Advertisement

Surgical Trends in Treatment of Thyroid Nodules, Thyroid Cancer, and Parathyroid Disease

  • Haengrang Ryu
  • Rachel Harris
  • Nancy D. Perrier
Chapter

Abstract

Operative intervention on the thyroid and parathyroid glands has been increasingly performed with minimally invasive and selective techniques over the past decade. This often requires a high-quality, preoperative imaging evaluation that provides tumor localization and knowledge of the relevant anatomical considerations. In this chapter imaging modalities are discussed with regards to benign and malignant disease. Indications for thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, and standard cervical exploration (SCE) are discussed.

Keywords

Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodule Parathyroid Gland Total Thyroidectomy Parathyroid Adenoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Hast M. The anatomy of the larynx: an aspect of renaissance anatomy by Julius Casserius. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1970;28:64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kocher T. Über Kropfextirpation und ihre Folgen. Arch Klin Chir. 1883;29:254.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gough IR, Wilkinson D. Total thyroidectomy for management of thyroid disease. World J Surg. 2000;24:962–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wheeler MH. Total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease. Lancet. 1998;351:1526–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barczýnski M, Konturek A, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, et al. Five-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial of total thyroidectomy versus Dunhill operation versus bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular nontoxic goiter. World J Surg. 2010;34:1203–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barczyński M, Konturek A, Stopa M, et al. Total thyroidectomy for benign thyroid disease: is it really worthwhile? Ann Surg. 2011; 254(5):724–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bahn Chair RS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011;21(6):593–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tan GH, Gharib H. Thyroid incidentalomas: management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(3):226–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009; 19(11):1167–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    García-Pascual L, Barahona M-J, Balsells M, at el. (2011) Complex thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology: histopathologic outcomes and comparison of the cytologic variants (cystic vs. acellular). Endocrine 39(1):33–40.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gharib H, Goellner JR, Zinsmeister AR, Grant CS, Van Heerden JA. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. The problem of suspicious cytologic findings. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101:25–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koo BS, Choi EC, Yoon YH, Kim DH, Kim EH, Lim YC. Predictive factors for ipsilateral or contralateral central lymph node metastasis in unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg. 2009;249(5):840–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roh JL, Park JY, Park CI. Total thyroidectomy plus neck dissection in differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma patients: pattern of nodal metastasis, morbidity, recurrence, and postoperative levels of serum parathyroid hormone. Ann Surg. 2007;245:604–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cavicchi O, Piccin O, Caliceti U, et al. Transient hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: a prospective study and multivariate analysis of 604 consecutive patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137:654–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kloos RT, Eng C, Evans DB, et al. Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2009;19(6):565–612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Park JS, Son KR, Na DG, Kim E, Kim S. Performance of preoperative sonographic staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma based on the sixth edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM classification system. Am J Roentgenol. 2009;192(1):66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Soler ZM, Hamilton BE, Schuff KG, Samuels MH, Cohen JI. Utility of computed tomography in the detection of subclinical nodal disease in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:973–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choi JS, Kim J, Kwak JY, Kim MJ, Chang HS, Kim EK. Preoperative staging of papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison of ultrasound imaging and CT. Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193(3):871–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karwowski JK, Jeffrey RB, McDougall IR, et al. Intraoperative ultrasonography improves identification of recurrent thyroid cancer. Surgery. 2002;132:924–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sippel RS, Elaraj DM, Poder L, et al. Localization of recurrent thyroid cancer using intraoperative ultrasound-guided dye injection. World J Surg. 2009;33:434–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perrier ND, Edeiken B, Nunez R, Gayed I, Jimenez C, Busaidy N, Potylchansky E, Kee S, Vu T. A novel nomenclature to classify parathyroid adenomas. World J Surg. 2009;33(3):412–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Maser C, Donovan P, Santos F, Donabedian R, Rinder C, Scoutt L, Udelsman R. (2006) Sonographically guided fine needle aspiration with rapid parathyroid hormone assay. Ann Surg Oncol 13(12):1690–1695. Epub 2006 Sep 29.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Erbil Y, Salmashoglu A, Kabul E, et al. Use of preoperative parathyroid fine-needle aspiration and parathormone assay in the primary hyperparathyroidism with concomitant thyroid nodules. Am J Surg. 2007;193:665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Owens CL, Rekhtman N, Sokoll L, Ali SZ. Parathyroid hormone assay in fine-needle aspirate is useful in differentiating inadvertently sample parathyroid tissue from thyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol. 2008;36:227–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haengrang Ryu
    • 1
  • Rachel Harris
    • 2
  • Nancy D. Perrier
    • 3
  1. 1.MD Anderson Cancer CenterYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Surgical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer CenterThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Surgical Oncology, Section of Surgical EndocrinologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations