Social Networks and Delinquency in Adolescence: Implications for Life-Course Criminology

  • Jacob T. N. YoungEmail author
  • Carter Rees


Over the last decade, social networks have become a focal concern for research seeking to understand the etiology of delinquent behavior. The study of the role of peers in the perpetuation of delinquency during adolescence has been reinvigorated by the theoretical and empirical rigor relational data and social network analysis brings to the study of human relationships. The development and availability of statistical models designed to account for the inherent dependencies in relational data, such as stochastic actor-oriented models (e.g., SIENA), exponential random graph models (ERGM), and actor–partner interdependence models (APIM), have led to a greater understanding of the role of selection, homophily, and socialization in the study of crime and delinquency. Furthermore, longitudinal data sets, such as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), have yielded invaluable insights into the dynamic nature of the adolescent social landscape over time and the mapping of behavioral pathways to this context. However, the focus on the adolescent time frame provides insights into relationships for only a portion of the human life cycle. Therefore, in this chapter, we provide a broad overview of the changing nature of adolescent peer networks and their importance for delinquency and crime. We place particular emphasis on the implications for understanding trajectories of crime and turning points in the life course. Our goal is to provide the reader with a greater understanding of dyadic, egocentric, and global network structures in which people are embedded and how each of these relationship levels can be set in motion to capture the continuity and change common to the human social experience. We develop an ambitious research agenda that involves a unifying discussion of social networks and social capital in criminological theory. We put forth topics for an innovative research agenda grounded in the relevant literature with the goal of articulating a research plan that will help spark empirical and theoretical advancements in life-course criminology.


Social Network Social Capital Social Network Analysis Friendship Network Informal Social Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ainsworth MDS (1967) Infancy in Uganda: infant care and the growth of love. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainsworth MDS, Bell SM (1970) Attachment, exploration, and separation: illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development 41(1):49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainsworth MDS, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S (1978) Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander C, Piazza M, Mekos D, Valente T (2001) Peers, schools, and adolescent cigarette smoking. The Journal of Adolescent Health 29(1):22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnett JJ (2000) Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. The American Psychologist 55(5):469–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baerveldt C, Van Rossem R, Vermande M, Weerman F (2004) Student’s delinquency and correlates with strong and weaker ties: a study of students’ networks in Dutch high schools. Connections 26(1):11–28Google Scholar
  7. Bagwell CL, Schmidt M (2011) Friendships in childhood and adolescence. Guilford Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauman KE, Fisher LA (1986) On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 15(4):345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker GS (1976) The economic approach to human behavior. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  10. Belsky J, Cassidy J (1994) Attachment and close relationships: an individual-difference perspective. Psychological Perspectives 5(1):27–30Google Scholar
  11. Berndt TJ, Keefe K (1995) Friends’ influence on adolescents’ adjustment to school. Child Development 66(5):1312–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bidart C, Lavenu D (2005) Evolutions of personal networks and life events. Social Networks 27:359–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boman JH, Gibson CL (2011) Does the measurement of peer deviance change the relationship between self-control and deviant behavior? An analysis of friendship pairs. Journal of Criminal Justice 39(6):521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boman, J. H., Stogner, J. M., Miller, B. L., Griffin, O. H., & Krohn, M. D. (2011). On the operational validity of perceptual measures. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. In Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bowlby J (1969[1999]). Attachment. Attachment and loss (vol. 1) (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Bowlby, J. (1973). Separation: anxiety and anger. Attachment and loss (vol. 2); (International psycho-analytical library no. 95). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: sadness and depression. Attachment and loss (vol. 3); (International psycho-analytical library no. 109). London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bretherton I (1992) The origins of attachmentt theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology 28(5):759–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown BB, Mory M, Kinney D (1994) Casting adolescent crowds in a relational perspective: caricature, channel, and context. In: Montemayor R, Adams GR, Gullotta TP (eds) Advances in adolescent development, vol 6, Personal relationships during adolescence. Sage, Newbury Park, CA, pp 123–167Google Scholar
