Self-medication and Illicit Drug Use in the Workplace

  • Fong Chan
  • Ebonee Johnson
  • Emma K. Hiatt
  • Chih Chin Chou
  • Elizabeth da Silva Cardoso
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability book series (SHHDW)

Abstract

Substance use has been observed throughout history and remains an urgent public health concern in many countries. In the United States alone, the cost of alcohol and other drug use is estimated to be greater than $240 billion per year (Martin, 2001). According to Janikowski, Cardoso, and Lee (2005), substance use is defined as experimental or casual consumption in which the individual exercises little control, whereas substance abuse is the maladaptive pattern of substance use, including excessive use, compulsions to use, and continued use despite negative consequences. Excessive and prolonged use of substances may result in addiction. Substance dependence is the compulsive use of a substance accompanied by increasing amounts needed to achieve the desired effect, despite negative consequences. Substance abuse and dependence are major national health crises with wide-ranging consequences (Benshoff & Janikowski, 2000; Janikowski et al., 2005). Substance abuse and addiction dominate the individual’s life, creating problems across the spectrum of physical, psychological, and social functioning (Janikowski et al., 2005). The prevalence rates for illicit drug use, marijuana use, and nonmedical use of a psychotherapeutic drug in the United States are reported to be 8.7, 6.6, and 2.8 % respectively (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA], 2011).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fong Chan
    • 1
  • Ebonee Johnson
    • 2
  • Emma K. Hiatt
    • 2
  • Chih Chin Chou
    • 3
  • Elizabeth da Silva Cardoso
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special EducationUniversity of Wisconsin—MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Special EducationUniversity of Wisconsin—MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Disability and Psychoeducational StudiesUniversity of ArizonTusconUSA
  4. 4.Department of Educational Foundations and Counseling Programs, Hunter CollegeCity University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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