Crime and Criminal Justice in Malaysia
This chapter provides a contemporary and critical overview of Malaysia’s criminal justice system and of government responses to the extent of crime in modern Malaysia. It includes sections on contemporary crime data, prosecution and conviction rates and levels of incarceration. It also details a series of reforms, post 2005, in Malaysian criminal law, procedure, evidence and criminal justice administration, and places those reforms in their historical, social, political and cultural contexts. In addition to shining a light on the values and interests underpinning the criminal justice system, this chapter argues the need for sustained government support to establish criminology as an academic discipline in Malaysia in order to help guide and review the need for future reform.
KeywordsCriminal Justice Violent Crime Property Crime Penal Code Attorney General
- Abu Ishaq al-Shirazi. (1983). At-Tanbih, Alam al-Kutub, 1st ed., Beirut.Google Scholar
- Anbalagan, V. (2011). New rules for judges to have say in plea bargain, 1 October 2011, The New Straits Times. Online. Available http://www.malaysianbar.org.my/legal/general_news/new_rules_for_judges_to_have_say_in_plea_bargain.html, (accessed on 2 Nov 2011).
- Ariffin, Azmi (2001). Effective administration of the police and the prosecution in criminal justice in Malaysia, Resource Materials Series No 60, UNAFEI. Online. Available http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms_all/no60.pdf (accessed 30 Sept 2011).
- Attorney General’s Chambers (2010), Tri-Annual Report 2007-9, Government of Malaysia. Online. Available http://www.agc.gov.my/index.php?option=com_contenteview=article&id=131eItemid=241elang=n.
- Baldwin, J., & McConville, M. (1977). Negotiated justice. London: Martin Robertson.Google Scholar
- Bar Council of Malaysia (2010). Information Sheet—Malaysia, 2nd Conference on Access to Justice and the Role of Bar Associations and Law Societies in Asia’, 25–26 Aug 2010, Brisbane.Google Scholar
- Bari, Abdul Aziz (2008). Malaysian constitution: A critical introduction, The Other Press, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
- Basiouni, M. C. (1982). The Islamic criminal justice system. London: Oceana Publications.Google Scholar
- Bernama (2011). Appellate Court give nod for judges in plea bargaining, 30 September 2011. Online. Available http://www.theedgemalaysia.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=193803&Itemid=27, (accessed 15 Oct 2011).Google Scholar
- Bernard, T. S., Snipes, J. B., & Gerould, A. L. (2009). Vold’s theoretical criminology (6th ed.). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
- Bloomberg (2011). Malaysia Repeals Detention, Media Laws Ahead of Elections, 15 September 2011. Online. Available http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-09-15/malaysia-repeals-detention-media-laws-ahead-of-elections.html (accessed 14 Oct 2011).
- Farrar, Salim Ali (2009). The “New” Malaysian Criminal Procedure: Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act 2006, Asian Journal of Criminology, 4, 129–144.Google Scholar
- Free Malaysia Today. (2011). ISA abolished, host of changes promised, 15 September 2011. Online. Available http://www.freemalaysiatoday.com/2011/09/15/internal-security-to-be-abolished.html (accessed 14 Oct 2011).
- Government of Malaysia (1971). Second Malaysian Plan, 1971–1975, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
- Gunaratnam, S., & Palansamy, Y. A second chance to turn over a new leaf, New Straits Times, 24 July 2011. Online. Available http://www.my.vlex.com/vid/second-chance-to-turn-over-new-leaf-326529083 (accessed 2 Nov 2011).
- Hamzah, W. A., & Bulan, R. (2003). The Malaysian Legal System. Selangor: Oxford Fajar.Google Scholar
- Hookway, James (2009). Severity of Islamic Law Fuels Debate in Malaysia, Wall Street Journal, 23 August 2009. Online. Available http://www.online.wsj.com/article/SB125097405997351597.html.
- Index Mundi, Malaysia Population. Online. Available http://www.indexmundi.com/malaysia/population.html, (accessed 5 Sept 2011).
- Jabatan Agama Islam Selangor, or the Department of Religion of Islam for Selangor. Online. Available http://www.jais.gov.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=28&Itemid=53 (accessed 14 Oct 2011).Google Scholar
- Jehle, J. M., & Wade, M. (2006). Coping with overloaded criminal justice systems—the rise of prosecutorial power across Europe. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Jomo, K. S. & Tan, Chang Yii. (2008). The political economy of post-colonial transformation. In K. S. Jomo & W. S. Ngan (Eds.), Law, Institutions and Malaysian Economic Development (pp. 22–53) Singapore: National University of Singapore Press.Google Scholar
- Kaur, Sarvinder (2011). Potential challenges in a witness protection programme in Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 19(2):363–368.Google Scholar
- Maguire, M. (1997). Crime statistics, patterns and trends: Changing perceptions and their implications. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology (2nd ed., pp. 135–188). Oxford: OUP.Google Scholar
- Mahathir Mohamed (2011). A Doctor in the House, Kuala Lumpur, MPH.Google Scholar
- Majid, M. K. (1999). Criminal procedure in Malaysia (3rd ed.). University of Malaya Press.Google Scholar
- Makinudin, Zulkefli Ahmad (2010). Towards a fairer and more effective criminal justice system in Malaysia, 7 Current Law Journal i.Google Scholar
- Mawby, R., & Wright, A. (2005). Police accountability in the United Kingdom, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. Online. Available http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/police_accountability_in_uk.pdf (accessed 2 Nov 2011).
- Moshe, J. M., Miethe, T. D., & Hart, T. C. (2011). The mismeasure of crime (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Mustaffa, Aminuddin and Salleh, Kamaliah (2010). Child evidence in criminal proceedings in Malaysian Courts: A Study on post ratification of the convention on the rights of the child, 6 Current Law Journal i.Google Scholar
- Nazeri, Norbani Mohamed (2010). Criminal law codification and reform in Malaysia, Singapore Journal of Legal Studies, 375–399.Google Scholar
- New Economic Advisory Council (NEAC) (2010). New economic model for Malaysia: Part 1 strategic policy directions, Putrajaya.Google Scholar
- Office of the Prime Minister of Malaysia. (2011). Prime Minister’s Speech, 8 July 2011, Government of Malaysia. Online. Available http://www.pmo.gov.my/?menu=speech&page=1676&news_id=511&speech_cat=2, (accessed 31 Oct 2011).Google Scholar
- Royal Commission. (2005). Report of the Royal Commission to Enhance the Operation and Management of the Royal Malaysian Police, Government of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
- Sidhu, Amar Singh. (2005). The rise of crime in Malaysia: An academic and statistical analysis, Journal of the Kuala Lumpur Royal Malaysia Police College, No 4.Google Scholar
- Sithambaran, V. (2005). The current form of sentencing is outdated—time for reform, Malaysian Bar. Online. Available http://www.malaysianbar.org.my (accessed 9 Sept 2011).
- The Star, Foreign Prisoners to Join Parole Programme, 28 April 2010. Online. Available http://www.thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?sec=nation&file=/2010/4/28/nation/6147030 (accessed 2 Nov 2011).
- Today, 25 September 2011. Online. Available http://www.todayonline.com/Hotnews/EDC110925-0000240/PM-pledges-no-Islamic-law-in-Malaysia, (accessed 28 Sept 2011).
- Walmsley, R. (2011). ICPS World Prison Brief. Online. Available http://www.prisonstudies.org/info/worldbrief/wpb_country_print.php?country=102, (accessed 26 Aug 2011).