  20. Brownfield D, Thompson K (1991) Attachment to peers and delinquent behavior. Canadian Journal of Criminology 33:45–60Google Scholar
  21. Byrne D (1971) The attraction paradigm. Academic, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  22. Byrne D, Blaylock B (1963) Similarity and assumed similarity of attitudes between husbands and wives. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67(6):636–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cairns RB, Cairns BD (1994) Lifelines and risks: pathways of youth in our time. Cambridge University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  24. Coleman JS (1961) The adolescent society. Free Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  25. Coleman JS (1987) Norms and social capital. In: Radnitzky G, Bernholz P (eds) Economic imperialism. Paragon, New York, NY, pp 135–155Google Scholar
  26. Coleman JS (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology 94(Suppl):S95–S120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coleman JS (1990) Foundations of social theory. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Delsing MJMH, ter Bogt TFM, Engels RCME, Meeus WHJ (2007) Adolescents’ peer crowd identification in the Netherlands: structure and associations with problem behaviors. Journal of Research on Adolescence 17(2):467–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Demuth S (2004) Understanding the delinquency and social relationships of loners. Youth and Society 35(3):366–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doreian P, Stokman FN (1997) The dynamics and evolution of social networks. In: Doreian P, Stockman FN (eds) Evolution of social networks. Routledge, New York, NY, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  31. Dunphy DC (1963) The social structure of urban adolescent peer groups. Sociometry 26(2):230–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elder GH Jr (1985) Perspectives on the life course. In: Elder GH Jr (ed) Life course dynamics. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, pp 23–49Google Scholar
  33. Elder GH Jr, Kirkpatrick Johnson M, Crosnoe R (2004) The emergence of life-course theory. In: Mortimer JT, Shanahan MJ (eds) Handbook of the life course. Springer, New York, NY, pp 3–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Elliott DS, Voss H (1974) Delinquency and dropout. D.C. Heath, Lexington, MAGoogle Scholar
  35. Freeman LC (2004) The Development of social network analysis: a study in the sociology of science. Empirical Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Freitag MK, Belsky J, Grossmann K, Grossmann KE, Scheurer-Englisch H (1996) Continuity in parent-child relationships from infancy to middle childhood and relations with friendship competence. Child Development 67(4):1437–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Friedkin NE (2004) Social cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology 30(1):409–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gardner M, Steinberg L (2005) Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study. Developmental Psychology 41(4):625–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gecas V (2004) Self-Agency and the life course. In: Mortimer JT, Shanahan MJ (eds) Handbook of the life course. Springer, New York, NY, pp 369–390Google Scholar
  40. Gibbs J (1994) A theory about control. Westview Press, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  41. Gile KJ, Handcock MS (2010) Respondent-driven sampling: an assessment of current methodology. Sociological Methodology 40(1):285–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giordano PC, Cernkovich S, Pugh MD (1986) Friendships and delinquency. The American Journal of Sociology 91(5):1170–1202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodreau SM, Kitts JA, Morris M (2009) Birds of a feather, or friend of a friend? Using exponential random graph models to investigate adolescent social networks. Demography 46(1):103–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gottfredson M, Hirschi T (1990) A general theory of crime. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  45. Granovetter M (1985) Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness. The American Journal of Sociology 91(3):481–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hagan J (1991) Destiny and drift: subcultural preferences, status attainments, and the risks and rewards of youth. American Sociological Review 56(5):567–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hagan J, McCarthy B (1997) Mean streets: youth crime and homelessness. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hagan J, Dinovitzer R (1999) Collateral consequences of imprisonment for children, families and communities. In: Tonry M, Petersilia J (eds) Prisons. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, pp 121–162Google Scholar
  49. Hansell S, Wiatrowski MD (1985) Competing conceptions of delinquent peer relations. In: Jensen G (ed) Sociology of delinquency. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp 93–108Google Scholar
