For a long time, the electric energy industry was characterized by high market concentration, strong vertical integration, modest R&D expenditures, and low adoption rates of information and communications technologies (ICT). However, several factors have triggered substantial changes: liberalization, the scarcity of fossil resources, and environmental concerns. The signs of change are everywhere. Electricity is increasingly being generated by intermittent—and often distributed—renewable energy sources (RES); plug-in hybrid electric vehicles will serve as mobile energy storage facilities and provide balancing power; and people will share electricity peer-to-peer on web-based marketplaces; generation will no longer be determined by demand, rather demand will adjust itself to the current availability of electricity (Rifkin 2009).
- ENSG (2009) Electricity Networks Strategy Group—A Smart Grid Vision.http://www.ensg.gov.uk/assets/ensg_smart_grid_wg_smart_grid_vision_final_issue_1.pdf
- Rifkin J (2009) Leading the Way to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Social Europe in the 21st Century.http://www.foet.org/packet/European.pdf
- Watson RT, Boudreau MC, Chen AJW (2010) Information systems and environmentally sustainable development: energy informatics and new directions for the IS community. MIS Quarterly 34(1):23–38Google Scholar