For a long time, the electric energy industry was characterized by high market concentration, strong vertical integration, modest R&D expenditures, and low adoption rates of information and communications technologies (ICT). However, several factors have triggered substantial changes: liberalization, the scarcity of fossil resources, and environmental concerns. The signs of change are everywhere. Electricity is increasingly being generated by intermittent—and often distributed—renewable energy sources (RES); plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will serve as mobile energy storage facilities and provide balancing power; and people will share electricity peer-to-peer on web-based marketplaces; generation will no longer be determined by demand, rather demand will adjust itself to the current availability of electricity (Rifkin 2009).
KeywordsSmart Grid Broadband Network Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Smart Grid Application Digital Agendum
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