  50. Haviland A, Nagin DS, Rosenbaum PR, Tremblay RE (2008) Combining group-based trajectory modeling and propensity score matching for causal inferences in nonexperimental longitudinal data. Developmental Psychology 44(2):422–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haynie DL (2001) Delinquent peers revisited: Does network structure matter? The American Journal of Sociology 106(4):1013–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haynie DL (2002) Friendship networks and delinquency: the relative nature of peer delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(2):99–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Haynie DL, Osgood DW (2005) Reconsidering peers and delinquency: How do peers matter? Social Forces 84(2):1109–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Haynie DL, South SJ, Bose S (2006) The company you keep: adolescent mobility peer behavior. Sociological Inquiry 76(3):397–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hechter M (1987) Principles of group solidarity. University of California Press, Los Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  56. Hechter M, Kanazawa S (1997) Sociological rational choice theory. Annual Review of Sociology 23:191–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Heckathorn DD (1997) Respondent-driven sampling: a new approach to the study of hidden populations. Social Problems 44(2):174–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Heider F (1958) The psychology of interpersonal relations. Wiley, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heimer K, Matsueda RL (1994) Role-taking, role-commitment, and delinquency: a theory of differential social control. American Sociological Review 59(3):365–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hindelang MJ (1974) Public opinion regarding crime, criminal justice and related topics. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 11(2):101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hirschi T (1969) Causes of delinquency. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  62. Hussong A (2002) Differentiating peer contexts and risk for adolescent substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 31(3):207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Iannotti RJ, Bush PJ (1992) Perceived vs. actual friends’ use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine: Which has the most influence? Journal of Youth and Adolescence 21(3):375–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Igarashi T, Kashima Y (2011) Perceived entitativity of social networks. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47(6):1048–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jang SJ (1999) Age-varying effects of family, school, and peers on delinquency: a multilevel modeling test of interactional theory. Criminology 37(3):643–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jang S (2002) The effects of family, school, peers, and attitudes on adolescents’ drug use: Do they vary with age? Justice Quarterly 19(1):97–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jussim L, Osgood DW (1989) Influence and similarity among friends: an integrative model applied to incarcerated adolescents. Social Psychology Quarterly 52(2):98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kalmijn M (2003) Shared friendship networks and the life course: an analysis of survey data on married and cohabiting couples. Social Networks 25(3):231–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kalmijn M, Bernasco W (2001) Separated lifestyles in married and cohabiting relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family 63(3):639–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kandel DB (1978) Homophily, selection, and socialization in adolescent friendships. The American Journal of Sociology 84(2):427–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kandel DB (1996) The parental and peer contexts of adolescent deviance: an algebra of interpersonal influences. Journal of Drug Issues 26(2):289–315Google Scholar
  72. Klovdahl AS (1985) Social networks and the spread of infectious diseases: the AIDS example. Social Science & Medicine 21:1203–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krackhardt D (1987) Cognitive social structures. Social Networks 9(2):109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Krackhardt D (1990) Assessing the political landscape: structure, cognition, and power in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly 35:342–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kreager D (2004) Strangers in the halls: isolation and delinquency in school networks. Social Forces 83(1):351–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kreager, Derek A (2007) When it’s good to be ‘Bad’: violence and adolescent peer acceptance. Criminology 45:601–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kreager DA, Matsueda RL, Erosheva E (2010) Motherhood and criminal desistance in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Criminology 48(1):221–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kreager DA, Rulison K, Moody J (2011) Delinquency and the structure of adolescent peer groups. Criminology 49(1):95–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Krohn MD (1986) The Web of conformity: a network approach to the explanation of delinquent behavior. Social Problems 33(6):81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krohn MD, Massey JL, Zielinski M (1988) Role overlap, network multiplexity, and adolescent deviant behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly 51(4):346–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kumbasar E, Romney AK, Batchelder WH (1994) Systematic biases in social perception. The American Journal of Sociology 100(2):477–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. LaFreniere PJ, Sroufe LA (1985) Profiles of peer competence in the preschool: interrelations among measures, influence of social ecology, and relation to attachment history. Developmental Psychology 21(1):56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laub JH, Nagin DS, Sampson RJ (1998) Trajectories of change in criminal offending: good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review 63(2):225–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lazarsfeld P, Merton RK (1954) Friendship as a social process: a substantive and methodological analysis. In: Berger M, Abel T, Page CH (eds) Freedom and control in modern society. Van Nostrand, New York, NY, pp 18–66Google Scholar
  85. Lin N (1982) Social resources and instrumental action. In: Marsden PV, Lin N (eds) Social structure and social analysis. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp 131–145Google Scholar
  86. Lopoo LM, Western B (2005) Incarceration and the formation and stability of marital unions. Journal of Marriage and Family 67(3):721–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Main M, Goldwyn R (1991) Adult attachment classification system, Version 5. University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  88. Marcus RF (1996) The friendships of delinquents. Adolescence 31(121):145–158Google Scholar
  89. Marsden PV (1990) Network data and measurement. Annual Review of Sociology 16(1):435–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Massey JL, Krohn MD (1986) A longitudinal examination of an integrated social process model of deviant behavior. Social Forces 65(1):107–134Google Scholar
  91. Matsueda RL, Anderson K (1998) The dynamics of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology 36(2):269–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Matsueda RL, Heimer K (1997) A symbolic interactionist theory of role transitions, role commitments, and delinquency. In: Thornberry TP (ed) Advances in criminological theory, vol 7, Developmental theories of crime and delinquency. Transaction, New Brunswick, NJ, pp 163–213Google Scholar
  93. Matza D (1964) Delinquency and drift. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  94. Mcgloin JM (2009) Delinquency balance: revisiting peer influence. Criminology 47(2):439–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mcgloin JM, Shermer LON (2009) Self-control and deviant peer network structure. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 46(1):35–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McPherson M, Smith-Lovin L, Cook JM (2001) Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology 27:415–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mears DP, Field SH (2002) A closer look at the age, peers, and delinquency relationship. Criminology and Criminal Justice 4(1):20–29Google Scholar
  98. Meldrum RC, Young JTN, Weerman FM (2009) Reconsidering the effect of self-control and delinquent peers. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 46(3):353–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moffitt TE (1993) ‘Life-course-persistent’ and ‘adolescence-limited’ antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review 100(4):674–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moffitt TE (1997) Adolescent-limited and life-course persistent offending: a complementary pair of developmental theories. In: Thornberry TP (ed) Developmental theories of crime and delinquency, advances in criminological theory. Transaction, New Brunswick, NJ, pp 11–54Google Scholar
  101. Mouw T (2006) Estimating the causal effect of social capital: a review of recent research. Annual Review of Sociology 32:79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Newcomb T (1961) The acquaintance process. Holt Rinehart & Winston, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Osgood DW, Wilson JK, Malley PMO, Bachman JG, Johnston D (1996) Routine activities and individual deviant behavior. American Sociological Review 61(4):635–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pager D (2003) The mark of a criminal record. The American Journal of Sociology 108(5):937–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Payne DC, Cornwell B (2007) Reconsidering peer influences on delinquency: Do less proximate contacts matter? Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23(2):127–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pires P, Jenkins JM (2007) A growth curve analysis of the joint influences of parenting affect, child characteristics and deviant peers on adolescent illicit drug use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 36(2):169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Portes A (1998) Social capital: it’s origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 22:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Prinstein MJ, Wang SS (2005) False consensus and adolescent peer contagion: examining discrepancies between perceptions and actual reported levels of friends’ deviant and health risk behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 33:293–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rees C, Pogarsky G (2011) One bad apple may not spoil the whole bunch: best friends and adolescent delinquency. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 27(2):197–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ross L, Greene D, House P (1977) The “false consensus effect”: an egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13(3):279–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sampson RJ (2000) Whither the sociological study of crime? Annual Review of Sociology 26:711–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sampson RJ, Laub JH (1990) Crime and deviance over the life course: the salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review 55(5):609–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sampson RJ, Laub JH (1993) Crime in the making: pathways and turning points through life. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  114. Sampson RJ, Laub JH (2005) A life-course view of the development of crime. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 602:12–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sampson RJ, Laub JH, Wimer C (2006) Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual causal effects. Criminology 44(3):465–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schaefer DR (2010) A configurational approach to homophily using lattice visualization. Connections 31(2):21–40Google Scholar
