Advertisement

History of Liver Transplantation

Chapter

Abstract

Clinical liver transplantation began in the 1960s, but depended on key advances in immunology and experimental kidney transplantation over several preceding decades. Carrel described organ transplantation in animals in 1908, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1912 for pioneering the techniques of vascular anastomosis. In the 1930s, he worked on the extracorporeal perfusion of organs, collaborating with the famous aviator and inventor Charles Lindbergh to develop an apparatus that preempted the modern heart-lung machine. However, Carrel’s laboratory transplants and Voronoy’s attempts to transplant human kidneys in the late 1930s failed consistently from ischemic injury or the abrupt onset of rejection. Rejection was thought to be a nonspecific inflammatory process until Medawar’s groundbreaking work in the 1940s showed that it was an acquired and donor-specific response generated by the host’s immune system, possibly amenable to therapeutic manipulation. Medawar and others also established that rejection was predominantly lymphocyte-mediated, leading to experiments with whole-body radiation and donor bone marrow infusion, known to induce tolerance in animals, in the 1950s. These included human kidney transplants, which were aided by the introduction of hemodialysis, but results remained poor. By 1960, however, azathioprine and steroids had also been found to suppress cell-mediated immunity and several groups had established animal models of kidney and liver transplants to study immunosuppression [1].

Keywords

Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunting Biliary Atresia Tranexamic Acid Live Donor Liver Transplantation Venovenous Bypass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Bradley JA, Hamilton DN. Organ transplantation: an historical perspective. In: Hakim NS, Danovitch GM, editors. Transplantation surgery. London: Springer Verlag; 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Starzl TE, Demetris AJ. Liver transplantation: a 31-year perspective. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1990.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Calne RY, editor. Liver transplantation: the Cambridge-King’s College Hospital experience. London: Grune and Stratton; 1983.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: liver transplantation–June 20–23, 1983. Hepatology. 1984;4:107S-10S.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Commentary on “A definition of irreversible coma”. Report of the “ad hoc” committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the definition of brain death. JAMA. 1968;205:337–400.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aldrete JA. Anesthesia and intraoperative care. In: Starzl TE, Putnam CW, editors. Experience in hepatic transplantation. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1969. p. 83–111.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carmichael FJ, Lindop MJ, Farman JV. Anaesthesia for hepatic transplantation: cardiovascular and metabolic alterations and their management. Anaesth Analg. 1985;64:108–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marquez Jr JM, Martin D. Anaesthesia for liver transplantation. In: Winter PW, Kang YD, editors. Hepatic transplantation. New York: Praeger; 1986. p. 44–57.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gelman S, Dillard E, Bradley Jr EL. Hepatic circulation during surgical stress and anesthesia with halothane, isoflurane, or fentanyl. Anesth Analg. 1987;66(10):936–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Groth CG. Changes in coagulation. In: Starzl TE, Putnam CW, editors. Experience in hepatic transplantation. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; 1969. p. 159–75.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kang YG, Martin DJ, Marquez J, et al. Intraoperative changes in blood coagulation and thromboelastographic monitoring in liver transplantation. Anesth Analg. 1985;64:888–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mandell MS, Stoner TJ, Barnett R, Shaked A, Bellamy M, Biancofiore G, et al. A multicenter evaluation of safety of early extubation in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl. 2007;13(11):1557–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Busuttil RW. International Liver Transplantation Society 2009 presidential address: the internationalization of liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. 2010;16:558–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krowka MJ, Mandell MS, et al. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension: a report of the multicenter liver transplant database. Liver Transpl. 2004;10(2):174–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walia A, Schumann R. The evolution of liver transplant practices. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008;13(3):275–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Perioperative CareCambridge University HospitalsCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations