The Role of Microwaves in the Extraction of Fats and Oils

  • M. D. Luque de Castro
  • M. A. Fernández-Peralbo
  • B. Linares-Zea
  • J. Linares
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


The microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of fats and oils at laboratory and industrial scales, the most common raw materials from which they are extracted, and the extractant required in each case are reviewed. The extractors used for this purpose, which range from conventional household devices to sophisticated commercial equipment, and their use at pilot and industrial plants, are discussed. Selected applications of MAE are compared with those of other energy-assisted extraction techniques (e.g., ultrasound-assisted extraction and superheated liquid extraction) and with conventional extraction to highlight its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, potential trends in the broad field of fat and oil extraction are outlined.


Pilot Plant Cocoa Butter Trans Fatty Acid Radient Technology Conventional Extraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Spain’s Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN), and the FEDER programme, for funding this work through Project CTQ2009-07430.



Accelerated solvent extraction


Continuous flow microwave-assisted extraction


Essential fatty acids


Flame-ionization detection


Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extractor


Focused microwave-assisted extraction


Gas chromatography


High-pressure solvent extraction


Liquid chromatography


Low-density lipoproteins


Liquid–liquid extraction


Microwave-assisted extraction


Microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction


Middle infrared spectrometry


Microwave integrated Soxhlet


Mass spectrometry


Nonessential fatty acids


Nuclear magnetic resonance


Pressurized fluid extraction


Pressurized hot solvent extraction




Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Superheated liquid extraction


Superheated solvent extraction


Solid-phase extraction


Solid-phase microextraction


Subcritical solvent extraction


Ultrasound and microwaves for acceleration of extraction


Ultrasound-assisted extraction


  1. 1.
    AOAC 920.39 official method, extraction of fat from bakery productsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hara M, Radin NS (1978) Anal Biochem 90:420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freyburger G, Heape A, Gin H, Boisseau M, Cassagne C (1988) Anal Biochem 171:213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Erickson MC (1993) J Food Sci 58:84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gunnlangdottir K, Ackman RG (1993) J Sci Food Agric 61:235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nelson GJ (1991) In: Perkins EG (ed) Analysis of fats, oils and lipoproteins. American Oil Chemists’ Society, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eller FJ (1999) J AOAC Int 82:766Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boselli E, Velazco V, Caboni MF, Lercker G (2001) J Chromatogr A 917:239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ruiz-Jiménez J, Luque de Castro MD (2004) Anal Chim Acta 502:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Priego-López E, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC, Ramis-Ramos G, Luque de Castro MD (2003) Food Chem 83:143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tavella M, Peterson G, Espeche M, Cavallero E, Cipolla L, Perego L, Caballero B (2000) Food Chem 69:209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ruiz Jiménez J, Priego Capote F, Luque de Castro MD (2006) Anal Bioanal Chem 385:1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Priego Capote F, Ruiz Jiménez J, García Olmo J, Luque de Castro MD (2004) Anal Chim Acta 517:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ruiz Jiménez J, Priego Capote F, García Olmo J, Luque de Castro MD (2004) Anal Chim Acta 525:159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiménez-Carmona MM, Ubera JL, Luque de Castro MD (1999) J Chromatogr A 855:625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Priego Capote F, Ruiz Jiménez J, Luque de Castro MD (2007) Food Chem 100:859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruiz Jiménez J, Priego Capote F, Luque de Castro MD (2004) J Chromatogr A 1045:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sánchez-Ávila N, Priego Capote F, Ruiz-Jiménez J, Luque de Castro MD (2009) Talanta 78:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nazari F, Ebrahimi SN, Talebi M, Rassouli A, Bijanzadeh HR (2007) Phytochem Anal 18:333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    National Academy of Sciences (1990) Nutritional labeling: issues and directions for the 1990s. Report of the Committee on the Nutrition Components of Food Labeling, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Saccomandi V (1990) Off J Eur Comm 276:40Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sheppard J (1992) Lipid manual: methodology suitable for fatty acid-cholesterol analysis. Brown, DubuqueGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Federal Register 58 (1993) 631Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    López-Ávila VJ (1999) J Assoc Off Anal Chem 82:217Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vetter W, Weichbrodt M, Hummert K, Glotz D, Luckas B (1998) Chemosphere 37:2425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weast RC (1988–1989) Handbook of chemistry and physics, 69th edn. CRC Press, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hummert K, Vetter W, Luckas B (1996) Chromatographia 42:300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kingston HM, Haswell SJ (1997) Microwave-enhanced chemistry. Professional reference book series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Leray C, Grcic T, Gutbier G, Bnouham M (1995) Analusis 23:65Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bligh EG, Dyer WJ (1959) Biochem Physiol 37:911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ewald G, Bremle G, Karlsson A (1998) Mar Pollut Bull 36:222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Renaud SM, Thinh LV, Parry LD (1999) Aquaculture 170:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Virot M, Tomao V, Ginies C, Visinoni F, Chemat F (2008) J Chromatogr A 1196:147Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Luque de Castro MD, García Ayuso LE (1998) Dispositif et installation d’extractions sous microondas de composes organiques d’un echantillon. PCT/FR97/00883Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chemat F, Tomao V, Visinoni F (2010) Microwave integrated Soxhlet. US2010/0022788 A1, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Luque de Castro MD, Priego-Capote F (2011) Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction. In: Microwaves: theoretical aspects and practical applications in chemistry. Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India p 227Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Luque de Castro MD, Priego Capote F (2010) J Chromatogr A 1217:2383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fernández-Pérez V, García-Ayuso LE, Luque de Castro MD (2000) Analyst 125:317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    García-Ayuso LE, Luque-García JL, Luque de Castro MD (2000) Anal Chem 72:3627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    García-Ayuso LE, Sánchez M, Fernández de Alba A, Luque de Castro MD (1998) Anal Chem 70:2426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Luque-García JL, Luque de Castro MD (2001) Anal Chem 73:5903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Luque-García JL, Luque de Castro MD (2003) J Chromatogr A 998:21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Virot M, Tomao V, Colnagui G, Visinoni F, Chemat F (2007) J Chromatogr A 1174:138–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Abu-Samra A, Morris JS, Koirtyohann SR (1975) Anal Chem 47:1475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mahesar SA, Sherazi STH, Kamran Abroa, Aftab Kandhro, Bhanger MI, van de Voort FR, Sedmanb J (2008) Talanta 75:1240Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bhattacharya M, Basak T (2006) Food Res Int 39(10):1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baxendale IR, Hayward JJ, Ley SV (2007) Combinatorial Chem High Throughput Screening 10(10):802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Contreras Flores VH (2010) Extracción de Aceite de Orégano Mediante Radiación de Microondas. Doctoral thesis, Instituto Tecnológico de Durango, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Terigar BG (2009) Advanced microwave technology for biodiesel feedstock processing. A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ching-Lung C, Shang-Lien L, Wen-Hui K, Ching-Hong H (2005) J Hazard Mater B 123:256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Paré JR (1995) Microwave-assisted extraction from materials containing organic matter. Patent 5,458,897, USAGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Paré JR, Bélanger MR (1994) Trends Anal Chem 13(4):176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cocchi M, Durante C, Marchetti A, Li Vigni M, Baschieri C, Bertacchini L, Siguinolfi S, Tassi L, Totaro S (2011) Optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure by means of chemometric tools. In: Microwaves: Theoretical Aspects and Practical Applications in Chemistry, Transworld Research Network, Kerala, India, p. 203Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zhang H, Xue M, Lu Y, Dai Z, Wang H (2010) J Sep Sci 33:235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smythe MC, Wakeman RJ (2000) Ultrasonics 38:657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bermejo-Barrera P, Moreda-Piñeiro A, Bermejo-Barrera A (2001) Talanta 57:969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Luchini LC, Peres TB, Andrea MM (2000) J Environ Sci Health 35:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wang T, Jia X, Wu J (2003) J Pharm Biomed Anal 33:639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ruiz-Jiménez J, Luque García JL, Luque de Castro MD (2003) Anal Chim Acta 480:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pérez Serradilla JA, Priego Capote F, Luque de Castro MD (2007) Anal Chem 79:6767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Luque de Castro MD, Priego Capote F (2007) Analytical applications of ultrasound. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Luque de Castro MD, Jiménez-Carmona MM (1998) Trends Anal Chem 17:441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Canals Hernández A, Hidalgo Nuñez MM, Domini CE, Cravotto G (2008) Method and apparatus for direct irradiation of a liquid or solid sample with microwave or ultrasound irradiation simultaneously, consecutively or alternating Universidad de Alicante, Patent No. ES 2304839, España, 2008Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zhang L, Liu Z (2008) Ultrason Sonochem 15:731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cravotto G, Boffa L, Mantegna S, Perego P, Avogadro M, Cintas P (2008) Ultrason Sonochem 15:898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen Y, Gu X, Huang S, Li J, Wang X, Tang J (2010) Int J Biol Macromol 46Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Richter BE, Jones BA, Ezzell JL, Porter NL (1996) Anal Chem 68:1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hawthorne SB, Yang Y, Miller DJ (1994) Anal Chem 66:2912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Luque de Castro MD, Luque García JL (2002) Acceleration and automation of solid sample treatment. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bjoërklund E, von Holst C, Anklam E (2002) TrAC, 21(1):40–52Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Keller JM, Swarthout RF, Carlson BKR, Yordy J, Guichard A, Schantz MM, Kucklick JR (2009) Anal Bioanal Chem 393:747–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    García-Ayuso LE, Luque de Castro MD (1999) Anal Chim Acta 382:309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    García-Ayuso LE, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC, Luque de Castro MD (2000) Chromatographia 52:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    García-Ayuso LE, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC, Luque de Castro MD (1999) J Agric Food Chem 47:2308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    García-Ayuso LE, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC, Luque de Castro MD (1999) Int Dairy J 9:667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Luque-García JL, Velasco J, Dobarganes MC, Luque de Castro MD (2002) Food Chem 76:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Priego-Capote F, Luque de Castro MD (2005) Talanta 65:81Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Batista A, Vetter W, Luckas B (2001) Eur Food Res Technol 212:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fuentes E, Báez ME, Díaz J (2009) J Chromatogr A 1216:8859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pena T, Pensado L, Casais C, Mejuto C, Phan-Tan-Luu R, Cela R (2006) J Chromatogr A 1121:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fuentes E, Báez ME, Quiñones A (2008) J Chromatogr A 1207:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fuentes E, Báez ME, Labra R (2007) J Chromatogr A 1169:40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ramalhosa MJ, Paiga P, Morais S, Rui Alves M, Delerue-Matos C, Prior Pinto Oliveira MB (2012) Food Chem 131:328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pérez-Serradilla JA, Ortiz MC, Sarabia L, Luque de Castro MD (2007) Anal Bioanal Chem 388:451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sabliov CM, Xu Z, Boldor D, Lima M, Spanier CN (2011) Spring 2011 issue of Louisiana Agriculture MagazineGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Luque de Castro
    • 1
  • M. A. Fernández-Peralbo
    • 1
  • B. Linares-Zea
    • 2
  • J. Linares
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryMaimónides Institute of Biomedical Research (IMIBIC), Reina Sofía Hospital, University of CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.DEOLEO, S.A.AndújarSpain

Personalised recommendations