  117. Shrum W, Cheek NH (1987) Social structure during the school years: onset of the degrouping process. American Sociological Review 52:218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Simmel, G. (1922[1955]). Conflict and the web of group affiliations (Trans., K. Wolff, Ed.) Glencoe, IL: Free Press.Google Scholar
  119. Smângs M (2010) Delinquency, social skills and the structure of peer relations: assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces 89(2):609–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Snijders T, Baerveldt C (2003) A multilevel network study of the effects of delinquent behavior on friendship evolution. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 27(2–3):123–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. South SJ, Haynie DL (2004) Friendship networks of mobile adolescents. Social Forces 83(1):315–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sroufe LA, Fleeson J (1986) Attachment and the construction of relationships. In: Hartup W, Rubin Z (eds) Relationships and development. Psychology Press, Hillsdale, NJ, pp 51–71Google Scholar
  123. Sutherland E (1947) Principles of criminology, 4th edn. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PAGoogle Scholar
  124. Tarrant M, North A, Edridge MD, Kirk LE, Smith EA, Turner RE (2001) Social identity in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence 24(5):597–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Thornberry TP, Lizotte AJ, Krohn MD, Farnworth M, Jang SJ (1994) Delinquent peers, beliefs, and delinquent behavior: a longitudinal test of interactional theory. Criminology 32(4):47–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tindall D, Wellman B (2001) Canada as social structure: social network analysis and Canadian sociology. The Canadian Journal of Sociology 26(3):265–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Uggen C (2000) Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: a duration model of age, employment, and recidivism. American Sociological Review 65:529–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Urberg KA (1992) Locus of peer influence: social crowd and best friend. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 21(4):439–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Urberg KA, Değirmencioğlu SM, Pilgrim C (1997) Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Developmental Psychology 33(5):834–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Warr M (1993) Age, peers, and delinquency. Criminology 31(1):17–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Warr M (1998) Life-course transitions and desistance from crime. Criminology 36(2):183–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wasserman S, Faust K (1994) Social network analysis: methods and applications (structural analysis in the social sciences). Cambridge University Press, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Weber M (1922) Economy and society. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  134. Weerman FM (2011) Delinquent peers in context: a longitudinal network analysis of selection and influence effects. Criminology 49(1):253–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Weerman F, Smeenk WH (2005) Peer similarity in delinquency for different types of friends: a comparison using two measurement methods. Criminology 43(2):499–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Western B, Beckett K (1999) How unregulated is the U.S. labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution. The American Journal of Sociology 104(4):1030–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Western B, Lopoo LM, McLanahan S (2004) Incarceration and the bonds among parents in fragile families. In: Patillo M, Weiman D, Western B (eds) Imprisoning America: the social effects of mass incarceration. Russell Sage, New York, NY, pp 21–45Google Scholar
  138. Weerman FM, Bijleveld CJH (2007) Birds of different feathers: school networks of serious delinquent, minor delinquent, and nondelinquent boys and girls. European Journal of Criminology 4:357–383Google Scholar
  139. Western B (2006) Punishment and inequality in America. NewYork: russell sage foundationGoogle Scholar
  140. Wrong D (1961) The oversocialized conception of man in modern sociology. American Sociological Review 26(2):183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yablonsky L (1959) The delinquent gang as a near-group. Social Problems 7(2):108–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Young JTN (2011) How do they ‘end up together’? A social network analysis of self-control, homophily, and adolescent relationships. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 27(3):251–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Young JTN, Barnes JC, Meldrum RC, Weerman FM (2011) Assessing and explaining misperceptions of peer delinquency. Criminology 49(2):599–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Criminology and Criminal JusticeArizona State UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations