Physiological Role of Nitric Oxide in Plants Grown Under Adverse Environmental Conditions

  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
  • Sarvajeet Singh Gill
  • Masayuki Fujita


Plant production in the recent times is facing various kinds of abiotic stress which are considered as major factors limiting crop productivity worldwide. Radical global climatic and other environmental changes have forced the need for a better understanding of plant stress responses and tolerance, particularly in the light of increasing intense stressors like salinity, drought, flooding, toxic metals, temperature extremes, high-light intensity, UV-radiation, herbicides, ozone, among others. Over the past decade, the understanding of plant adaptation to environmental stress, including both constitutive and inducible determinants, has grown considerably. Exploring suitable crop improvements or ways to alleviate stress is one of the tasks of plant biologists. Research on nitric oxide (NO) in plants has gained considerable attention in recent years mainly due to its function in plant growth and development and as a key signaling molecule in different intracellular processes. The role of NO in stress responses in plants has been increasingly focused in plant science over the last decade. NO is an essential signaling molecule with multiple physiological and biochemical functions involving the induction of different intracellular processes, including the expression of defense-related and redox-regulated genes in the detoxification of abiotic and biotic stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although significant progress has been made in understanding NO biosynthesis and signaling in plants, several crucial questions remain unanswered. In this chapter, we review recent progress in NO research in a broader context of abiotic stress tolerance and discuss its diverse roles in physiological and biochemical processes in plants and the protective mechanisms it exhibits towards abiotic stress tolerance.


Reactive Oxygen Species Nitric Oxide Salt Stress Glutathione Reductase Stomatal Closure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Abscisic acid


