HIV seronegative men followed up to 2 years. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2, 77–83.Google Scholar
  20. Donegan, E., Stuart, M., Niland, J. C., Saks, H. S., Azen, S. P., Dietrich, S. L., et al. (1990). Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations. Annals of Internal Medicine, 113, 733–739.Google Scholar
  21. Downs, A. M., & De Vincenzi, I. (1996). Probability of heterosexual transmission of HIV, relationship to the number of unprotected sexual contacts. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 11, 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Empfield, M., Cournos, F., Meyer, I., McKinnon, K., Horwath, E., Silver, M., et al. (1993). HIV seroprevalence among homeless patients admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 47–52.Google Scholar
  23. Fowler, M. G., Melnick, S. L., & Mathieson, B. J. (1997). Women and HIV: Epidemiology and global overview. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 24, 705–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Friedland, G., Kahl, P., Saltzman, B., Rogers, M., Feiner, C., Mayers, M., et al. (1990). Additional evidence for lack of transmission of HIV infection by close interpersonal (casual) contact. AIDS, 4, 639–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fujikawa, L. S., Salahuddin, S. Z., Palestine, A. G., Nussenblatt, R. B., Salahuddin, S. Z., Masur, H., et al. (1985). Isolation of human T-lymphotropic virus type III from the tears of a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lancet, 2, 529–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gearon, J. S., & Bellack, A. S. (1999). Women with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance use disorders: An increased risk for violent victimization and HIV. Community Mental Health, 35, 401–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gottlieb, M. S., Schroff, R., Schanker, H. M., Weisman, J. D., Peng, T. F., Wolf, R. A., et al. (1981). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: Evidence of a newly acquired immunodeficiency. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 1425–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hanson, M., Kramer, T. H., Gross, W., Quintana, J., Li, P., & Asher, R. (1992). AIDS awareness and risk behaviors among dually disordered adults. AIDS Education and Prevention, 4, 41–51.Google Scholar
  29. Hatters-Friedman, S., & Loue, S. (2007). Incidence and prevalence of intimate partner violence by and against women with severe mental illness. Journal of Women’s Health, 16(4), 471–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ho, D., Byington, R.E, Schooley, R.T., Flynn, T., Rota, T.R., & Hirsch, M.S. (1985). Infrequency of isolation of HTLV-III virus from saliva in AIDS. New England Journal of Medicine, 313, 1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ho, D. D., Schooley, R. T., Rota, T. R., Kaplan, J. C., & Flynn, T. (1984). HTLV-III in the semen and blood of healthy homosexual men. Science, 226, 451–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hoffman, P. N., Larkin, D. P., & Samuel, D. (1989). Needlestick and needleshare—The difference. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 160, 545–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kalichman, S. C., Kelly, J. A., Johnson, J. R., & Bulton, M. (1994). Factors associated with risk for HIV infection among chronically mentally ill adults. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 221–227.Google Scholar
  34. Katz, R. C., Watts, C., & Santman, J. (1994). AIDS knowledge and high risk behaviors in the chronically mentally ill. Community Mental Health Journal, 30, 395–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Bahr, G. R., Brasfield, T. L., Davis, D. R., Hauth, H. C., et al. (1992). AIDS/HIV risk behavior among the chronically mentally ill. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 886–889.Google Scholar
  36. Kelly, J. A., Murphy, D. A., Sikkema, K. J., Somlai, A. M., Mulry, G. W., Fernandez, M. I., et al. (1995). Predictors of high and low levels of HIV risk behavior among adults with chronic mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 46, 813–818.Google Scholar
  37. Knox, M. D., Boaz, T. L., Friedrish, M. A., & Dow, M. D. (1994). HIV risk factors for persons with severe mental illness. Community Mental Health Journal, 30, 551–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kumar, P., Pearson, J. E., Martin, D. H., Leech, S. H., Buisseret, P. D., Bezak, H. C., et al. (1987). Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus by transplantation of renal allograft, with development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 106, 244–245.Google Scholar
  39. Laga, M., Taelman, H., Van der Stuyft, P., & Bonneux, L. (1989). Advanced immunodeficiency as a risk factor for heterosexual transmission of HIV. AIDS, 3, 361–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee, H. K., Travin, S., & Bluestone, H. (1992). HIV-1 in inpatients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 181–182.Google Scholar
  41. Levy, J.A. (1989). Human immunodeficiency virus and the pathogenesis of AIDS. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261(20), 2997–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lifson, A. R., O’Malley, P. M., Hessol, N. A., Buchbiner, S. P., Cannon, L., & Rutherford, G. W. (1990). HIV seroconversion in two homosexual men after receptive oral intercourse with ejaculation: Implications for counseling concerning safe sexual practices. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 1509–1511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Masur, H., Michelis, M. A., Greene, J. B., Onorato, I., Vande Stouwe, R. A., Holzman, R. S., et al. (1981). An outbreak of community-acquired Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Initial manifestations of cellular immune dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine, 305, 1431–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mays, V. M., & Cochran, S. D. (1987). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and black Americans: Special psychosocial issues. Public Health Reports, 102, 224–231.Google Scholar
  45. McDermott, B. E., Sautter, F. J., Jr., Winstead, D. K., & Quirk, T. (1994). Diagnosis, health beliefs, and risk of HIV infection in psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 580–585.Google Scholar
  46. McKinnon, K., Cournos, F., Sugden, R., Guido, J. R., & Herman, R. (1996). The relative contributions of psychiatric symptoms and AIDS knowledge to HIV risk behaviors among people with severe mental illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 506–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McQuillan, G. M., Khare, M., Karon, J. M., Schable, C. A., & Vlahov, D. (1997). Update on the seroepidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus in the United States household population: NHANES III, 1988–1994. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology, 4, 355–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meyer, I., Cournos, F., Empfield, M., Schrage, H., Silver, M., Rubin, M., et al. (1993). HIV seroprevalence and clinical characteristics of the mentally ill homeless. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 2, 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meyer, I., McKinnon, K., Cournos, F., Empfield, M., Bavlis, S., Engel, D., et al. (1993). HIV seroprevalence among long-stay psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 44, 282–284.Google Scholar
  50. Moss, A. R., Osmond, D., Bacchetti, P., Chermann, J. C., Barre-Sinoussi, F., & Carlson, J. (1987). Risk factors for AIDS and HIV seropositivity in homosexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 125, 1035–1047.Google Scholar
  51. New York City Commission on Human Rights. (1986). AIDS and people of color: The discriminatory impact. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  52. New York City Commission on Human Rights. (1987). AIDS discrimination and its implications for people of color and other minorities. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  53. Otto-Salaj, L. L., Heckman, J. G., Stevenson, L. Y., & Kelly, J. A. (1998). Patterns, predictors and gender differences in HIV risk among severely mentally ill men and women. Community Mental Health Journal, 34, 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Peterman, T. A., Stoneburner, R. L., Allen, J. R., Jaffe, H. W., & Curran, J. W. (1988). Risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission from heterosexual adults with transfusion-associated infections. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259, 55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Popovic, M., Sarngadharan, M. G., Read, E., & Gallo, R. C. (1984). Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS. Science, 224, 497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rogers, M. F., White, C. R., Sanders, R., Schable, C., Ksell, T. E., Wasserman, R. L., et al. (1990). Lack of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from infected children to their household contacts. Pediatrics, 85, 210–214.Google Scholar
  57. Royce, R. A., Seña, A., Cates, W., & Cohen, M. S. (1997). Sexual transmission of HIV. New England Journal of Medicine, 336, 1072–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sacks, M. H., Dermatis, H., Looser-Ott, S., & Perry, S. (1992). Seroprevalence of HIV and risk factors for AIDS in psychiatric inpatients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 736–737.Google Scholar
  59. Sasse, H., Salmaso, S., Conti, S., & First Drug User Multicenter Study Group. (1989). Risk behaviors for HIV-1 infection in Italian drug users: Report from a multicenter study. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 2, 486–496.Google Scholar
  60. Schoenbaum, E. E., Hartel, D., Selwyn, P. A., Klein, R. S., Darenny, K., Rogers, M., et al. (1989). Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus in intravenous drug users. New England Journal of Medicine, 321, 874–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz-Watts, D., Montgomery, L. D., & Morgan, D. W. (1995). Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among inpatient pretrial detainees. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 23, 285–288.Google Scholar
  62. Shilts, R. (1987). And the band played on: Politics, people, and the AIDS epidemic. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  63. Silberstein, C., Galanter, M., Marmor, M., Lisshutz, H., & Krasinski, K. (1994). HIV-1 among inner city dually diagnosed inpatients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 20, 101–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Steele, F. R. (1994). A moving target: CDC still trying to estimate HIV-1 prevalence. Journal of NIH Research, 6, 25–26.Google Scholar
  65. Steiner, J., Lussier, R., & Rosenblatt, W. (1992). Knowledge about and risk factors for AIDS in a day hospital population. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 734–735.Google Scholar
  66. Stewart, D. L., Zuckerman, C. J., & Ingle, J. M. (1994). HIV seroprevalence in a chronically mentally ill population. Journal of the National Medical Association, 86, 519–523.Google Scholar
  67. Susser, E., Valencia, E., & Conover, S. (1993). Prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric patients in a New York City men’s shelter. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 568–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Thiry, L., Sprecher-Goldberger, S., Jonckheer, T., Levy, J., Van de Perre, P., Henrivaux, P., et al. (1985). Isolation of AIDS virus from cell-free breast milk of three healthy virus carriers. Lancet, 2, 891–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vittinghoff, E., Douglas, J., Judon, F., McKiman, D., MacQueen, K., & Buchinder, S. P. (1999). Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150, 306–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vogt, M. W., Witt, D. J., Craven, D. E., Crawford, D. F., Witt, D. J., Byington, R., et al. (1986). Isolation of HTLV III/LAV from cervical secretions of women at risk for AIDS. Lancet, 1, 525–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Volavka, J., Convit, A., Czobor, P., Dwyer, R., O’Donnell, J., Jr., & Ventura, A. (1991). HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatry Research, 39, 109–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Williams, B. G., Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Gouws, E., Hankins, C., Getz, W. M., Hargrove, J., et al. (2006). The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PLoS Medicine, 3, 1032–1040.Google Scholar
  73. Winkelstein, W., Lyman, D. M., Padian, N., Grant, R., Sameul, M., Wiley, J. A., et al. (1987). Sexual practices and risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus: The San Francisco Men’s Health Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wofsy, C., Cohen, J., Hauer, L., Michaelis, B. A., Cohen, J. B., Padian, N. S., et al. (1986). Isolation of AIDS-associated retrovirus from genital secretions of women with antibodies to the virus. Lancet, 1, 527–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ziegler, J. B., Cooper, D. A., Johnson, R. O., & Gold, J. (1985). Postnatal transmission of AIDS-associated retrovirus from mother to infant. Lancet, 1, 896–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsCase Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations