Self-medication and Illicit Drug Use in the Workplace

  • Fong Chan
  • Ebonee Johnson
  • Emma K. Hiatt
  • Chih Chin Chou
  • Elizabeth da Silva Cardoso
Part of the Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability book series (SHHDW)


Substance use has been observed throughout history and remains an urgent public health concern in many countries. In the United States alone, the cost of alcohol and other drug use is estimated to be greater than $240 billion per year (Martin, 2001). According to Janikowski, Cardoso, and Lee (2005), substance use is defined as experimental or casual consumption in which the individual exercises little control, whereas substance abuse is the maladaptive pattern of substance use, including excessive use, compulsions to use, and continued use despite negative consequences. Excessive and prolonged use of substances may result in addiction. Substance dependence is the compulsive use of a substance accompanied by increasing amounts needed to achieve the desired effect, despite negative consequences. Substance abuse and dependence are major national health crises with wide-ranging consequences (Benshoff & Janikowski, 2000; Janikowski et al., 2005). Substance abuse and addiction dominate the individual’s life, creating problems across the spectrum of physical, psychological, and social functioning (Janikowski et al., 2005). The prevalence rates for illicit drug use, marijuana use, and nonmedical use of a psychotherapeutic drug in the United States are reported to be 8.7, 6.6, and 2.8 % respectively (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2011).


Illicit Drug Motivational Interview Methadone Maintenance Treatment Therapeutic Community Physical Availability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The contents of this chapter were developed with support through the Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Effective Vocational Rehabilitation Service Delivery Practices established at both the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Wisconsin-Stout under a grant from the Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) grant number PR# H133B100034. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education, and endorsement by the Federal Government should not be assumed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fong Chan
    • 1
  • Ebonee Johnson
    • 2
  • Emma K. Hiatt
    • 2
  • Chih Chin Chou
    • 3
  • Elizabeth da Silva Cardoso
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special EducationUniversity of Wisconsin—MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special EducationUniversity of Wisconsin—MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Disability and Psychoeducational StudiesUniversity of ArizonTusconUSA
  4. 4.Department of Educational Foundations and Counseling Programs, Hunter CollegeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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