Ascorbate peroxidase


Ascorbic acid


Adenosine triphosphate




Calcium-dependent protein kinase


Cyclic guanosine monophosphate




Cytochrome c oxidase




Dehydroascorbate reductase


Electron transport chain




Glutathione peroxidase


Glutathione reductase


Glutathione synthase


Reduced glutathione




Oxidized glutathione


Glutathione S-transferase


Indole-3-acetic acid


Jasmonic acid


Nω-nitro l-arginine


Lipid hydroperoxides


Mitogen-activated protein kinase






Monodehydroascorbate reductase


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


NADPH oxidases


Nitrite reductase


Nitric oxide




Nitric oxide synthase


Nitrate reductase




Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase


Programmed cell death


Polyethylene glycol




Reactive nitrogen species


Organic hydroperoxides


Reactive oxygen species


Relative water content


Salicylic acid


S-adenosyl methionine




Sodium nitroprusside


Transcription factor binding sites


Xanthine dehydrogenase


Xanthine oxidoreductase


γ-Glutamylcysteine synthetase


  1. Abat JK, Mattoo AK, Deswal R (2008) S-nitrosylated proteins of a medicinal CAM plant Kalanchoe pinnata – ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase ⁄ oxygenase activity targeted for inhibition. FEBS J 275:2862–2872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abogadallah GM (2010) Antioxidative defense under salt stress. Plant Signal Behav 5:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Acquaah G (2007) Principles of plant genetics and breeding. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, p 385Google Scholar
  4. Agrawal SB, Rathore D (2007) Changes in oxidative stress defense in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars grown with or without mineral nutrients and irradiated by supplemental ultraviolet-B. Environ Exp Bot 59:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahlfors R, Brosché M, Kollist H, Kangasjärvi J (2008) Nitric oxide modulates ozone-induced cell death, hormone biosynthesis and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 58:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahlfors R, Brosché M, Kollist H, Kangasjärvi J (2009) Nitric oxide modulates ozone-induced cell death, hormone biosynthesis and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 58:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali MB, Hahn E-J, Paek K-Y (2005) Effects of light intensities on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content during short-term acclimatization on micropropagated Phalaenopsis plantlet. Environ Exp Bot 54:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. An L, Liu Y, Zhang M, Chen T, Wang X (2005) Effects of nitric oxide on growth of maize seedling leaves in the presence or absence of ultraviolet radiation. J Plant Physiol 162:317–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arasimowicz M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J (2007) Nitric oxide as a bioactive signalling molecule in plant stress responses. Plant Sci 172:876–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Kubis J (2009) Involvement of nitric oxide in water stress-induced responses of cucumber roots. Plant Sci 177:682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Gwóźdźa EA (2011) The message of nitric oxide in cadmium challenged plants. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.03.019
  13. Arbona V, Hossain Z, López-Climent MF, Pérez-Clemente RM, Gómez-Cadenas A (2008) Antioxidant enzymatic activity is linked to waterlogging stress tolerance in citrus. Physiol Plant 132:452–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashmore MR (2005) Assessing the future global impacts of ozone on vegetation. Plant Cell Environ 28:949–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Badri DV, Loyola-Vargas VM, Du J, Stermitz FR, Broeckling CD, Iglesias-Andreu L, Vicanco JM (2008) Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis roots treated with signalling compounds: a focus on signal transduction, metabolic regulation and secretion. New Phytol 179:209–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bai X, Yang L, Tian M, Chen J, Shi J, Yang Y, Hu X (2011) Nitric oxide enhances desiccation tolerance of recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seeds via protein S-nitrosylation and carbonylation. PLoS One 6:e20714. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020714 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Balla K, Bencze S, Janda T, Veisz O (2009) Analysis of heat stress tolerance in winter wheat. Acta Agron Hung 57:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bartha B, Kolbert Z, Erdei L (2005) Nitric oxide production induced by heavy metals in Brassica juncea L. Czern. and Pisum sativum L. Acta Biol Szeged 49:9–12Google Scholar
  19. Baudouin E (2011) The language of nitric oxide signaling. Plant Biol 13:233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beligni MV, Lamattina L (1999a) Is nitric oxide toxic or protective? Trends Plant Sci 4:299–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beligni MV, Lamattina L (1999b) Nitric oxide counteracts cytotoxic processes mediated by reactive oxygen species in plant tissues. Planta 208:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Beligni MV, Fath A, Bethke PC, Lamattina L, Jones RL (2002) Nitric oxide acts as an antioxidant and delays programmed cell death in barley aleurone layers. Plant Physiol 129:1642–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Benamar A, Rolletschek H, Borisjuk L, Avelange-Macherel MH, Curien G, Mostefai HA, Andriantsitohaina R, Macherel D (2008) Nitrite-nitric oxide control of mitochondrial respiration at the frontier of anoxia. Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:1268–1275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Besson-Bard A, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2008) New insights into nitric oxide signalling in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:21–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Besson-Bard A, Astier J, Rasul S, Wawer I, Dubreuil-Maurizi C, Jeandroz S, Wendehenne D (2009a) Current view of nitric oxide-responsive genes in plants. Plant Sci 177:302–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Besson-Bard A, Gravot A, Richaud P, Auroy P, Duc C, Gaymard F, Taconnat L, Renou JP, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2009b) Nitric oxide contributes to cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis by promoting cadmium accumulation in roots and by upregulating genes related to iron uptake. Plant Physiol 149:1302–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bohnert HJ, Jensen RG (1996) Strategies for engineering water stress tolerance in plants. Trends Biotechnol 14:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Borisjuk L, Macherel D, Benamar A, Wobus U, Rolletschek H (2007) Low oxygen sensing and balancing in plant seeds: a role for nitric oxide. New Phytol 176:813–823PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bornman JF, Vogelmann TC (1991) Effect of UV-B radiation on leaf optical properties measured with fiber optics. J Exp Bot 42:547–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boucher JL, Genet A, Valdon S, Delaforge M, Henry Y, Mansuy D (1992) Cytochrome P450 catalyzes the oxidation of Nω-hydroxy-L-arginine by NADPH and O2 to nitric oxide and citrulline. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 187:880–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bright J, Desikan R, Hancock JT, Weir IS, Neill SJ (2006) ABA induced NO generation and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis are dependent on H2O2 synthesis. Plant J 45:113–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cantrel C, Vazquez T, Puyaubert J, Rezé N, Lesch M, Kaiser WM, Dutilleul C, Guillas I, Zachowski A, Baudouin E (2011) Nitric oxide participates in cold-responsive phosphosphingolipid formation and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol 189:415–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cecconi D, Orzetti S, Vandelle E, Rinalducci S, Zolla L, Delledonne D (2009) Protein nitration during defence response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Electrophor 30:2460–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chaki M, Fernandez-Ocana AM, Valderrama R, Carreras A, Esteban FJ, Luque F, Gomez-Rodriguez MV, Begara-Morales JC, Corpas FJ, Barroso JB (2009) Involvement of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS) in sunflower–mildew interaction. Plant Cell Physiol 50:265–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chaki M, Valderrama R, Fernández-Ocaña AM, Carreras A, Gómez-Rodríguez MV, Pedrajas JR, Begara-Morales JC, Sánchez-Calvo B, Luque F, Leterrier M, Corpas FJ, Barroso JB (2011) Mechanical wounding induces a nitrosative stress by down-regulation of GSNO reductase and an increase in S-nitrosothiols in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings. J Exp Bot 62:1803–1813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chen F, Wang F, Sun H, Cai Y, Mao W, Zhang G, Vincze E, Wu F (2010) Genotype-dependent effect of exogenous nitric oxide on Cd-induced changes in antioxidative metabolism, ­ultrastructure, and photosynthetic performance in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare). J Plant Growth Regul 29:394–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clarke A, Desikan R, Hurst RD, Hancock JT, Neill ST (2000) NO way back: nitric oxide and programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cultures. Plant J 24:667–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cooney RV, Harwood PJ, Custer LJ, Franke AA (1994) Light-mediated conversion of nitrogen dioxide to nitric oxide by carotenoids. Environ Health Perspect 102:460–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Corpas FJ, de la Colina C, Sanchez-Rasero F, del Río LA (1997) A role for leaf peroxisomes in the catabolism of purines. J Plant Physiol 151:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Corpas F, Barroso J, Carreras A, Valderrama R, Palma J, León A, Sandalio L, del Río L (2006) Constitutive arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in different organs of pea seedlings during plant development. Planta 224:246–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Corpas FJ, Chaki M, Fernandez-Ocana AM, Valderrama R, Palma JM, Carreras A, Begara-Morales JC, Airaki M, del Rio LA, Barroso JB (2008) Metabolism of reactive nitrogen species in pea plants under abiotic stress conditions. Plant Cell Physiol 49:1711–1722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Corpas FJ, Leterrier M, Valderrama R, Airaki M, Chaki M, Palma JM, Barroso JB (2011) Nitric oxide imbalance provokes a nitrosative response in plants under abiotic stress. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.04.005
