Papanicolaou Stain

  • Gary W. Gill
Part of the Essentials in Cytopathology book series (EICP, volume 12)


Phosphotungstic Acid Staining Result Harris Hematoxylin Quality Assessment Method Staining Time 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Böhmer F. Zur pathologischen Anatomie der Meningitis cerebromedularis epidemica. Aerztl Intelligenzb (Munich). 1865;12:539–50.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fischer E. Eosin als Tinctionsmittel für mikroskopische Präparate. Arch Mikrosk Anat. 1875;12:349–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wissowzky A. Ueber das Eosin als reagenz auf Hämoglobin und die Bildung von Blutgefässen und Blutkörperchen bei Säugetier und Hühnerembryonen. Arch Mikrosk Anat. 1876;13:479–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bracegirdle B. A history of microtechnique. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 1978.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mann G. Physiological histology. Oxford, England: Clarendon; 1902.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harris HF. On the rapid conversion of haematoxylin into haematein in staining reactions. J Appl Microsc. 1900;3(3):777–80.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scott SG. On successive double staining for histological purposes—(preliminary note). J Path Bact. 1911–1912;16:390–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trotman SR, Frearson TB. New methods for the quantitative analysis of dyestuffs. J Soc Dyers Colourists. 1931;47(12):344–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Papanicolaou GN. A new procedure for staining vaginal smears. Science. 1942;95:438–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Papanicolaou GN. Atlas of exfoliative cytology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1954.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Papanicolaou GN. Memorandum on staining. In: Atlas of exfoliative cytology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Supplement II; 1960. p. 12.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gill GW, Frost JK, Miller KA. A new formula for a half-oxidized hematoxylin solution that cannot overstain and does not require differentiation. Acta Cytol. 1974;18(4):300–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gill GW. Bismark [sic] brown and Papanicolaou EA stains. Scanner. 1975;14(3):2.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gill GW. Enviro-Pap: an environmentally friendly, economical, and effective Pap stain. LabMedicine. 2006;37(2):105–8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gill GW. Gill hematoxylins: first person account. Biotech Histochem. 2010;85(1):7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scott MD. Liability issues with the Papanicolaou smear: an insurance industry perspective. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997;121(3):239–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mallory FB. A contribution to staining methods. J Exp Med. 1900;5:15–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singer M. Factors which control the staining of tissue sections with acid and basic dyes. Int Rev Cytol. 1952;1:211–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Creative Waste Solutions, Inc. Alcohol Recycling—BTARS (Bench Top Alcohol Recycling System). Available at Accessed 22 Apr 2012.
  20. 20.
    Suncycle Technologies, Inc. GRAC (Gravity Recycling Alcohol Cartridge) System. Available at Accessed 22 Apr 2012.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary W. Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent Cytological ConsultantIndianapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations