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The Dawn Spacecraft

  • Valerie C. Thomas
  • Joseph M. Makowski
  • G. Mark Brown
  • John F. McCarthy
  • Dominick Bruno
  • J. Christopher Cardoso
  • W. Michael Chiville
  • Thomas F. Meyer
  • Kenneth E. Nelson
  • Betina E. Pavri
  • David A. Termohlen
  • Michael D. Violet
  • Jeffrey B. Williams

Abstract

The Dawn spacecraft is designed to travel to and operate in orbit around the two largest main belt asteroids, Vesta and Ceres. Developed to meet a ten-year life and fully redundant, the spacecraft accommodates an ion propulsion system, including three ion engines and xenon propellant tank, utilizes large solar arrays to power the engines, carries the science instrument payload, and hosts the hardware and software required to successfully collect and transmit the scientific data back to Earth. The launch of the Dawn spacecraft in September 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station was the culmination of nearly five years of design, development, integration and testing of this unique system, one of the very few scientific spacecraft to rely on ion propulsion. The Dawn spacecraft arrived at its first destination, Vesta, in July 2011, where it will conduct science operations for twelve months before departing for Ceres.

Keywords

The Orbital—JPL partnership Early spacecraft concept evolution Spacecraft design drivers 

Acronyms

AA

Active Analog

AC

Attitude Control

ACE

Attitude Control Electronics

ACS

Attitude Control Subsystem

AMBI

Advanced Spaceborne Computer Module Bus Interface

APE

Attitude and Power Electronics

ARM

Autonomous Redundancy Management

ATLO

Assembly, Test, and Launch Operations

BL

Bi-Level

BSP

Board Support Package

CADU

Channel Access Data Units

CBE

Current Best Estimate

CCD

Charge-Coupled Device

CCSDS

Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems

CDHS

Command and Data Handling Subsystem

CEU

Central Electronics Unit

CPT

Comprehensive Performance Test

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CTT

Compatibility Test Trailer

CS

Checksum

CSS

Coarse Sun Sensor

DAS

Data Acquisition System

DCIU

Digital Command Interface Unit

DI

Diagnostic

DL

DownLink

DOD

Depth of Discharge

DOR

Differential One-way Ranging

DRAM

Dynamic Random Access Memory

DS

Data Storage

DS1

Deep Space 1

DSN

Deep Space Network

EEPROM

Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EMC

ElectroMagnetic Compatibility

EMI

ElectroMagnetic Interference

EPS

Electrical Power Subsystem

FEM

Finite Element Model

FOV

Field of View

FPA

Fuse Protect Assembly

FS

Flight System

FSW

Flight SoftWare

GALEX

Galaxy Explorer

GRaND

Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

HAMO

High Altitude Mapping Orbit

HDRM

Hold-Down Release Mechanisms

HGA

High Gain Antenna

HLP

Hardware Logic Pulse

HS

Health and Safety

HVCE

High Voltage Control Electronics

HVDC

High Voltage Down Converter

HVEA

High Voltage Electronics Assembly

HVRA

High Voltage Relay Assembly

IPS

Ion Propulsion System

IRU

Inertial Reference Unit

ISR

Interrupt Service Routine

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

LGA

Low Gain Antennas

LILT

Low Intensity/Low Temperature

LPT

Limited Performance Tests

LVPS

Low Voltage Power Supply

KSC

Kennedy Space Center

LAMO

Low Altitude Mapping Orbit

MBAR

Main Belt Asteroid Rendezvous

MLI

Multi-Layer Insulation

MUC

Mission-Unique Card

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

OBC

On-Board Processor

OIP

Optional Internal Processor

OS

Operating System

OV4

OrbView-4

PA

Passive Analog

PAF

Payload Attach Fitting

PCE

Power Control Electronics

PDU

Power Distribution Unit

PPU

Power Processing Unit

PSP

Priority Status Packet

P/T

Pressure/Temperature

PVCDU

Partial Virtual Channel Data Units

RAM

Random Access Memory

RCS

Reaction Control Subsystem

RDF

Radiation Design Factor

REA

Reaction Engine Assembly

ROM

Read-Only Memory

RTS

Relative Time Sequence

RWA

Reaction Wheel Assembly

S/A

Solar Array

SAD

Solar Array Drive

SADA

Solar Array Drive Assemblies

SADE

Solar Array Drive Electronics

SAS

Solar Array Simulator

SB

Software Bus

SC

Stored Command

S/C

Spacecraft

SDST

Small Deep Space Transponder

SEFI

Single Event Functional Interrupt

SEU

Single Event Upset

SM

Software Manager

SMF

Satellite Manufacturing Facility

SORCE

Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

SRAM

Static RAM

STs

Star Trackers

STM

Structural Test Model

SUROM

Start-Up ROM

TA

Telemetry Agent

TARA

Two-Axis Rate Assembly (inertial reference unit)

TC

Time Code

TCXO

Temperature-Controlled Crystal Oscillator

TEC

Thermal Electric Cooler

TG

Telemetry Gatherer

TGA

Thruster Gimbal Assembly

TMON

Telemetry Monitor

TO

Telemetry Output

TP

Thermal Processor

TQCM

Temperature Controlled Quartz Crystal Microbalance

TS

Telemetry and Statistics

TVAC

Thermal Vacuum

TVC

Thrust Vector Control

TWTA

Traveling Wave Tube Amplifiers

UL

Uplink

VCDU

Virtual Channel Data Units

VCID

Virtual Channel Identifiers

VIR

Visible and InfraRed mapping spectrometer

VM

Virtual Machine

VML

Virtual Machine Language

VR

Virtual Recorder

V/T

Voltage/Temperature

WDT

Watch Dog Timer

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valerie C. Thomas
    • 1
  • Joseph M. Makowski
    • 2
  • G. Mark Brown
    • 1
  • John F. McCarthy
    • 2
  • Dominick Bruno
    • 2
  • J. Christopher Cardoso
    • 2
  • W. Michael Chiville
    • 2
  • Thomas F. Meyer
    • 2
  • Kenneth E. Nelson
    • 2
  • Betina E. Pavri
    • 1
  • David A. Termohlen
    • 2
  • Michael D. Violet
    • 2
  • Jeffrey B. Williams
    • 2
  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA
  2. 2.Orbital Sciences CorporationDullesUSA

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