  43. Correa-Aragunde N, Graziano M, Chevalier C, Lamattina L (2006) Nitric Oxide mediates the expression of cell-cycle regulatory genes during lateral root formation in tomato. J Exp Bot 57:581–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Courtois C, Besson A, Dahan J, Bourque S, Dobrowolska G, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2008) Nitric oxide signalling in plants: Interplays with Ca2+ and protein kinases. J Exp Bot 59:155–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Crawford NM (2006) Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants. J Exp Bot 57:471–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cueto M, Hernandez-Perera O, Martin R, Bentura ML, Rodrigo J, Lamas S, Golvano MP (1996) Presence of nitric oxide synthase activity in roots and nodules of Lupinus albus. FEBS Lett 398:159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cui J-X, Zhou Y-H, Ding J-G, Xia X-J, Shi K, Chen S-C, Asam T, Chen Z, Yu J-Q (2011) Role of nitric oxide in hydrogen peroxide-dependent induction of abiotic stress tolerance by brassinosteroids in cucumber. Plant Cell Environ 34:347–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Damanik RI, Maziah M, Ismail MR, Ahmad S, Zain AM (2010) Responses of the antioxidative enzymes in Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under submergence condition. Acta Physiol Plant 32:739–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. David A, Yadav S, Bhatla SC (2010) Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings. Physiol Plant 140:342–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. de Carvalho MHC (2008) Drought stress and reactive oxygen species. Plant Signal Behav 3:156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. de Gara L, Locato V, Dipierro S, De Pinto MC (2010) Redox homeostasis in plants: The Challenge of living with endogenous oxygen production. Resp Physiol Neurobiol 173:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. de la Haba P, Agüera E, Benítez L, Maldonado JM (2001) Modulation of nitrate reductase activity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) roots. Plant Sci 161:231–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. del Giudice J, Cam Y, Damiani I, Fung-Chat F, Meilhoc E, Bruand C, Brouquisse R, Puppo A, Boscari A (2011) Nitric oxide is required for an optimal establishment of the Medicago truncatulaSinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis. New Phytol 191:405–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. del Rίo LA, Corpas FJ, Barroso JB (2004) Nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase activity in plants. Phytochemistry 65:783–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Delledonne M (2005) NO news is good news for plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:390–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Delledonne M, Xia Y, Dixon RA, Lamb C (1998) Nitric oxide functions as a signal in plant disease resistance. Nature 394:585–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Desikan R, Clarke A, Hancock JT, Neill SJ (1999) H2O2 activates a MAP kinase-like enzyme in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cultures. J Exp Bot 50:1863–1866Google Scholar
  58. Desikan R, Griffiths R, Hancock J, Neill S (2002) A new role for an old enzyme: nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide generation is required for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:16314–16318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Desikan R, Cheung M-K, Bright J, Henson D, Hancock JT, Neill SJ (2004) ABA, hydrogen ­peroxide and nitric oxide signalling in stomatal guard cells. J Exp Bot 55:205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Díaz M, Achkor H, Titarenko E, Martínez MC (2003) The gene encoding glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase/GSNO reductase is responsive to wounding, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. FEBS Lett 543:136–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Din J, Khan SU, Ali I, Gurmani AR (2011) Physiological and agronomic response of canola varieties to drought stress. J Anim Plant Sci 21:78–82Google Scholar
  62. Donaldson L, Ludidi N, Knight MR, Gehring C, Denby K (2004) Salt and osmotic stress cause rapid increases in Arabidopsis thaliana cGMP levels. FEBS Lett 569:317–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dordas C, Rivoal J, Hill RD (2003) Plant hemoglobins, nitric oxide and hypoxic stress. Ann Bot 91:173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Du H, Liang Y, Pei K, Ma K (2011) UV Radiation-responsive proteins in rice leaves: A proteomic analysis. Plant Cell Physiol 52:306–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dubey RS (2011) Metal toxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defense system in plants. In: Gupta SD (ed) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in higher plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 177–203Google Scholar
  66. Dubovskaya LV, Kolesneva EV, Knyazev DM, Voltovskii ID (2007) Protective role of nitric oxide during hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in tobacco plants. Russ J Plant Physiol 54:755–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Durner J, Klessig DF (1999) Nitric oxide as a signal in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Durner J, Wendehenne D, Klessig DF (1998) Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP and cyclic ADP-ribose. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:10328–10333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ederly L, Morettini R, Borgogni A, Wasternack C, Miersch O, Reale L, Ferranti L, Tosti N, Pasqualini S (2006) Interaction between nitric oxide and ethylene in the induction of alternative oxidase in ozone-treated tobacco plants. Plant Physiol 142:595–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Egli DB, Tekrony DM, Heitholt JJ, Rupe J (2005) Air temperature during seed filling and soybean seed germination and vigor. Crop Sci 45:1329–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Einset J, Winge P, Bones A (2007) ROS signaling pathways in chilling stress. Plant Signal Behav 2:365–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ercoli L, Mariotti M, Masoni A, Arduini I (2004) Growth responses of sorghum plants to chilling temperature and duration of exposure. Eur J Agron 21:93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Erdei L, Colbert Z (2008) Nitric oxide as a potent signalling molecule in plants. Acta Biol Szeged 52:1–5Google Scholar
  74. Faize M, Burgos L, Faize L, Piqueras A, Nicolas E, Barba-Espin G, Clemente-Moreno MJ, Alcobendas R, Artlip T, Hernández JA (2011) Involvement of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase for improved tolerance against drought stress. J Exp Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq432
  75. Fan H, Guo S, Jiao Y, Zhang R, Li J (2007) Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on growth, active oxygen species metabolism, and photosynthetic characteristics in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress. Front Agric China 1:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fan H-F, Du C-X, Guo S-R (2010) Nitric oxide enhances salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings by regulating free polyamine content. Environ Exp Bot. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.09.007
  77. Farooq M, Aziz T, Wahid A, Lee DJ, Siddique KHM (2009) Chilling tolerance in maize: agronomic and physiological approaches. Crop Past Sci 60:501–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Feechan A, Kwon E, Yun BW, Wang Y, Pallas JA, Loake GJ (2005) A central role for S-nitrosothiols in plant disease resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:8054–8059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Feng Z, Pang J, Kobayashi K, Zhu ZN, Ort DR (2011) Differential responses in two varieties of winter wheat to elevated ozone concentration under fully open-air field conditions. Global Change Biol 17:580–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ferrarini A, de Stefano M, Baudouin E, Pucciariello C, Polverari A, Puppo A, Delledonne M (2008) Expression of Medicago truncatula genes responsive to nitric oxide in pathogenic and symbiotic conditions. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 21:781–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ferreira LC, Cataneo AC (2010) Nitric oxide in plants: a brief discussion on this multifunctional molecule. Sci Agric 67:236–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Fodor F (2002) Physiological responses of vascular plants to heavy metals. In: Prasad MNV, Strzalka K (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. Kluwer, Dortrech, pp 149–177Google Scholar
  83. Gao HJ, Yang HQ, Wang JX (2009) Arginine metabolism in roots and leaves of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.): the tissue-specific formation of both nitric oxide and polyamines. Sci Hortic 119:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Garcia-Mata C, Lamattina L (2001) Nitric oxide induces stomatal closure and enhances the adaptive plant responses against drought stress. Plant Physiol 126:1196–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Garcia-Mata C, Lamattina L (2007) Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through calcium- and nitric oxide-mediated signaling pathways. Nitric Oxide 17:143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Garcia-Mata C, Gay R, Sokolovski S, Hills A, Lamattina L, Blatt MR (2003) Nitric oxide regulates K+ and Cl channels in guard cells through a subset of abscisic acid-evoked signaling pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:11116–11121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. García-Sánchez F, Syvertsen JP, Gimeno V, Botia P, Pérez-Pérez JG (2007) Responses to flooding and drought stress by two citrus rootstock seedlings with different water-use efficiency. Physiol Plant 130:532–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gas E, Flores-Pérez U, Sauret-Güeto S, Rodríguez-Concepción M (2009) Hunting for plant nitric oxide synthase provides new evidence of a central role for plastids in nitric oxide metabolism. Plant Cell 21:18–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Gaupels F, Furch ACU, Will T, Mur LAJ, Kogel KH, van Bel AJE (2008) Nitric oxide generation in Vicia faba phloem cells reveals them to be sensitive detectors as well as possible systemic transducers of stress signals. New Phytol 178:634–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gillespie KM, Rogers A, Ainsworth EA (2011) Growth at elevated ozone or elevated carbon dioxide concentration alters antioxidant capacity and response to acute oxidative stress in soybean (Glycine max). J Exp Bot. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq435
  92. Gordge MP (1998) How cytotoxic is nitric oxide? Exp Nephrol 6:12–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gotte G, Amelio E, Russo S, Marlinghaus E, Musci G, Suzuki H (2002) Short-time non-enzymatic nitric oxide synthesis from l-arginine and hydrogen peroxide induced by shock waves treatment. FEBS Lett 520:153–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gould KS, Lamotte O, Klinguer A, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2003) Nitric oxide production in tobacco leaf cells: a generalized stress response? Plant Cell Environ 26:1851–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Grant M, Brown I, Adams S, Knight M, Ainslie A, Mansfield J (2000) The RPM1 plant disease resistance gene facilitates a rapid and sustained increase in cytosolic calcium that is necessary for the oxidative burst and hypersensitive cell death. Plant J 23:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Groppa D, Rosales EP, Iannone MF, Benavides MP (2008) Nitric oxide, polyamines and Cd-induced phytotoxicity in wheat roots. Phytochemistry 69:2609–2615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Guo FQ, Okamoto M, Crawford NM (2003) Identification of a plant nitric oxide synthase involved in hormonal signaling. Science 302:100–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Guo Z, Ou W, Lu S, Zhong Q (2006) Differential responses of antioxidant system to chilling and drought in four rice cultivars differing in sensitivity. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:828–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Guo Y, Tian Z, Yan D, Zhang J, Qin P (2009) Effects of nitric oxide on salt stress tolerance in Kosteletzkya virginica. Life Sci J 6:67–75Google Scholar
  100. Gupta KJ, Kaiser WM (2010) Production and scavenging of Nitric oxide by barley root mitochondria. Plant Cell Physiol 51:576–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gupta KJ, Igamberdiev AU, Manjunatha G, Segu S, Moran JF, Neelawarne B, Bauwe H, Kaiser WM (2011) The emerging roles of nitric oxide (NO) in plant mitochondria. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.03.018
  102. Habib N, Ashraf M, Ahmad MSA (2010) Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress. Pak J Bot 42:4071–4078Google Scholar
  103. Hancock JT, Neill SJ, Wilson ID (2011) Nitric oxide and ABA in the control of plant function. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.03.017
  104. Hao GP, Zhang JH (2010) The role of nitric oxide as a bioactive signaling molecule in plants under abiotic stress. In: Hayat S, Mori M, Pichtel J, Ahmad A (eds) Nitric oxide in plant physiology. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH Verlag, pp 115–138Google Scholar
  105. Hao GP, Xing Y, Zhang JH (2008) Role of nitric oxide dependence on nitric oxide synthase-like activity in the water stress signaling of maize seedling. J Integr Plant Biol 50:435–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Harb A, Krishnan A, Ambavaram MMR, Pereira A (2010) Molecular and physiological analysis of drought stress in Arabidopsis reveals early responses leading to acclimation in plant growth. Plant Physiol 154:1254–1271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Harrison R (2002) Structure and function of xanthine oxidoreductase: where are we now? Free Radic Biol Med 33:774–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Selenium pretreatment up-regulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1758–1776Google Scholar
  109. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Islam MN, Ahamed KU, Nahar K (2009) Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int J Integr Biol 6:85–90Google Scholar
  110. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010) Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Am J Plant Physiol 5:295–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011a) Nitric oxide modulates antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and reduces salinity induced damage in wheat seedling. Plant Biotechnol Rep 5:353–365Google Scholar
  112. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011b) Selenium-induced upregulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1704–1721Google Scholar
  113. He DL, Wong CH, He YH (2003) The effect of reduction of ultraviolet–B radiance on the content of flavonoid in leaves of wheat. Chinese J Agromet 24:32Google Scholar
  114. He JM, Xu H, She XP, Song XG, Zhao WM (2005) The role and the interrelationship of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the UV-B-induced stomatal closure in broad bean. Funct Plant Biol 32:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. He J-M, Zhang Z, Wang R-B, Chen Y-P (2011) UV-B-induced stomatal closure occurs via ethylene-dependent NO generation in Vicia faba. Funct Plant Biol 38:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hebelstrup KH, Igamberdiev AU, Hill RD (2007) Metabolic effects of hemoglobin gene expression in plants. Gene 398:86–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Hirt H (1997) Multiple roles of MAP kinases in plant signal transduction. Trends Plant Sci 2:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Holzmeister C, Fröhlich A, Sarioglu H, Bauer N, Durner J, Lindermayr C (2011) Proteomic analysis of defense response of wildtype Arabidopsis thaliana and plants with impaired NO homeostasis. Proteomics 11:1664–1683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Horchani F, Prévot M, Boscari A, Evangelisti E, Meilhoc E, Bruand C, Raymond P, Boncompagni E, Aschi-Smiti S, Puppo A, Brouquisse R (2011) Both plant and bacterial nitrate reductases contribute to nitric oxide production in Medicago truncatula nitrogen-fixing nodules. Plant Physiol 155:1023–1036PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hossain Z, López-Climent MF, Arbona V, Pérez-Clemente RM, Gómez-Cadenas A (2009) Modulation of the antioxidant system in citrus under waterlogging and subsequent drainage. J Plant Physiol 166:1391–1404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hossain KK, Itoh RD, Yoshimura G, Tokuda G, Oku H, Cohen MF, Yamasaki H (2010a) Effects of nitric oxide scavengers on thermoinhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2010b) Up-regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems by exogenous glycinebetaine and proline in mung bean confer tolerance to cadmium stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 16:259–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hossain MA, Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011) Coordinate induction of antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system by exogenous proline and glycinebetaine is correlated with salt tolerance in mung bean. Front Agric China 5:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Howarth CJ (2005) Genetic improvements of tolerance to high temperature. In: Ashraf M, Harris PJC (eds) Abiotic stresses: Plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. Howarth Press Inc., New York, pp 277–300Google Scholar
  125. Hsu YT, Kao CH (2004) Cadmium toxicity is reduced by nitric oxide in rice leaves. Plant Growth Regul 42:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hsu YT, Kao CH (2005) Abscisic acid accumulation and cadmium tolerance in rice seedlings. Physiol Plant 124:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hu X, Neill S, Tang Z, Cai W (2005) Nitric oxide mediates gravitropic bending in soybean roots. Plant Physiol 137:663–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Hu KD, Hu LY, Li YH, Zhang FQ, Zhang H (2007) Protective roles of nitric oxide on germination and antioxidant metabolism in wheat seeds under copper stress. Plant Growth Regul 53:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Huang J, Sommers EM, Kim-Shapiro DB, King SB (2002) Horseradish peroxidase catalyzed nitric oxide formation from hydroxyurea. J Am Chem Soc 124:3473–3480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hui L, Cai ZW, Jie ZH, Lai HY, Fang TJ (2009) Effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside on adnosinetriphosphatase activity and membrane lipid peroxidation in wheat seedling leaves under drought stress. Plant Physiol Commun 45:455–458Google Scholar
  131. Igamberdiev AU, Hill RD (2009) Plant mitochondrial function during anaerobiosis. Ann Bot 103:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Igamberdiev AU, Bykova NV, Shah JK, Hill RD (2010) Anoxic nitric oxide cycling in plants: participating reactions and possible mechanisms. Physiol Plant 138:393–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Innocenti G, Pucciariello C, LeGleuher M, Hopkins J, De Stefano M, Delledonne M, Puppo A, Baudouin E, Frendo P (2007) Glutathione synthesis is regulated by nitric oxide in Medicago truncatula roots. Planta 225:1597–1602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Irfan M, Hayat S, Hayat O, Afroz S, Ahmad A (2010) Physiological and biochemical changes in plants under waterlogging. Protoplasma 241:3–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Ismail AM, Hall AE (1999) Reproductive-stage, heat tolerance, leaf membrane thermostability and plant morphology in cowpea. Crop Sci 39:1762–1768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jaleel CA, Manivannan P, Wahid A, Farooq M, Somasundaram R, Panneerselvam R (2009) Drought stress in plants: a review on morphological characteristics and pigments composition. Int J Agric Biol 11:100–105Google Scholar
  137. Janistyn B (1983) Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric identification and quantification of cyclic guanosine 3’,5’-cyclic monophosphate in maize seedlings. Planta 159:382–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Jasid S, Simontacchi M, Puntarulo S (2008) Exposure to nitric oxide protects against oxidative damage but increases the labile iron pool in sorghum embryonic axes. J Exp Bot 59:3953–3962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Jin J-W, Xu Y-F, Huang Y-F (2010) Protective effect of nitric oxide against arsenic-induced oxidative damage in tall fescue leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 9:1619–1627Google Scholar
  140. Kaiser WM, Weiner H, Kandlbinder A, Tsai C-B, Rockel P, Sonoda M, Planchet E (2002) Modulation of nitrate reductase: some new insights, an unusual case and a potentially important side reaction. J Exp Bot 53:875–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Khurana A, Khurana JP, Babbar SB (2011) Nitric oxide induces flowering in the duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. (Syn. L. paucicostata Hegelm.) under noninductive conditions. J Plant Growth Regul. doi: 10.1007/s00344-011-9199-7
  142. Kim T-Y, Jo M-H, Hong J-H (2010) Protective effect of nitric oxide against oxidative stress under UV-B radiation in maize leaves. J Environ Sci 19:1323–1334Google Scholar
  143. Klepper LA (1979) Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from herbicide-treated soybean plants. Atmosph Environ 13:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Kolbert Z, Bartha B, Erdei L (2008) Exogenous auxin-induced NO synthesis is nitrate reductase-associated in Arabidopsis thaliana root primordia. J Plant Physiol 165:967–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kopyra M, Gwóźdź EA (2003) Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and counteracts the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and salinity on root growth of Lupinus luteus. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:1011–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Korhonen R, Lahti A, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E (2005) Nitric oxide production and signaling in inflammation. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 4:471–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kovacic P, Somanathan R (2011) Integrated approach to nitric oxide in animals and plants (mechanism and bioactivity): Cell signaling and radicals. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 31:111–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Kozlowski TT (1997) Responses of woody plants to flooding and salinity. Tree Physiol Monogr 1:1–29Google Scholar
  149. Krasylenko YA, Yemets AI, Blume YB (2010) Functional role of nitric oxide in plants. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:451–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Kumar D, Klessig DF (2000) Differential induction of tobacco MAP kinases by the defence signals nitric oxide, salicylic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 13:347–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kumutha D, Ezhilmathi K, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Deshmukh PS, Meena RC (2009) Water-logging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in pigeon pea genotypes. Biol Plant 53:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lamattina L, Garcia-Mata C, Graziano M, Pagnussat G (2003) Nitric oxide: the versatility of an extensive signal molecule. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:109–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lamotte O, Gould K, Lecourieux D, Sequeira-Legrand A, Lebrun-Garcia A, Durner J, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2004) Analysis of nitric oxide signaling functions in tobacco cells challenged by the elicitor cryptogein. Plant Physiol 135:516–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lamotte O, Courtois C, Dobrowolska G, Besson A, Pugin A, Wendehenne D (2006) Mechanisms of nitric oxide-induced increase of free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells. Free Rad Biol Med 40:1369–1376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Lanteri ML, Laxalt AM, Lamattina L (2008) Nitric oxide triggers phosphatidic acid accumulation via phospholipase D during auxin-induced adventitious root formation in cucumber. Plant Physiol 147:188–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Laspina NV, Groppa MD, Tomaro ML, Benavides MP (2005) Nitric oxide protects sunflower leaves against Cd-induced oxidative stress. Plant Sci 169:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Leach J, Keyster M, Du Plessis M, Ludidi N (2010) Nitric oxide synthase activity is required for development of functional nodules in soybean. J Plant Physiol 167:1584–1591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Lee U, Wie C, Fernández BO, Feelisch M, Vierling E (2008) Modulation of nitrosative stress by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase is critical for thermo- tolerance and plant growth in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 20:786–802PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Leisner CP, Cousins AB, Offermann S, Okita TW, Edwards GE (2010) The effects of salinity on photosynthesis and growth of the single-cell C4 species Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae). Photosynth Res 106:201–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Leitner M, Vandelle E, Gaupels F, Bellin D, Delledonne M (2009) NO signals in the haze: Nitric oxide signalling in plant defence. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:451–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Leshem YY (1996) Nitric oxide in biological systems. Plant Growth Regul 18:155–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Leshem YY, Haramaty E (1996) The characterization and contrasting effects of the nitric oxide free radicals in vegetative stress and senescence of Pisum sativum. J Plant Physiol 148:258–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Li Q-Y, Niud H-B, Yind J, Wanga M-B, Shao HB, Deng DZ, Chen X-X, Ren J-P, Li Y-C (2008) Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative-stress induced by salt stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Colloids Surf B: Biointer 65:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Li CH, Li Y, Wuyun TN, Wu GL, Jiang GM (2010a) Effects of high concentration ozone on soybean growth and grain yield. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 21:2347–2352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Li X, Shen X, Li J, Eneji AE, Li Z, Tian X, Duan L (2010b) Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings. J Integr Plant Biol 52:616–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Lindermayr C, Durner J (2009) S-nitrosylation in plants: pattern and function. J Proteomics 73:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lindermayr C, Saalbach G, Bahnweg G, Durner J (2006) Differential inhibition of Arabidopsis methionine adenosyltransferases by protein S-nitrosylation. J Biol Chem 281:4285–4291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Liu Y, Wu R, Wan Q, Xie G, Bi Y (2007) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a pivotal role in nitric oxide-involved defense against oxidative stress under salt stress in red kidney bean roots. Plant Cell Physiol 48:511–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Liu X, Wang L, Liu L, Guo Y, Ren H (2011) Alleviating effect of exogenous nitric oxide in cucumber seedling against chilling stress. Afr J Biotechnol 10:4380–4386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: An overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mahmood T, Gupta KJ, Kaiser WM (2009) Cadmium stress stimulates nitric oxide production by wheat roots. Pak J Bot 41:1285–1290Google Scholar
  172. Mansuy D, Boucher JL (2002) Oxidation of N-hydroxyguanidines by cytochromes P450 and NO-synthases and formation of nitric oxide. Drug Metab Rev 34:593–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Mazid M, Khan TA, Mohammad F (2011a) Role of Nitric oxide in regulation of H2O2 mediating tolerance of plants to abiotic stress: A synergistic signalling approach. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:34–74Google Scholar
  174. Mazid M, Khan TA, Mohammad F (2011b) Potential of NO and H2O2 as signaling molecules in tolerance to abiotic stress in plants. J Ind Res Tech 1:56–68Google Scholar
  175. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, Friedlingstein P, Gaye AT, Gregory JM, Kitoh A, Knutti R, Murphy JM, Noda A, Raper SCB, Watterson IG, Weaver AJ, Zhao ZC (2007) Global Climate Projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp 749–845Google Scholar
  176. Meilhoc E, Boscari A, Bruand C, Puppo A, Brouquisse R (2011) Nitric oxide in legume–rhizobium symbiosis. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.04.007
  177. Millar TM, Stevens CR, Benjamin N, Eisenthal R, Harrison R, Blake DR (1998) Xanthine oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to nitric oxide under hypoxic conditions. FEBS Lett 427:225–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Mingchi L, Xiangli L, Jing H, Lihong G (2010) Effect of simulated drought stress on plant growth, yield and fruit properties of tomato. Acta Hort 856:193–202Google Scholar
  179. Misra AN, Misra M, Singh R (2011a) Nitric oxide: A ubiquitous signaling molecule with diverse role in plants. Afr J Plant Sci 5:57–74Google Scholar
  180. Misra AN, Misra M, Singh R (2011b) Nitric oxide biochemistry, mode of action and signaling in plants. J Med Plants Res 4:2729–2739Google Scholar
  181. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Van Breusegem F (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9:490–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2004) Salinity up‐regulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt‐tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. J Exp Bot 55:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Molassiotis A, Fotopoulos V (2011) Oxidative and nitrosative signaling in plants: two branches in the same tree? Plant Signal Behav 6:210–214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Moldau H (1999) Ozone detoxification in the mesophyll cell wall during a simulated oxidative burst. Free Radic Res 31:19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Moncada S, Palmer RMJ, Higgs EA (1991) Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 43:109–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Moreau M, Lindermayr C, Durner J, Klessig DF (2010) NO synthesis and signalling in plants: where do we stand? Physiol Plant 138:372–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Nagase S, Takemura K, Ueda A, Hirayama A (1997) A novel nonenzymatic pathway for the generation of nitric oxide by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and d-or l-arginine. FEBS Lett 233:150–153Google Scholar
  189. Nahar K, Biswas JK, Shamsuzzaman AMM, Hasanuzzaman M, Barman HN (2009) Screening of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes against low temperature stress. Bot Res Int 2:295–303Google Scholar
  190. Nasibi F, Kalantari KM (2009) Influence of nitric oxide in protection of tomato seedling against oxidative stress induced by osmotic stress. Acta Physiol Plant 31:1037–1044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Neill S (2007) Interactions between abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediate survival responses during water stress. New Phytol 175:4–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Neill SJ, Desikan R, Clarke A, Hancock JT (2002a) Nitric oxide is a novel component of abscisic acid signalling in stomatal guard cells. Plant Physiol 128:13–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Neill SJ, Desikan R, Clarke A, Hurst RD, Hancock JT (2002b) Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide as signalling molecules in plants. J Exp Bot 53:1237–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Neill SJ, Desikan R, Hancock JT (2003) Nitric oxide signalling in plants. New Phytol 159:11–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Neill S, Barros R, Bright J, Desikan R, Hancock J, Harrison J, Morris P, Ribeiro D, Wilson I (2008) Nitric oxide, stomatal closure, and abiotic stress. J Exp Bot 59:165–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Newton RP, Roef L, Witters E, van Onckelen H (1999) Cyclic nucleotides in higher plants: the enduring paradox. New Phytol 143:427–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Ninnemann H, Maier J (1996) Indications for the occurrence of nitric oxide synthases in fungi and plants and the involvement in photoconidiation of Neurospora crassa. Photochem Photobiol 64:393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Noble AD, Ruaysoongnern S (2010) The nature of sustainable agriculture. In: Dixon GR, Tilston EL (eds) Soil microbiology and sustainable crop production. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Ötvös K, Pasternak T, Miskolczi P, Domoki M, Dorjgotov D, Szücs A, Bottka S, Dudits S, Fehér A (2005) Nitric oxide is involved in the activation of cell division and somatic embryo formation in alfalfa. Plant J 43:849–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Pagnussat GC, Simontacchi M, Puntarulo S, Lamattina L (2002) Nitric oxide is required for root organogenesis. Plant Physiol 129:954–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Pagnussat GC, Lanteri ML, Lombardo MC, Lamattina L (2004) Nitric oxide mediates the indole-acetic acid activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in adventitious root formation. Plant Physiol 135:279–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Palavan-Unsal N, Arisan D (2009) Nitric oxide signaling in plants. Bot Rev 75:203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Palma JM, Sandalio LM, Corpas FJ, Romero-Puertas MC, McCarthy I, del Rıo LA (2002) Plant proteases, protein degradation, and oxidative stress: role of peroxisomes. Plant Physiol Biochem 40:521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Palmieri MC, Sell S, Huang X, Scherf M, Werner T, Durner J, Lindermayr C (2008) Nitric oxide-responsive genes and promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana: a bioinformatics approach. J Exp Bot 59:177–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Phang IC, Leung DWM, Taylor HH, Burritt DJ (2011) The protective effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to toxic level of Pb is not linked to avoidance of Pb uptake. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 74:1310–1315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Planchet E, Gupta KJ, Sonoda M, Kaiser WM (2005) Nitric oxide emission from tobacco leaves and cell suspensions: rate limiting factors and evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial electron transport. Plant J 41:732–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Polverari A, Molesini B, Pezzotti M, Buonaurio R, Marte M, Delledonne M (2003) Nitric oxide-mediated transcriptional changes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 16:1094–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Popova L, Tuan T (2010) Nitric oxide in plants: properties, biosynthesis and physiological functions. Iranian J Sci Technol Trans A 34:173–183Google Scholar
  209. Poschenrieder C, Barceló J (2004) Water relations in heavy metal stressed plants. In: Prasad MNV (ed) Heavy metal stress in plants, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 249–270Google Scholar
  210. Procházková D, Wilhelmová N (2011) Nitric oxide, reactive nitrogen species and associated enzymes during plant senescence. Nitric Oxide 24:61–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Qiao W, Fan L-M (2008) Nitric oxide signalling in plant responses to abiotic stresses. J Integrative Plant Biol 50:1238–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Qu Y, Feng H, Wang Y, Zhang M, Cheng J (2006) Nitric oxide functions as a signal in ultraviolet-B induced inhibition of pea stems elongation. Plant Sci 170:994–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rao MV, Davis KR (2001) The physiology of ozone induced cell death. Planta 213:682–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Raziuddin, Farhatullah, Hassan G, Akmal M, Shah SS1, Mohammad F, Shafi M, Bakht J, Zhou W (2011) Effects of cadmium and salinity on growth and photosynthesis parameters of Brassica species. Pak J Bot 43:333–340Google Scholar
  215. Ren J, Dai W, Xuan Z, Yao Y, Korpelainen H, Li C (2007) The effect of drought and enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth and physiological traits of two contrasting poplar species. For Ecol Manage 239:112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Ribeiro EA, Cunha FQ, Tamashiro WMSC, Martins IS (1999) Growth phase-dependent subcellular localization of nitric oxide synthase in maize cells. FEBS Lett 445:283–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rockel P, Strube F, Rockel A, Wildt J, Kaiser WM (2002) Regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by plant nitrate reductase in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Bot 53:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rodríguez M, Canales E, Borrás-Hidalgo O (2005) Molecular aspects of abiotic stress in plants. Biotecnol Aplic 22:1–10Google Scholar
  219. Rodríguez-Serrano M, Romero-Puertas MC, Pazmiño DM, Testillano PS, Risueño MC, del Río LA, Sandalio LM (2009) Cellular response of pea plants to cadmium toxicity: cross talk between reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and calcium. Plant Physiol 150:229–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Roleda MY, Hanelt D, Wiencke C (2006a) Growth and DNA damage in young Laminaria sporophytes exposed to ultraviolet radiation: implication for depth zonation of kelps on Helgoland (North Sea). Marine Biol 148:1201–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Roleda MY, Wiencke C, Lüder UH (2006b) Impact of Ultraviolet radiation on cell structure, UV-absorbing compounds, photosynthesis, DNA damage, and germination in zoospores of Arctic Saccorhiza dermatodea. J Exp Bot 57:3847–3856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Morales D, Torrecillas A (1996) Water relations of Fino lemon plants on two rootstocks under flooded conditions. Plant Sci 120:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Rumer S, Gupta KJ, Kaiser WM (2009) Plant cells oxidize hydroxylamines to NO. J Exp Bot 60:2065–2072PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Rusterucci C, Espunya MC, Diaz M, Chabannes M, Martinez MC (2007) S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase affords protection against pathogens in Arabidopsis, both locally and systemically. Plant Physiol 143:1282–1292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Sairam RK, Kumutha D, Ezhilmathi K, Chinnusamy V, Meena RC (2009) Water-logging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in pigeon pea. Biol Plant 53:493–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Sairam RK, Dharmar K, Lekshmy S, Chinnusam V (2011) Expression of antioxidant defense genes in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) roots under water-logging is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Acta Physiol Plant 33:735–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Sakihama Y, Nakamura S, Yamasaki H (2002) Nitric oxide production mediated by nitrate reductase in the green alaga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. An alternative NO production pathway in photosynthetic organisms. Plant Cell Physiol 43:290–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Samuel MA, Miles GP, Ellis BE (2000) Ozone treatment rapidly activates MAP kinase signalling in plants. Plant J 22:367–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Sandalio LM, Fernandez VM, Ruperez FL, del Rıo LA (1988) Superoxide free radicals are produced in glyoxysomes. Plant Physiol 87:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Sang J, Jiang M, Lin F, Xu S, Zhang A, Tan M (2008) Nitric oxide reduces hydrogen peroxide accumulation involved in water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant defense in maize plants. J Integr Plant Biol 50:231–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Santa-Cruz DM, Pacienza NA, Polizio AH, Balestrasse KB, Tomaro ML, Yannarelli GG (2010) Nitric oxide synthase-like dependent NO production enhances heme oxygenase up-regulation in ultraviolet-B-irradiated soybean plants. Phytochemistry 71:1700–1707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Schraudner M, Langebartels C, Sandermann H (1997) Changes in the biochemical status of plant cells induced by the environmental pollutant ozone. Physiol Plant 100:274–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Seligman K, Saviani EE, Oliveira HC, Pinto-Maglio CA, Salgado I (2008) Floral transition and nitric oxide emission during flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana is affected in nitrate reductase-deficient plants. Plant Cell Physiol 49:1112–1121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2008) The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends Plant Sci 14:43–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Drought induces oxidative stress and enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice seedlings. Plant Growth Regul 46:209–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2007) Involvement of oxidative stress and role of antioxidative defense system in growing rice seedlings exposed to toxic levels of aluminium. Plant Cell Rep 26:2027–2038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sharma P, Sharma N, Deswal R (2005) The molecular biology of the low-temperature response in plants. Bioessays 27:1048–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Sheokand S, Bhankar V, Sawhney V (2010) Ameliorative effect of exogenous nitric oxide on oxidative metabolism in NaCl treated chickpea plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 22:81–90Google Scholar
  239. Shi FM, Li YZ (2008) Verticillium dahliae toxins-induced nitric oxide production in Arabidopsis is major dependent on nitrate reductase. BMB Rep 41:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Shi S, Wang G, Wang Y, Zhang L, Zhang L (2005) Protective effect of nitric oxide against oxidative stress under ultraviolet-B radiation. Nitric Oxide 13:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Shi Q, Ding F, Wang X, Wei M (2007) Exogenous nitric oxide protect cucumber roots against oxidative stress induced by salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:542–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Siddiqui MH, Al-Whaibi MH, Basalah MO (2011) Role of nitric oxide in tolerance of plants to abiotic stress. Protoplasma 248:447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Singh HP, Batish DR, Kaur G, Arora K, Kohli RK (2008) Nitric oxide (as sodium nitroprusside) supplementation ameliorates Cd toxicity in hydroponically grown wheat roots. Environ Exp Bot 63:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Singh HP, Kaur S, Batish DR, Sharma VP, Sharma N, Kohli RK (2009) Nitric oxide alleviates arsenic toxicity by reducing oxidative damage in the roots of rice. Nitric Oxide 20:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Singh R, Singh S, Tripathi R, Agrawal SB (2011) Supplemental UV-B radiation induced changes in growth, pigments and antioxidant pool of bean (Dolichos lablab) under field conditions. J Environ Biol 32:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Šírová J, Sedlářová M, Piterková J, Luhová L, Petřivalský M (2011) The role of nitric oxide in the germination of plant seeds and pollen. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.03.014
  247. Solanke AU, Sharma AK (2008) Signal transduction during cold stress in plants. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 14:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Song L, Ding W, Zhao M, Sun B, Zhang L (2006) Nitric oxide protects against oxidative stress under heat stress in the calluses from two ecotypes of reed. Plant Sci 171:449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Song J, Shi G, Xing S, Chen M, Wang B (2009) Effects of nitric oxide and nitrogen on seedling emergence, ion accumulation, and seedling growth under salinity in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172:544–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Srivastava N, Gonugunta VK, Puli MR, Raghavendra AS (2009) Nitric oxide production occurs downstream of reactive oxygen species in guard cells during stomatal closure induced by chitosan in abaxial epidermis of Pisum sativum. Planta 229:757–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Stamler JS, Singel DJ, Loscalzo J (1992) Biochemistry of nitric oxide and its redox-activated forms. Science 258:1898–1902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Stöhr C, Stremlau S (2006) Formation and possible roles of nitric oxide in plant roots. J Exp Bot 57:463–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Stöhr C, Ullrich WR (2002) Generation and possible roles of NO in plant roots and their apoplastic space. J Exp Bot 53:2293–2303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Stoimenova M, Igamberdiev AU, Gupta KJ, Hill RD (2007) Nitrite-driven anaerobic ATP synthesis in barley and rice root mitochondria. Planta 226:465–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Sun Y, Li Z, Guoc B, Chud G, Wei C, Liang Y (2008) Arsenic mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 64:264–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Sung CH, Hong JK (2010) Sodium nitroprusside mediates seedling development and attenuation of oxidative stresses in Chinese cabbage. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Tan J, Zhao H, Hong J, Han Y, Li H, Zhao W (2008) Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on photosynthesis, antioxidant capacity and proline accumulation in wheat seedlings subjected to osmotic stress. World J Agric Sci 4:307–313Google Scholar
  258. Tanou G, Job C, Rajjou L, Arc E, Belghzi M, Diamantidis G, Molassiotis A, Job D (2009a) Proteomics reveal the overlapping roles of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the acclimation of citrus plants to salinity. Plant J 60:795–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Diamantidis G (2009b) Induction of reactive oxygen species and necrotic death-like destruction in strawberry leaves by salinity. Environ Exp Bot 65:270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Gr D (2009c) Hydrogen peroxide- and nitric oxide-induced systemic antioxidant prime-like activity under NaCl-stress and stress-free conditions in citrus plants. J Plant Physiol 166:1904–1913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Tewari RK, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2008) Modulation of copper toxicityinduced oxidative damage by nitric oxide supply in the adventitious roots of Panax ginseng. Plant Cell Rep 27:171–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Thomashow MF (1999) Plant cold acclimation: Freezing tolerance genes and regulatory mechanisms. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:571–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Tian X, Lei Y (2006) Nitric oxide treatment alleviates drought stress in wheat seedlings Biol Plant. Biol Plant 50:775–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Tian QY, Sun DH, Zhao MG, Zhang WH (2007) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) ­underlies aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in Hibiscus moscheutos. New Phytol 174:322–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Tossi V, Lamattina L, Cassia R (2009) An increase in the concentration of abscisic acid is critical for nitric oxide-mediated plant adaptive responses to UV-B irradiation. New Phytol 181:871–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Tun NN, Santa-Catarina C, Begum T, Silveira V, Handro W, Floh EIS, Scherer GFE (2006) Polyamines induce rapid biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol 47:346–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Uchida A, Jagendorf AT, Hibino T, Takabe T (2002) Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Sci 163:515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Veitch NC (2004) Horseradish peroxidase: a modern review of a classic enzyme. Phytochemistry 65:249–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Verheul MJ, Picatto C, Stamp P (1996) Growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings under chilling conditions in the field. Eur J Agron 5:31–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: An overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Wang YS, Yang ZM (2005) Nitric oxide reduces aluminium toxicity by preventing oxidative stressing the roots of Cassia tora L. Plant Cell Physiol 46:1915–1923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wang WX, Vinocur B, Shoseyov O, Altman A (2001) Biotechnology of plant osmotic stress tolerance: physiological and molecular considerations. Acta Hort 560:285–292Google Scholar
  273. Wang Y, Feng H, Qu Y, Cheng J, Zhao Z, Zhang M, Wang X, An L (2006) The relationship between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in ultraviolet-B–induced ethylene production in leaves of maize seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 57:51–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Wang L, Yang L, Yang F, Li X, Song Y, Wang X, Hu X (2010) Involvements of H2O2 and metallothionein in NO-mediated tomato tolerance to copper toxicity. J Plant Physiol 167:1298–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wendehenne D, Courtois C, Besson A, Gravot A, Buchwalter A, Pugin A, Lamotte O (2006) NO-based signaling in plants. In: Lamattina L, Polacco JC (eds) Nitric oxide in plant growth, development and stress physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 35–51Google Scholar
  276. Wilson ID, Neill SJ, Hancock JT (2008) Nitric oxide synthesis and signalling in plants. Plant Cell Environ 31:622–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Wimalasekera R, Tebartz F, Scherer GFE (2011) Polyamines, polyamine oxidases and nitric oxide in development, abiotic and biotic stresses. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.04.002
  278. Wink DA, Hanbauer I, Krishna MC, De Graff W, Gamson J, Mitchel JB (1993) Nitric oxide protects against cellular damage and cytotoxicity form reactive oxygen species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:9813–9817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Wojtaszek P (2000) Nitric oxide in plants: To NO or not to NO. Phytochemistry 54:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Wollenweber B, Porter JR, Schellberg J (2003) Lack of interaction between extreme high temperature events at vegetative and reproductive growth stages in wheat. J Agron Crop Sci 189:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wu SJ, Qi JL, Zhang WJ, Liu SH, Xiao FH, Zhang MS, Xu GH, Zhao WG, Shi MW, Pang YJ, Shen HG, Yang YH (2009) Nitric oxide regulates shikonin formation in suspension-cultured Onosma paniculatum cells. Plant Cell Physiol 50:118–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Wu X, Zhu W, Zhang H, Ding H, Zhang HJ (2011) Exogenous nitric oxide protects against salt-induced oxidative stress in the leaves from two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.). Acta Physiol Plant 33:1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Xin L, Wuliang S, Shuqiu Z, Chenghou Z (2005) Nitric oxide involved in signal transduction of jasmonic acid-induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L. Chinese Sci Bull 50:520–525Google Scholar
  284. Xing HL, Tan L, Zhao An Z, Wang S, Zhang C (2004) Evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in osmotic stress tolerance of wheat seedlings: Inverse correlation between leaf abscisic acid accumulation leaf water loss. Plant Growth Regul 42:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Xiong J, An L, Lu H, Zhu C (2009) Exogenous nitric oxide enhances cadmium tolerance of rice by increasing pectin and hemicelluloses contents in root cell wall. Planta 230:755–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Xiong J, Fu G, Tao L, Zhu C (2010) Roles of nitric oxide in alleviating heavy metal toxicity in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 497:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Xiong J, Zhang L, Fu G, Yang Y, Zhu C (2011) Longxing Tao (2011) Drought-induced proline accumulation is uninvolved with increased nitric oxide, which alleviates drought stress by decreasing transpiration in rice. J Plant Res. doi: 10.1007/s10265-011-0417-y
  288. Xu YC, Zhao BL (2003) The main origin of endogenous NO in higher non-leguminous plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:833–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Xu J, Wang W, Yin H, Liu X, Sun H, Mi Q (2010a) Exogenous nitric oxide improves antioxidative capacity and reduces auxin degradation in roots of Medicago truncatula seedlings under cadmium stress. Plant Soil 326:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Xu Y, Sun X, Jin J, Zhou H (2010b) Protective effect of nitric oxide on light-induced oxidative damage in leaves of tall fescue. J Plant Physiol 167:512–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Xu Y-F, Sun X-L, Jin J-W, Zhou H (2010c) Protective roles of nitric oxide on antioxidant systems in tall fescue leaves under high-light stress. Afr J Biotechnol 9:300–306Google Scholar
  292. Yadav SK (2010) Cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants: A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:515–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Yamasaki H, Sakihama Y, Takahashi S (1999) An alternative pathway for nitric oxide production in plants: new features of an old enzyme. Trends Plant Sci 4:128–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Yamasaki H, Shimoji H, Ohshiro Y, Sakihama Y (2001) Inhibitory effects of nitric oxide on oxidative phosphorylation in plant mitochondria. Nitric Oxide 5:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Yan K, Chen W, He X, Zhang G, Xu S, Wang L (2010a) Responses of photosynthesis, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in leaves of Quercus mongolica to elevated O3. Environ Exp Bot 69:198–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Yan K, Chen W, Zhang GY, He XY, Li X, Xu S (2010b) Effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on active oxygen metabolism of Quercus mongolica leaves. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 21:557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Yang J-D, Yun J-Y, Zhang T-H, Zhao H-L (2006) Presoaking with nitric oxide donor SNP alleviates heat shock damages in mung bean leaf discs. Bot Stud 47:129–136Google Scholar
  298. Yang H, Wu F, Cheng J (2011) Reduced chilling injury in cucumber by nitric oxide and the antioxidant response. Food Chem 127:1237–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Yemets AI, Krasylenko YA, Lytvyn DI, Sheremet YA, Blume YB (2011) Nitric oxide signalling via cytoskeleton in plants. Plant Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2011.04.017
  300. Yin H, Chen QM, Yi MF (2008) Effects of short-term heat stress on oxidative damage and responses of antioxidant system in Lilium longiflorum. Plant Growth Regul 54:45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Zemojtel T, Penzkofer T, Dandekar T, Schultz J (2004) A novel conserved family of nitric oxide synthase? Trends Biochem Sci 29:224–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Zhang M, An L, Feng H, Chen T, Chen K, Liu Y, Tang H, Wang CH (2003) The cascade mechanisms of nitric oxide as second messenger of ultraviolet-B in inhibiting mesocotyl elongation. Photochem Photobiol 77:219–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Zhang YY, Wang LL, Liu YL, Zhang Q, Wei QP, Zhang WH (2006) Nitric oxide enhances salt tolerance in maize seedlings through increasing activities of proton-pump and Na+/H+ antiport in the tonoplast. Planta 224:545–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Zhang A, Jiang M, Zhang J, Ding H, Xu S, Hu X, Tan M (2007) Nitric oxide induced by hydrogen peroxide mediates abscisic acid-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade involved in antioxidant defense in maize leaves. New Phytol 175:36–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Zhang H, Li YH, Hu LY, Wang SH, Zhang FQ, Hu KD (2008) Effects of exogenous nitric oxide donor on antioxidant metabolism in wheat leaves under aluminum stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 55:469–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Zhang B, Wang HQ, Liu BL, Liu J, Wang X, Liu Q, Zhang HG (2010a) A potato NOA gene increased salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Afr J Biotechnol 9:5869–5878Google Scholar
  307. Zhang X, Shen L, Li F, Zhang Y, Meng D, Sheng J (2010b) Up-regulating arginase contributes to amelioration of chilling stress and the antioxidant system in cherry tomato fruits. J Sci Food Agric 90:2195–2202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Zhao L, Zhang F, Guo J, Yang Y, Li B, Zhang L (2004) Nitric oxide functions as a signal in salt resistance in the calluses from two ecotypes of reed. Plant Physiol 134:848–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Zhao M, Zhao X, Wu Y, Zhang L (2007) Enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress in an Arabidopsis nitric oxide synthase mutant. J Plant Physiol 164:737–745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Zhao L, He JX, Wang XM, Zhang LX (2008) Nitric oxide protects against polyethylene glycol-induced oxidative damage in two ecotypes of reed suspension cultures. J Plant Physiol 165:182–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Zhao MG, Chen L, Zhang LL, Zhang WH (2009) Nitric reductase-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 151:755–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Zheng YH, Jia AJ, Ning TY, Xu JL, Li ZJ, Jiang GM (2008) Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance. J Plant Physiol 165:1455–1465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Zheng C, Jiang D, Liu F, Dai T, Liu W, Jing Q, Cao W (2009) Exogenous nitric oxide improves seed germination in wheat against mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by high salinity. Environ Exp Bot 67:222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Zheng C, Jiang D, Dai T, Jing Q, Cao W (2010) Effects nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, on carbon and nitrogen metabolism and the activity of the antioxidant system in wheat seedlings under salt stress. Acta Ecol Sin 30:1174–1183Google Scholar
  315. Zhou B, Guo Z, Xing J, Huang B (2005) Nitric oxide is involved in abscisic acid-induced antioxidant activities in Stylosanthes guianensis. J Exp Bot 56:3223–3228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Zhu SH, Zhou J (2007) Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene production in strawberry fruit during storage. Food Chem 100:1517–1522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Zottini M, Formentin E, Scattolin M, Carimi F, Schiavo FL, Terzi M (2002) Nitric oxide affects plant mitochondrial functionality in vivo. FEBS Lett 515:75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sarvajeet Singh Gill
    • 3
  • Masayuki Fujita
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological ScienceKagawa UniversityKita-gunJapan
  2. 2.Department of AgronomySher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Lab, Centre for BiotechnologyMD UniversityRohtakIndia

Personalised recommendations