Standardization of LED Thermal Characterization

Chapter
Part of the Solid State Lighting Technology and Application Series book series (SSLTA, volume 2)

Abstract

The chapter discusses the increasing need for a more sophisticated thermal characterization of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and LED-based products. It goes without saying that the LED business is growing exponentially, in fact, much faster than analysts predicted 5 years ago. Unfortunately, until recently the progress in thermal characterization has not kept pace. The situation was a serious problem until the first component-level LED thermal testing standards were published. As these standards are relatively new, there are still manufacturers who are not yet aware of the new testing procedure and think they can publish whatever thermal information they want. The problem also still exists for the experienced user because the thermal data that are published are often rather useless in practice when accuracy is at stake, and accuracy is needed for an educated guess of expected performance and lifetime. This situation has much in common with the one the integrated circuit (IC) world was facing almost 20 years ago. Provided the manufacturers want to cooperate, it is relatively easy to build upon the experience gained in the IC business and their standard protocols that are in use worldwide.

In 2008, the JEDEC JC15 committee on thermal standardization of semiconductor devices decided to take action and created a task group to deal with thermal standardization issues of power LEDs. International Commission on Illumination/Commision Internationale de l’Eclirage (CIE) has also created new technical committees (e.g., TC2-63, TC2-64), which also aim to address thermal issues during measurement of high-brightness/-power LEDs. The chapter describes novel test methods, which form the basis of new measurement guidelines including combined thermal and radiometric measurement of LEDs. In 2012, some new thermal testing standards were published, which are also discussed in this chapter. Initiatives to arrive at compact thermal modeling standards are also covered.

Keywords

Convection Europe Recombination Coherence Assure 

References

  1. 1.
    ANSI/IESNA IES Nomenclature Committee, IES RP-16-10, Nomenclature and Definitions of for Illuminating Engineering, ISBN 978-0-87995-208–2Google Scholar
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Zhaga Interface Specification Book 1: Overview and common information. http://www.zhagastandard.org/specifications/book-1.html
  4. 4.
    Zhaga Interface Specification Book 3: Round light emitting surface 9 mm–23 mm. http://www.zhagastandard.org/specifications/book-3.html. (October 2012)
  5. 5.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-50, “Overview of methodologies for the thermal measurement of single- and multi-chip, single- and multi-PN junction light-emitting diodes (LEDs)”. http://www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/jesd51-50.pdf. (April 2012)
  6. 6.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-51, “Implementation of the electrical test method for the measurement of the real thermal resistance and impedance of light-emitting diodes with exposed cooling surface”, www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD51-51.pdf. (April 2012)
  7. 7.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-52, “Guidelines for combining CIE 127-2007 total flux measurements with thermal measurements of LEDs with exposed cooling surface”. www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD51-52.pdf. (April 2012)
  8. 8.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-53 “Terms, definitions and units glossary for LED thermal testing”. http://www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/jesd51-53.pdf. (May 2012)
  9. 9.
    Lasance C, Poppe A (2008) On the standardization of thermal characterization of LEDs compared to IC packages: differences, similarities and proposal for action. White paper version September 2008, submitted to JEDEC JC15 committeeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lasance C (2008) On the standardization of thermal characterization of LEDs Part I: Comparison with IC packages and proposal for action. Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on THERMal INvestigation of ICs and Systems (THERMINIC’08), 24–26 September 2008, Rome, Italy, pp 208–212Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lasance C, Poppe A (2008) On the standardization of thermal characterization of LEDs Part II: Problem definition and potential solutions. Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on THERMal INvestigation of ICs and Systems (THERMINIC’08), 24–26 September 2008, Rome, Italy, pp 213–219Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lasance C, Poppe A (2009) On the standardization of thermal characterization of LEDs. Proceedings of the 25th IEEE semiconductor thermal measurement and management symposium (SEMI-THERM’09), 15–19 March 2009, San Jose, USA, pp 151–158Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lasance C, Poppe A (2009) Challenges in LED thermal characterisation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE’09), 27–29 April 2009, Delft, The Netherlands, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lasance C (2008) Heat spreading: not a trivial problem. ElectronicsCooling 14(2)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lasance C (2008) The practical usefulness of various approaches to estimate heat spreading effects. Proceedings of The Second International Conference onThermal Issues in Emerging Technologies (ThETA’08), 17–20 December 2008, Cairo, Egypt, pp 149–158Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rosten H, Lasance C (1995) DELPHI: the development of libraries of physical models of electronic components for an integrated design environment. In Berge J-M, Levia O, Rouillard J (Eds) Model Generation in Electronic Design. Kluwer Academic Press, pp 63–90Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51, Methodology for the thermal measurement of component packages (single semiconductor devices). This is the overview document for the JESD51- series of specifications. www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/Jesd51.pdf. (December 1995)
  18. 18.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-1, Integrated circuits thermal measurement method—electrical test method (single semiconductor device). www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/jesd51-1.pdf. (December 1995)
  19. 19.
    JEDEC Standard JESD51-14, Transient dual interface test method for the measurement of thermal resistance junction-to-case of semiconductor devices with heat flow through a single path. www.jedec.org/download/search/jesd51-14.pdf. (November 2010)
  20. 20.
    MIL-STD-750D Method 3101.3, Thermal impedance (response) testing of diodesGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Poppe A, Siegal B, Farkas G Issues of thermal testing of AC LEDs. Proceedings of the 27th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’11), 20–24 March 2011, San Jose, USA, pp 297–304Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Székely V, Bien TV (1988) Fine structure of heat flow path in semiconductor devices: a measurement and identification method. Solid-State Electron 31(9):1363–1368Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Székely V (1998) Identification of RC networks by deconvolution: chances and limits. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I—Fundamental Theory and Applications 45(3):244–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Treurniet T, Lammens V (2006) Thermal management in color variable multi-chip LED modules. Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’06), Dallas, USA, 14–16 March 2006, pp 186–190Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Poppe A, Farkas G, Székely V, Horváth Gy, Rencz M (2006) Multi-domain simulation and measurement of power LED-s and power LED assemblies. Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’06), Dallas, USA, 14–16 March 2006, pp 191–198Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poppe A (2012) A step forward in multi-domain modeling of power LEDs. Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’12), San Jose, USA, 18–22 March 2012, pp 325–330. (ISBN: 978-1-4673-1109–0)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lasance C (2005) CFD simulations in electronic systems: a lot of pitfalls and a few remedies. ElectronicsCooling 11(2)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosten HI et al (1997) Final report to SEMI-THERM XIII on the European-funded project DELPHI-the development of libraries and physical models for an integrated design environment. Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’97), Austin, USA, 28–30 January 1997, pp 73–91Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosten HI, Lasance CJM, Parry JD (2005) The world of thermal characterization according to DELPHI-Part I: background to DELPHI. IEEE Tr. on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Part A 20(4):384–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lasance CJM, Rosten HI, Parry JD (1997) The world of thermal characterization according to DELPHI-Part II: experimental and numerical methods. IEEE Tr. on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Part A 20(4):392–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pape H, Noebauer G (1999) Generation and verification of boundary independent compact thermal models for active components according to the DELPHI/SEED methods. In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’99), San Diego, USA, 9–11 March 1999, pp 201–211Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lasance CJM, den Hertog D, Stehouwer P (1999) Creation and evaluation of compact models for thermal characterisation using dedicated optimisation software. In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’99), San Diego, USA, 9–11 March 1999, pp 189–200Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lasance CJM (2003) Final report on the EC-funded thermal project PROFIT. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on THERMal INvestigations of ICs and Systems (THERMINIC’03). Aix-en-Provence, France, 24–26 September 2003, pp 283–289Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lasance CJM (2004) Highlights from the European thermal project PROFIT. J Electron Packag 126(4):565–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lasance CJM (2001) The European project PROFIT: prediction of temperature gradients influencing the quality of electronic products. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’01), San Jose, USA, 20–22 March 2001, pp 120–125Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lasance C (2008) Ten years of boundary condition independent compact thermal modeling of electronic parts: a review. Heat Transf Eng 29:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-1 (2008) Compact Thermal Model Overview. www.jedec.org/download/search/jesd15-1.pdf. (October 2008)
  38. 38.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-3 (2008) Two-Resistor Compact Thermal Model Guideline. www.jedec.org/download/search/jesd15-3.pdf. (July 2008)
  39. 39.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-4 (2008) DELPHI Compact Thermal Model Guideline. www.jedec.org/download/search/jesd15-4.pdf. (October 2008)
  40. 40.
    Brodrick J, CFLs in America: lessons learned on the way to market. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/cfls_july_lessons.pdf
  41. 41.
    IES LM-79-08 Standard, “Approved method: electrical and photometric measurements of solid-state lighting products”. http://www.ies.org/store/product/approved-method-electrical-and-photometric-measurements-of-solidstate-lighting-products-1095.cfm
  42. 42.
    ANSI/UL 8750 Standard, “Safety standard for light emitting diode (LED) equipment for use in lighting products”Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    ANSI/IESNA IES-LM-80-08 Standard, “Approved method for measuring lumen maintenance of LED light sources”. ISBN 978-0-87995-227-3 (2009)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    ANSI/IESNA IES-TM-21-11 Standard, “Projecting long term lumen maintenance of LED light sources”. ISBN: 978-0-87995-259–4Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Peters L (2012) “EPA introduces TM-21 calculator”. LEDs Magazine, http://ledsmagazine.com/news/9/2/8. Accessed Dec 2012
  46. 46.
    US Environmental Protection Agency’s TM-21 calculator. http://www.energystar.gov/TM-21calculator. Accessed Dec 2012
  47. 47.
    Ueda O (1999) Reliability issues in III-V compound semiconductor devices: optical devices and GaAs-based HBTs. Microelectron Reliab 39:1839–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kim H, Yang H, Huh C, Kim S-W, Park S-J, Hwang H (2000) Electromigration-induced Failure of GaN Multi-quantum Well Light Emitting Diode. Electron Lett 36(10):908–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Narendran N, Gu Y, Freyssinier J, Yu H, Deng L (2004) Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs. J Crystal Growth 268:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Uddin A, Wei C, Anderson T (2005) Study of degradation mechanism of blue light emitting diodes. Thin Solid Films 483:378–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Krames MR, Shchekin OB, Mueller-Mach R, Mueller GO, Zhou L, Harbers G, Craford MG (2007) Status and future of high power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting. J Display Technol 3(2)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hu J, Yang L, Shin MW (2007) Mechanism and thermal effect of delamination in light-emitting diode packages. Microelectron J 38:157–163Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hsu Y-C, Lin Y-K, Chen M-H, Tsai C-C, Kuang J-H, Huang S-B, Hu H-L, Su Y-I, Cheng W-H (2008) Failure mechanisms associated with lens shape of high-power LED modulus in aging test. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 55(2):2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    CIE S 017/E:2011 ILV: International Lighting VocabularyGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grabner-Meyer (2007) LED data sheet comparison. LED-Professional Review, September 2007Google Scholar
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
    Lee S (1998) Calculating spreading resistance in heat sinks. ElectronicsCooling 4(1):30–33Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yu J, Oepts W, Konijn H, PCB board thermal management of high-power LEDs. In: Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’ 08), 16–20 March 2008, San Jose, USA, pp 63–67Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    CIE 127-2007 Technical Report, “Measurement of LEDs”Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Farkas G, Poppe A, Schanda J, Muray K (2004) Complex characterization of power LED-s: simultaneous measurement of photometric/radiometric and thermal properties. Proc. CIE LED Conference, Tokyo, CIE x026:2004, pp 92–95Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Poppe A, Farkas G, Molnár G, Katona B, Temesvölgyi T, He JW (2010) Emerging standard for thermal testing of power LEDs and its possible implementation. In: SPIE Proceedings 7784, Tenth International Conference on Solid State Lighting (Eds: Ian Ferguson; Matthew H. Kane; Nadarajah Narendran; Tsunemasa Taguchi), 1 August 2010, San Diego, CA, USA, p 778414Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhang L, Treurniet T (2008) On the challenges of thermal characterization of high-power, high-brightness LED packages. ElectronicsCooling 14(2)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Guenin B, Update on Thermal Standards Work by JC15.1. http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/cpmt/presentations/cpmt0303a.pdf
  65. 65.
    Guenin B (2012) Update on JEDEC thermal standards. ElectronicsCooling Vol.18, September 17th, 2012, http://www.electronics-cooling.com/2012/09/update-on-jedec-thermal-standards/
  66. 66.
    Zong Y, Chou P-T, Lin M-T, Ohno Y (2009) Practical method for measurement of AC-driven LEDs at a given junction temperature by using active heat sinks. In: SPIE Proceedings 7422, Ninth International Conference on Solid State Lighting (Eds: Tsunemasa Taguchi, Ian T. Ferguson, Christoph Hoelen, Jianzhong Jiao), 2 August 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, p 742208Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Liu Y-w, Jayawardena A, Klein TR, Narendran N (2010) Estimating the junction temperature of AC LEDs. In: SPIE Proceedings 7784, Tenth International Conference on Solid State Lighting (Eds: Ian Ferguson; Matthew H. Kane; Nadarajah Narendran; Tsunemasa Taguchi), 1 August 2010, San Diego, CA, USA, p 778409Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zong Y, Ohno Y (2008) New practical method for measurement of high-power LEDs. In: Proceedings of the CIE Expert Symposium 2008 on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry, CIE x033:2008, pp 102–106Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Vass Varnai A, Parry J, Toth G, Ress S, Farkas G, Poppe A, Rencz M (2012) Comparison of JEDEC dynamic and static test methods for thermal characterization of power LEDs. In: Proceedings of the 14th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC’12). 5–7 December 2012, Singapore, Paper 229Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15, “Thermal Modeling Overview” (October 2008). www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD15.pdf
  71. 71.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-1, “Compact Thermal Modeling Overview” (October 2008). www.jedec.org/sites/default/files/docs/JESD15-1.pdf
  72. 72.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-3, “Two-Resistor Compact Thermal Model Guideline” (October 2008), http://www.jedec.org/standards-documents/docs/jesd-15-3
  73. 73.
    JEDEC Standard JESD15-4, “DELPHI Compact Thermal Model Guideline” (October 2008)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sabry M, Dessouky M (2012) Framework theory for dynamic compact thermal models. In: Proceedings of the 28th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), San Jose, USA, 18–22 March 2012, pp 189–194Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Schubert EF (2006) Light-emitting diodes, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Farkas G, Haque S, Wall F, Martin PS, Poppe A, Voorst Vader Q van, Bognár Gy (2004) Electric and thermal transient effects in high power optical devices. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’04). San Jose, USA, 9–11 March 2004, pp 168–176Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rencz M, Poppe A, Kollár E, Ress S, Székely V, Courtois B (2004) A procedure to correct the error in the structure function based thermal measuring methods. In: Proceedings of the 20th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’04). 9–11 March 2004, San Jose, USA, pp 92–98Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rencz M, Poppe A, Kollár E, Ress S, Székely V (2005) Increasing the accuracy of structure function based thermal material parameter measurements. IEEE Tr on Comp and Pack Techn 28(1):51–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Poppe A, Molnár G, Temesvölgyi T (2010) Temperature dependent thermal resistance in power LED assemblies and a way to cope with it. In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM’10), 21–25 February 2010, Santa Clara, USA, pp 283–288Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mentor Graphics T3Ster® Master software v2.1. http://www.mentor.com/products/mechanical/products/t3ster/
  81. 81.
    Mentor Graphics FloTHERM® V9.1 CFD based thermal analysis software. http://www.mentor.com/products/mechanical/products/flotherm
  82. 82.
    Mentor Graphics FloEFD/ v12 MCAD embedded CFD based thermal analysis software LED module. http://www.mentor.com/products/mechanical/products/floefd/
  83. 83.
    Poppe A, Szalai A, Parry J (2012) Advanced thermal characterization improves LED street-light design. LEDs Magazine No. 53:51–56. (July 2012), http://ledsmagazine.com/features/9/7/16
  84. 84.
    Górecki K (2012) Electrothermal model of a power LED for SPICE. Int J Numer Model 25:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Negrea C, Svasta P, Rangu M (2012) Electro–thermal modeling of power LED using SPICE circuit solver. In Proceedings of the 35th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology, pp 329–334Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mentor Graphics Mechanical Analysis Division, MicReD OfficeBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Department of Electron DevicesBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Philips Research Laboratories Emeritus, Consultant at SomelikeitCoolNuenenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations