Advertisement

Plant Response to Salt Stress and Role of Exogenous Protectants to Mitigate Salt-Induced Damages

Chapter

Abstract

Plants are frequently exposed to a plethora of unfavorable or even adverse environmental conditions, termed as abiotic stresses (such as salinity, drought, heat, cold, flooding, heavy metals, ozone, UV radiation, etc.) and thus they pose serious threats to the sustainability of crop yield. Soil salinity, one of the most severe abiotic stresses, limits the production of about 6 % of the world’s total land and 20 % of irrigated land (17 % of total cultivated areas) and negatively affects crop production worldwide. On the other hand, increased salinity of agricultural land is expected to have destructive global effects, resulting in up to 50 % land loss by the next couple of decades. The adverse effects of salinity have been ascribed mainly to an increase in sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl) ions and hence these ions produce the critical conditions for plant survival by intercepting different plant mechanisms. Both Na+ and Cl produce many physiological disorders in plants but Cl is the most dangerous. A plant’s response to salt stress depends on the genotype, developmental stage, as well as the intensity and duration of the stress. Increased salinity has diverse effects on the physiology of plants grown in saline conditions and in response to major factors like osmotic stress, ion-specificity, nutritional and hormonal imbalance, and oxidative damage. In addition to upper plant parts, salinity also affects root growth and physiology and their function in nutrient uptake. The outcome of these effects may cause the disorganization of cellular membranes, inhibit photosynthesis, generate toxic metabolites and decline nutrient absorption, ultimately leading to plant death. In recent decades, exogenous protectants such as osmoprotectants, phytohormones, signaling molecules, polyamines, antioxidants and various trace elements have been found effective in plants in mitigating the salt induced damages. These protectants showed the capacity to enhance the plants’ growth, yield as well as stress tolerance under salinity. In this chapter we attempt to summarize differential responses of plants to salinity with special reference to growth, physiology and yield. Further, we have discussed the progress made in using exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages in plants.

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Salicylic Acid Salt Stress Salt Tolerance Stomatal Conductance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We express our sincere thanks to Md. Iqbal Hosen, Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China for providing several supporting document regarding salt stress. We also thank Md. Mahabub Alam, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Japan for his continuous support during manuscript preparation. We apologize to all researchers for those parts of their work that were not cited in the manuscripts because of the page limitation.

References

  1. Abdullah Z, Khan MA, Flowers TJ (2001) Causes of sterility in seed set of rice under salinity stress. J Agron Crop Sci 167:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrol IP, Yadav JSP, Massoud FI (1988) Salt-affected soils and their management. FAO Soils Bulletin 39, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  3. Acquaah G (2007) Principles of plant genetics and breeding. Blackwell, Oxford, p 385Google Scholar
  4. Afzal I, Basra S, Iqbal A (2005) The effect of seed soaking with plant growth regulators on seedling vigor of wheat under salinity stress. J Stress Physiol Biochem 1:6–14Google Scholar
  5. Agarwal S, Shaheen R (2007) Stimulation of antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation by abiotic stresses in leaves of Momordica charantia. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad P (2010) Growth and antioxidant responses in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to combined effect of gibberellic acid and salinity. Arch Agron Soil Sci 56:575–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (2012a) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (2012b) Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance in plants in the era of climate change. Springer Science  +  Business Media, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad P, Sharma S (2008) Salt stress and phyto-biochemical responses of plants. Plant Soil Environ 54:89–99Google Scholar
  10. Ahmad P, Umar S (2011) Oxidative stress: role of antioxidants in plants. Studium Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  11. Ahmad P, Jeleel CA, Azooz MM, Nabi G (2009) Generation of ROS and non-enzymatic antioxidants during abiotic stress in Plants. Bot Res Intern 2:11–20Google Scholar
  12. Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Salem MA, Nabi G, Sharma S (2010a) Roles of Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Crit Rev Biotechnol 30(3):161–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Sharma S (2010b) Antioxidative defence system, lipid peroxidation, proline metabolizing enzymes and Biochemical activity in two genotypes of Morus alba L. subjected to NaCl stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ahmad P, Nabi G, Ashraf M (2011) Cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.] plants can be alleviated by salicylic acid. South Afr J Bot 77:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ahmad P, Hakeem KR, Kumar A, Ashraf M, Akram NA (2012) Salt-induced changes in photosynthetic activity and oxidative defense system of three cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Afr J Biotechnol 11:2694–2703Google Scholar
  16. Ahmed CB, Rouina BB, Sensoy S, Boukhriss M, Abdullah FB (2010) Exogenous proline effects on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant defense system of young olive tree. J Agric Food Chem 58:4216–4222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Akbari G, Sanavy SA, Yousefzadeh S (2007) Effect of auxin and salt stress (NaCl) on seed germination of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan J Biol Sci 10:2557–2561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Akbarimoghaddam H, Galavi M, Ghanbari A, Panjehkeh N (2011) salinity effects on seed germination and seedling growth of bread wheat cultivars. Trakia J Sci 9:43–50Google Scholar
  19. Akhiyarova GR, Sabirzhanova IB, Veselov DS, Frike V (2005) Participation of plant hormones in growth resumption of wheat shoots following short-term NaCl treatment. Rus J Plant Physiol 52:788–792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Alcazar R, Marco F, Cuevas JC, Patron M, Ferrando A, Carrasco P, Tiburcio AF, Altabella T (2006) Involvement of polyamines in plant response to abiotic stress. Biotechnol Lett 28:1867–1876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Alcazar R, Altabella T, Marco F, Bortolotti C, Reymond M, Knocz C, Carrasco P, Tiburcio AF (2010a) Polyamines: molecules with regulatory functions in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Planta 231:1237–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Alcazar R, Planas J, Saxena T, Zarza X, Bortolotti C, Cuevas J, Bitrian M, Tiburcio AF, Altabella T (2010b) Putrescine accumulation confers drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the homologous Arginine decarboxylase2 gene. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:547–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Alet AI, Sánchez DH, Cuevas JC, Marina M, Carrasco P, Altabella T, Tiburcio AF, Ruiz OA (2012) New insights into the role of spermine in Arabidopsis thaliana under long-term salt stress. Plant Sci 182:94–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ali HM, Siddiqui MH, Basalah MO, Al-Whaibi MH, Sakran AM, Al-Amri A (2011) Effects of gibberellic acid on growth and photosynthetic pigments of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. under salt stress. Afr J Biotechnol 11:800–804Google Scholar
  25. Allakhverdiev SI, Hayashi H, Nishiyama Y, Ivanov AG, Aliev JA, Klimov VV, Murata N, Carpemtier R (2003) Glycinebetaine protects the D1/D2/Cyt b 559 complex of photosystem II against photo-induced and heat-induced inactivation. J Plant Physiol 160:41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Amirjani MR (2011) Effect of salinity stress on growth, sugar content, pigments and enzyme activity of rice. Int J Bot 7:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Amri E, Mirzaei M, Moradi M, Zare K (2011) The effects of spermidine and putrescine polyamines on growth of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cv ‘Rabbab’) in salinity circumstance. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem 3:43–49Google Scholar
  28. Anjum MA (2011) Effect of exogenously applied spermidine on growth and physiology of citrus rootstock Troyer citrange under saline conditions. Turk J Agric For 35:43–53Google Scholar
  29. Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2001) Effect of brassinosteroids on salinity stress induced inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 33:151–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Arfan M, Athar HR, Ashraf M (2007) Does exogenous application of salicylic acid through the rooting medium modulate growth and photosynthetic capacity in differently adapted spring wheat cultivated under salt stress? J Plant Physiol 6:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Arora N, Bhardwaj R, Sharma P, Arora HK (2008) 28-Homobrassinolide alleviates oxidative stress in salt-treated maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 20:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Asch F, Dingkuhn M, Miezan K, Doerffling K (2000) Leaf K/Na ratio predicts salinity induced yield loss in irrigated rice. Euphytica 113:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ashraf M, Athar HR, Harris PJC, Kwon TR (2008) Some prospective strategies for improving crop salt tolerance. Adv Agron 97:45–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ashraf R, Ahmad R, Bhatti AS, Afzal M, Sarwar A, Maqsood MA, Kanwal S (2010) Amelioration of salt stress in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) by supplying potassium and silicon in hydroponics. Pedosphere 20:153–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Athar HR, Khan A, Ashraf M (2008) Exogenously applied ascorbic acid alleviates salt-induced oxidative stress in wheat. Environ Exp Bot 63:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Atkinson NJ, Urwin PE (2012) The interaction of plant biotic and abiotic stresses: from genes to the field. J Exp Bot.  doi:10.1093/jxb/ers100
  39. Azevedo Neto AD, Prisco JT, Eneas-Filho J, Medeiros J-VR, Gomes-Filho E (2005) Hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment induces stress acclimation in maize plants. J Plant Physiol 162:1114–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Azzedine F, Gherroucha H, Baka M (2011) Improvement of salt tolerance in durum wheat by ascorbic acid application. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:27–37Google Scholar
  41. Babu MA, Singh D, Gothandam KM (2012) The effect of salinity on growth, hormone and mineral elements in leaf and fruit of tomato cultivar PKM1. J Anim Plant Sci 22:159–164Google Scholar
  42. Bai X, Yang L, Tian M, Chen J, Shi J, Yang Y, Hu X (2011) Nitric oxide enhances desiccation tolerance of recalcitrant Antiaris toxicaria seeds via protein S-nitrosylation and carbonylation. PLoS ONE 6:e20714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bar Y, Apelbaum A, Kafkafi U, Goren R (1997) Relationship between chloride and nitrate and its effect on growth and mineral composition of avocado and citrus plants. J Plant Nutr 20:715–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Barba-Espín G, Clemente-Moreno MJ, Álvarez S, García-Legaz MF, Hernández JA, Díaz-Vivancos P (2011) Salicylic acid negatively affects the response to salt stress in pea plants. Plant Biol 13:909–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Beltagi MS (2008) Exogenous ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced anabolic changes for salt tolerance in chick pea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. Afr J Plant Sci 2:118–123Google Scholar
  46. Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Vadez V, Sharma KK (2008) Transgenic approaches for abiotic stress tolerance in plants: retrospect and prospects. Plant Cell Rep 27:411–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bordi A (2010) The influence of salt stress on seed germination, growth and yield of canola cultivars. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 38:128–133Google Scholar
  48. Brouwer C, Goffeau A, Heibloem M (1985) Irrigation water management: training manual No. 1 – Introduction to irrigation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  49. Brugnoli E, Björkman O (1992) Growth of cotton under continuous salinity stress: influence on allocation pattern, stomatal and non-stomatal components of photosynthesis and dissipation of excess light energy. Planta 187:335–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cabot C, Sibole JV, Barcelo J, Poschenrieder C (2009) Abscisic acid decreases leaf Na+ exclusion in salt-treated Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Plant Growth Regul 28:187–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Carpıcı EB, Celık N, Bayram G (2009) Effects of salt stress on germination of some maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Afr J Biotechnol 8:4918–4922Google Scholar
  52. Cartes P, Jara AA, Pinilla L, Rosas A, Mora ML (2010) Selenium improves the antioxidant ability against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in ryegrass roots. Ann Appl Biol 156:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chai YY, Jiang CD, Shi L, Shi TS, Gu WB (2010) Effects of exogenous spermine on sweet sorghum during germination under salinity. Biol Plant 54:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cha-Um S, Kirdmanee C (2010) Effect of glycinebetaine on proline, water use, and photosynthetic efficiencies, and growth of rice seedlings under salt stress. Turk J Agric For 34:517–527Google Scholar
  55. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanism of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cheeseman JM (2007) Hydrogen peroxide and plant stress: a challenging relationship. Plant Stress 1:4–15Google Scholar
  57. Chen THH, Murata N (2008) Glycinebetaine: an effective protectant against abiotic stress in plants. Trend Plant Sci 13:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cheong JJ, Choi YD (2003) Methyl jasmonate as a vital substance in plants. Trends Genet 19:409–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chu J, Yao X, Zhang Z (2010) Responses of wheat seedlings to exogenous selenium supply under cold stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 136:355–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Chutipaijit S, Cha-um S, Sompornpailin K (2011) High contents of proline and anthocyanin increase protective response to salinity in Oryza sativa L. spp. indica. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1191–1198Google Scholar
  61. Corpas FJ, Leterrier M, Valderrama R, Airaki M, Chaki M, Palma JM, Barroso JB (2011) Nitric oxide imbalance provokes a nitrosative response in plants under abiotic stress. Plant Sci 181:604–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cortina C, Culianez-Maciá FA (2005) Tomato abiotic stress enhanced tolerance by trehalose biosynthesis. Plant Sci 169:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Cramer GR, Quarrie SA (2002) Abscisic acid is correlated with the leaf growth inhibition of four genotypes of maize differing in their response to salinity. Funct Plant Biol 29:111–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cuartero J, Fernandez-Munoz R (1999) Tomato and salinity. Sci Hort 78:83–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Dantas BF, De Sá Ribeiro L, Aragão CA (2007) Germination, initial growth and cotyledon protein content of bean cultivars under salinity stress. Rev Bras de Sementes 29:106–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. David A, Yadav S, Bhatla SC (2010) Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings. Physiol Plant 140:342–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. De Tullio MC (2004) How does ascorbic acid prevent scurvy? A survey of the nonantioxidant functions of vitamin C. In: Asard H (ed) Vitamin C: its function and biochemistry in animals and plants. Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers, London/New York, pp 176–190Google Scholar
  68. Dehghan G, Rezazadeh L, Habibi G (2011) Exogenous ascorbate improves antioxidant defense system and induces salinity tolerance in soybean seedlings. Acta Biol Szeged 55:261–264Google Scholar
  69. Deivanai S, Xavier R, Vinod V, Timalata K, Lim OF (2011) Role of exogenous proline in ameliorating salt stress at early stage in two rice cultivars. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:157–174Google Scholar
  70. Dionisio-Sese ML, Tobita S (1998) Antioxidant responses of rice seedlings to salinity stress. Plant Sci 135:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Djanaguiraman M, Devi DD, Shanker AK, Sheeba A, Bangarusamy U (2005) Selenium – an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant Soil 272:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Djanaguiraman M, Prasad PVV, Seppanen M (2010) Selenium protects sorghum leaves from oxidative damage under high temperature stress by enhancing antioxidant defense system. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:999–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dolatabadian A, Modarressanavy SAM, Ghanati F (2011) Effect of salinity on growth, xylem structure and anatomical characteristics of soybean. Not Sci Biol 3:41–45Google Scholar
  74. Duan J, Li J, Guo S, Kang Y (2008) Exogenous spermidine affects polyamine metabolism in salinity-stressed Cucumis sativus roots and enhances short-term salinity tolerance. J Plant Physiol 165:1620–1635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dunlap JR, Binzel ML (1996) NaCl reduces indole-3-acetic acid levels in the roots of tomato plants independent of stress-induced abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 112:379–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. El Tayeb MA (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regul 45:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Eleiwa ME, Ibrahim SA (2011) Influence of brassinosteroids on wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) production under salinity stress conditions. II. Chemical constituent and nutritional status. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 5:49–57Google Scholar
  78. Eleiwa ME, Bafeel SO, Ibrahim SA (2011) Influence of brassinosteroids on wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) production under salinity stress conditions. I. Growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 5:58–651Google Scholar
  79. El-Mashad AAA, Mohamed HI (2011) Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis). Protoplasma 249:625–635 Google Scholar
  80. Elstner EF (1987) Metabolism of activated oxygen species. In: Davies DD (ed) The biochemistry of plants, vol II, Biochemistry of metabolism. Academic, San Diego, pp 252–315Google Scholar
  81. Epstein E (1999) Silicon: its manifold roles in plants. Ann Appl Biol 155:155–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Erdal S, Aydın M, Genisel M, Taspınar MS, Dumlupinar R, Kaya O, Gorcek Z (2011) Effects of salicylic acid on wheat salt sensitivity. Afr J Biotechnol 10:5713–5718Google Scholar
  83. Essa TA (2002) Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient composition of three soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 88:86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Etehadnia M, Waterer DR, Tanino KK (2008) The method of ABA application affects salt stress responses in resistant and sensitive potato lines. J Plant Growth Regul 27:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fan H, Guo S, Jiao Y, Zhang R, Li J (2007) Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on growth, active oxygen species metabolism, and photosynthetic characteristics in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress. Front Agric China 1:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fan H-F, Du C-X, Guo S-R (2010) Nitric oxide enhances salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings by regulating free polyamine content. Environ Exp Bot. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.09.007
  87. FAO (2008) Land and plant nutrition management service. htpp://www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/spush
  88. FAO (2009) High level expert forum – how to feed the world in 2050. Economic and Social Development Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  89. Farouk S (2011) Ascorbic acid and α-Tocopherol minimize salt-induced wheat leaf senescence. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:58–79Google Scholar
  90. Fedina IS, Tsonev TD (1997) Effect of pretreatment with methyl jasmonate on the response of Pisum sativum to salt stress. J Plant Physiol 151:735–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Fedina IS, Nedeva D, Çiçek N (2009) Pre-treatment with H2O2 induces salt tolerance in barley seedlings. BIiol Plant 53:321–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Filek M, Keskinen R, Hartikainen H, Szarejko I, Janiak A, Miszalski Z, Golda A (2008) The protective role of selenium in rape seedlings subjected to cadmium stress. J Plant Physiol 165:833–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fisarakis I, Chartzoulakis K, Stavrakas D (2001) Response of Sultana vines (V. vinifera L.) on six rootstocks to NaCl salinity exposure and recovery. Agric Water Manage 51:13–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Flowers TJ, Hajibagheri MA, Clipson NJW (1986) Halophytes. Quart Rev Biol 61:313–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Foolad MR, Lin GY (1997) Genetic potential for salt tolerance during germination in Lycopersicon species. HortScience 32:296–300Google Scholar
  96. Foolad MR, Lin GY (1998) Genetic analysis of low temperature tolerance during germination in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum Mill. Plant Breed 117:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Foyer (2004) The role of ascorbic acid in defense networks and signaling in plants. In: Asard H (ed) Vitamin C: its function and biochemistry in animals and plants. Garland Science/BIOS Scientific Publishers, London/New York, pp 73–91Google Scholar
  98. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005a) Redox homeostasis and antioxidant signaling: a metabolic interface between stress perception and physiological responses. Plant Cell 17:1866–1875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2005b) Oxidant and antioxidant signaling in plants: a re-evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell Environ 28:1056–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Fricke W, Akhiyarova G, Veselov D, Kudoyarova G (2004) Rapid and tissue-specific changes in ABA and in growth rate in response to salinity in barley leaves. J Exp Bot 55:1115–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Gadallah MAA (1999) Effect of proline and glycinebetaine on Vicia faba responses to salt stress. Biol Plant 42:249–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Gain P, Mannan MA, Pal PS, Hossain MM, Parvin S (2004) Effect of salinity on some yield attributes of rice. Pak J Biol Sci 7:760–762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Garciadeblas B, Senn ME, Bañuelos MA, Rodriquez-Navarro A (2003) Sodium transport and HKT transporters: the rice model. Plant J 34:788–801PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Garg N, Manchanda G (2008) Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiol Plant 30:595–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Garg N, Manchanda G (2009) ROS generation in plants: boon or bane? Plant Biosys 143:81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gémes K, Poór Horváth E, Kolbert Z, Szopkó D, Szepesi Á, Tari I (2011) Cross-talk between salicylic acid and NaCl-generated reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in tomato during acclimation to high salinity. Physiol Plant 142:179–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ghoulam C, Foursy A, Fares K (2002) Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 47:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Signal Behav 51:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gomes-Filho E, Machado Lima CRF, Costa JH, da Silva AC, da Guia Silva Lima M, de Lacerda CF, Prisco JT (2008) Cowpea ribonuclease: properties and effect of NaCl-salinity on its activation during seed germination and seedling establishment. Plant Cell Rep 27:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Gossett DR, Banks SW, Millhollon EP, Lucas MC (1996) Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in a control and a NaCl-tolerant cotton cell line grown in the presence of paraquat, buthionine sulfoximine and exogenous glutathione. Plant Physiol 112:803–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Grattan SR, Grieve CM (1999) Salinity-mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Sci Hortic 78:127–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Guan B, Yu J, Chen X, Xie W, Lu Z (2011) Effects of salt stress and nitrogen application on growth and ion accumulation of Suaeda salsa plants. Intl Conf Remote Sens Environ Transport Engin, 24–26 June 2011. pp. 8268–8272Google Scholar
  114. Gueta-Dahan Y, Yaniv Z, Zilinskas BA, Ben-Hayyim G (1997) Salt and oxidative stress: similar and specific responses and their relation to salt tolerance in citrus. Planta 204:460–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gulnaz AJ, Iqbal J, Azam F (1999) Seed treatment with growth regulators and crop productivity. II. Response of critical growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress. Cereal Res 27:419–426Google Scholar
  116. Gunes A, Inal A, Alpaslan M, Eraslan F, Bagci EG, Cicek N (2007) Salicylic acid induced changes on some physiological parameters symptomatic for oxidative stress and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) grown under salinity. J Plant Physiol 164:728–736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Gupta K, Gupta B, Ghosh B, Sengupta DN (2012) Spermidine and abscisic acid-mediated phosphorylation of a cytoplasmic protein from rice root in response to salinity stress. Acta Physiol Plant 34:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Gurmani AR, Bano A, Khan SU, Din J, Zhang JL (2011) Alleviation of salt stress by seed treatment with abscisic acid (ABA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and chlormequat chloride (CCC) optimizes ion and organic matter accumulation and increases yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Aust J Crop Sci 5:1278–1285Google Scholar
  119. Habib N, Ashraf M, Ahmad MSA (2010) Enhancement in seed germinability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide (NO) under salt stress. Pak J Bot 42:4071–4078Google Scholar
  120. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1985) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  121. Hamada AM, Al-Hakimi AM (2009) Exogenous ascorbic acid or thiamine increases the resistance of sunflower and maize plants to salt stress. Acta Agron Hung 57:335–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hamayun M, Khan SA, Khan AL, Shin JH, Ahmad B, Shin D-H, Lee I-J (2010) Exogenous gibberellic acid reprograms soybean to higher growth and salt stress tolerance. J Agric Food Chem 58:7226–7232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hamilton EW III, Heckathorn SA (2001) Mitochondrial adaptation to NaCl. Complex I is protected by antioxidants and small heat shock proteins, whereas complex II is protected by proline and betaine. Plant Physiol 126:1266–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011a) Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1758–1776PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2011b) Exogenous silicon treatment alleviates salinity-induced damage in Brassica napus L. seedlings by up-regulating the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system. Abstract of Plant Biology 2011, American Society of Plant Biology. http://abstracts.aspb.org/pb2011/public/P10/P10001.html
  126. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2012) Selenium and plant health: the physiological role of selenium. In: Aomori C, Hokkaido M (eds) Selenium: sources, functions and health effects. Nova Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-61942-062-5Google Scholar
  127. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M, Islam MN, Ahamed KU, Nahar K (2009) Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int J Integ Biol 6:85–90Google Scholar
  128. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010a) Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of nitric oxide induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Am J Plant Physiol 5:295–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2010b) Selenium in higher plants: physiological role, antioxidant metabolism and abiotic stress tolerance. J Plant Sci 5:354–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011a) Nitric oxide modulates antioxidant defense and the methylglyoxal detoxification system and reduces salinity-induced damage of wheat seedlings. Plant Biotechnol Rep 5:353–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2011b) Selenium-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res 143:1704–1721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, da Silva JAT, Fujita M (2012a) Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defenses is a key factors. In: Bandi V, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Mandapaka M (eds) Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, Berlin, pp 261–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hasanuzzaman M, Hossain MA, Fujita M (2012b) Exogenous selenium pretreatment protects rapeseed seedlings from cadmium-induced oxidative stress by up regulating the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems. Biol Trace Elem Res. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9419-4
  134. Hasegawa P, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hashemi A, Abdolzadeh A, Sadeghipour HR (2010) Beneficial effects of silicon nutrition in alleviating salinity stress in hydroponically grown canola, Brassica napus L., plants. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 56:244–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hawkins HJ, Lewis OAM (1993) Combination effect of NaCl salinity, nitrogen form and calcium concentration on the growth and ionic content and gaseous properties of Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gamtoos. New Phytol 124:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hawrylak-Nowak B (2009) Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 132:259–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hayat S, Ahmad A (2011) Brassinosteroids: a class of plant hormone. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Hernandez M, Fernandez-Garcia N, Diaz-Vivancos P, Olmos E (2010) A different role for hydrogen peroxide and the antioxidative system under short and long salt stress in Brassica oleracea roots. J Exp Bot 61:521–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Heuer B (2003) Influence of exogenous application of proline and glycinebetaine on growth of salt stressed tomato plants. Plant Sci 165:693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Hillel D (2000) Salinity management for sustainable irrigation. The World Bank, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Hoque MA, Banu MNA, Okuma E, Amako K, Nakamura K, Shimoishi Y, Murata Y (2007) Exogenous proline and glycinebetaine increase NaCl-induced ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activities, and proline improves salt tolerance more than glycinebetaine in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 suspension-cultured cells. J Plant Physiol 164:1457–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Hoque MA, Okuma E, Nakamara Y, Shimoishi Y, Murata Y (2008) Proline and glycinebetaine enhance antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification systems and reduce NaCl-induced damage in cultured tobacco cells. J Plant Physiol 165:813–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Horvath E, Szalai G, Janda T (2007) Induction of abiotic stress tolerance by salicylic acid signaling. J Plant Growth Regul 26:290–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Hossain KK, Itoh RD, Yoshimura G, Tokuda G, Oku H, Cohen MF, Yamasaki H (2010) Effects of nitric oxide scavengers on thermoinhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hossain MA, Munemasa S, Uraji M, Nakamura Y, Mori IC, Murata Y (2011) Involvement of endogenous abscisic acid in methyl jasmonate-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 156:430–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Houimli SIM, Denden M, Mouhandes BD (2010) Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on growth, chlorophyll, electrolyte leakage and proline by pepper plants under NaCl-stress. EurAsia J Biosci 4:96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (1997) Interactive effects of salinity and macronutrient level on wheat. J Plant Nutr 20:1169–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hu Y, Schmidhalter U (2005) Drought and salinity: a comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition of Plants. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 168:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Hung S-H, Yu C-W, Lin CH (2005) Hydrogen peroxide functions as a stress signal in plants. Bot Bull Acad Sin 46:1–10Google Scholar
  151. Hussain TM, Chandrasekhar T, Hazara M, Sultan Z, Saleh BZ, Gopal GR (2008) Recent advances in salt stress biology – a review. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 3:8–13Google Scholar
  152. Hussain K, Nawaz K, Majeed A, Ilyas U, Lin F, Ali K, Nisar MF (2011a) Role of exogenous salicylic acid applications for salt tolerance in violet (Viola Odorata L.). Sarhad J Agric 27:171–175Google Scholar
  153. Hussain SS, Ali M, Ahmad M, Siddique KHM (2011b) Polyamines: natural and engineered abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants. Biotechnol Adv 29:300–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ibrar M, Jabeen M, Tabassum J, Hussain F, Ilahi I (2003) Salt tolerance potential of Brassica juncea Linn. J Sci Tech Univ Peshawar 27:79–84Google Scholar
  155. Ioannidis NE, Cruz JA, Kotzabasis K, Krame DM (2012) Evidence that putrescine modulates the higher plant photosynthetic proton circuit. PLoS One 7:e29864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2010) Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environ Exp Bot. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.06.002
  157. Iqbal N, Masood A, Khan NA (2012) Phytohormones in salinity tolerance: ethylene and gibberellins cross talk. In: Khan NA, Nazar R, Iqbal N, Anjum NA (eds) Phytohormones and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Springer, Berlin, pp 77–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Iyengar ERR, Reddy MP (1996) Photosynthesis in highly salt-tolerant plants. In: Pessaraki M (ed) Handbook of photosynthesis. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 897–909Google Scholar
  159. Jabeen M, Ibrar M, Azim F, Hussain F, Ilahi I (2003) The effect of sodium chloride salinity on germination and productivity of Mung bean (Vigna mungo Linn.). J Sci Tech Univ Peshawar 27:1–5Google Scholar
  160. Jamil M, Rha ES (2007) Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress. Pak J Biol Sci 10:654–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Jemâa E, Saïda A, Sadok B (2011) Impact of indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid on the lateral roots growth of Arabidopsis under salt stress conditions. Aust J Agric Eng 2:18–24Google Scholar
  162. Jeschke WD, Peuke AD, Pate JS, Hartung W (1997) Transport, synthesis and catabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) in intact plants of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) under phosphate deficiency and moderate salinity. J Exp Bot 48:1737–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Kang DJ, Seo YJ, Lee JD, Ishii R, Kim KU, Shin DH, Park SK, Jang SW, Lee IJ (2005) Jasmonic acid differentially affects growth, ion uptake and abscisic acid concentration in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 191:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Kanwischer M, Porfirova S, Bergmüller E, Dörmann P (2005) Alterations in tocopherol cyclase activity in transgenic and mutant plants of Arabidopsis affect tocopherol content, tocopherol composition, and oxidative stress. Plant Physiol 137:713–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Katerji N, Van Hoorn JW, Hamdy A, Mastrorilli M, Moukarzel E (1997) Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield. Agric Water Manage 34:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Kattab H (2007) Role of glutathione and polyadenylic acid on the oxidative defense systems of two different cultivars of canola seedlings grown under saline condition. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 1:323–334Google Scholar
  167. Kaur G, Kumar S, Nayyar H, Upadhyaya HD (2008) Cold stress injury during the pod-filling phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): effects on quantitative and qualitative components of seeds. J Agron Crop Sci 194:457–464Google Scholar
  168. Kaveh H, Nemati H, Farsi M, Jartoodeh SV (2011) How salinity affect germination and emergence of tomato lines. J Biol Environ Sci 5:159–163Google Scholar
  169. Kaya C, Tuna AL, Yokas I (2009) The role of plant hormones in plants under salinity stress. In: Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Athar HR (eds) Salinity and water stress: improving crop efficiency. Springer, Berlin, pp 45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Kemble AR, MacPherson HT (1954) Liberation of amino acids in perennial ray grass during wilting. Biochem J 58:46–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Keskin BC, Sarikaya AT, Yuksel B, Memon AR (2010) Abscisic acid regulated gene expression in bread wheat. Aust J Crop Sci 4:617–625Google Scholar
  172. Khafagy MA, Arafa AA, El-Banna MF (2009) Glycinebetaine and ascorbic acid can alleviate the harmful effects of NaCl salinity in sweet pepper. Aust J Crop Sci 3:257–267Google Scholar
  173. Khan MA, Rizvi Y (1994) Effect of salinity, temperature and growth regulators on the germination and early seedling growth of Atriplex griffithii var. Stocksii Can J Bot 72:475–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Khan MA, Weber DJ (2008) Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants (tasks for vegetation science), 1st edn. Springer, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  175. Khan A, Ahmad MSA, Athar HUR, Ashraf M (2006) Interactive effect of foliarly applied ascorbic acid and salt stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at the seedling stage. Pak J Bot 38:1407–1414Google Scholar
  176. Khatun S, Flowers TJ (1995) Effects of salinity on seed set in rice. Plant Cell Environ 18:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Khedr AHA, Abbas MA, Wahid AAA, Quick WP, Abogadallah GM (2003) Proline induces the expression of salt-stress-responsive proteins and may improve the adaptation of Pancratium maritimum L. to salt-stress. J Exp Bot 54:2553–2562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Khodarahmpour Z, Ifar M, Motamedi M (2012) Effects of NaCl salinity on maize (Zea mays L.) at germination and early seedling stage. Afr J Biotechnol 11:298–304Google Scholar
  179. Kim S-G, Park C-M (2008) Gibberellic acid-mediated salt signaling in seed germination. Plant Signal Behav 3:877–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Kong L, Wang M, Bi D (2005) Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel seedlings under salt stress. Plant Growth Regul 45:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Koornneef M, Leon-Kloosterziel KM, Schwartz S, Zeevaart JAD (1998) The genetic and molecular dissection of abscisic acid biosynthesis and signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol Biochem 36:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Kopyra M, Gwóźdź EA (2003) Nitric oxide stimulates seed germination and counteracts the inhibitory effect of heavy metals and salinity on root growth of Lupinus luteus. Plant Physiol Biochem 41:1011–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Koyro H-W (2002) Ultrastructural effects of salinity in higher plants. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment – plants – molecules. Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp 139–157Google Scholar
  184. Krishna P (2003) Brassinosteroid-mediated stress responses. J Plant Growth Regul 22:289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Kumar B, Singh B (1996) Effect of plant hormones on growth and yield of wheat irrigated with saline water. Ann Agric Res 17:209–212Google Scholar
  186. Kuznetsov VV, Shevyakova NI (2007) Polyamines and stress tolerance of plants. Plant Stress 1:50–71Google Scholar
  187. Larkindale J, Knight M (2002) Protection against heat stress-induced oxidative damage in Arabidopsis involves calcium, abscisic acid, ethylene, and salicylic acid. Plant Physiol 128:682–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Läuchli A, Grattan SR (2007) Plant growth and development under salinity stress. In: Jenks MA, Hasegawa PM, Mohan JS (eds) Advances in molecular breeding towards drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Lea-Cox JD, Syvertsen JP (1993) Salinity reduces water use and nitrate-N-use efficiency of citrus. Ann Bot 72:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Lee SK, Sohn EY, Hamayun M, Yoon JY, Lee IJ (2010) Effect of silicon on growth and salinity stress of soybean plant grown under hydroponic system. Agroforest Syst 80:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Lekklar C, Chaidee A (2011) Roles of silicon on growth of Thai Jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) under salt stress. Agric Sci J 42:45–48Google Scholar
  192. Li JM, Jin H (2007) Regulation of brassinosteroid signaling. Trends Plant Sci 12:37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Li J, Gao X-H, Guo S-R, Zhang R-H, Wang X (2007) Effects of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis of salt-stressed Cuellmis sativus seedlings. Chin J Ecol 26:1595–1599Google Scholar
  194. Li Q-Y, Niud H-B, Yind J, Wanga M-B, Shao HB, Deng DZ, Chen X-X, Ren J-P, Li Y-C (2008) Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative-stress induced by salt stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Colloids Surf B: Biointer 65:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Liang YC, Chen Q, Liu Q, Zhang W, Ding R (2003) Effects of silicon on salinity tolerance of two barley cultivars. J Plant Physiol 160:1157–1164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Liang YC, Zhang WO, Chen J, Ding R (2005) Effect of silicon on H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activity, fatty acid composition and fluidity of tonoplast vesicles from roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environ Exp Bot 53:29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Liang Y, Sun W, Zhu YG (2007) Christie P: mechanisms of silicon mediated alleviation of abiotic stresses in higher plants: a review. Environ Poll 147:422–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Lima MDA, de Castro VF, Vidal JB, Enéas-Filho J (2011) Silicon application on plants of maize and cowpea under salt stress. Rev Ciênc Agron 42:398–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Lima-Costa ME, Ferreira S, Duarte A, Ferreira AL (2008) Alleviation of salt stress using exogenous proline on a citrus cell line. Acta Hort 868:109–112Google Scholar
  200. Linghe Z, Shannon MC (2000) Salinity effects on seedling growth and yield components of rice. Crop Sci 40:996–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Liu J, Zhou YF, Zhang WH, Liu YL (2006) Effects of exogenous polyamines on chloroplast-bound polymine content and photosynthesis of corn suffering salt stress. Acta Bot Boreal-Occident Sin 26:254–258Google Scholar
  202. Liu X, Wang L, Liu L, Guo Y, Ren H (2011) Alleviating effect of exogenous nitric oxide in cucumber seedling against chilling stress. Afr J Biotechnol 10:4380–4386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Lombardi T, Lupi B (2006) Effect of salinity on the germination and growth of Hordeum secalinum Schreber (Poaceae) in relation to the seeds after-ripening time. Atti Soc tosc Sci nat Mem Serie B 113:37–42Google Scholar
  204. López-Gómez M, Lluch C (2012) Trehalose and abiotic stress tolerance. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York, pp 253–265Google Scholar
  205. Lutts S (2000) Exogenous glycinebetaine reduces sodium accumulation in salt-stressed rice plants. IRRN 25:39–40Google Scholar
  206. Maeda H, Sakuragi Y, Bryant DA, DellaPenna D (2005) Tocopherols protect Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 from lipid peroxidation. Plant Physiol 138:1422–1435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Maggio A, Barbieri G, Raimondi G, De Pascale S (2010) Contrasting effects of GA3 treatments on tomato plants exposed to increasing salinity. J Plant Growth Regul 29:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Magome H, Yamaguchi S, Hanada A, Kamiya Y, Odadoi K (2004) Dwarf and delayed-flowering 1, a novel Arabidopsis mutant deficient in gibberellins biosynthesis because of overexpression of a putative AP2 transcription factor. Plant J 37:720–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Mäkelä P, Kärkkäinen J, Somersalo S (2000) Effect of glycine betaine on chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll and protein content, and RuBPCO activity in tomato grown under drought or salinity. Biol Plant 43:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Mantri N, Patade V, Penna S, Ford R, Pang E (2012) Abiotic stress responses in plants: present and future. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  212. Mass EV (1986) Salt tolerance of plants. Appl Agric Res 1:12–26Google Scholar
  213. Matysik J, Alia, Bhalu B, Mohanty P (2002) Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Curr Sci 82:525–532Google Scholar
  214. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence – A practical guide. J Exp Bot 51:659–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Misra AN, Misra M, Singh R (2011) Nitric oxide: A ubiquitous signaling molecule with diverse role in plants. Afr J Plant Sci 5:57–74Google Scholar
  216. Mittler R, Blumwald E (2010) Genetic engineering for modern agriculture: challenges and perspectives. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:443–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Mittova V, Guy M, Tal M, Volokita M (2004) Salinity upregulates the antioxidative system in root mitochondria and peroxisomes of the wild salt-tolerant tomato species Lycopersicon pennellii. J Exp Bot 55:1105–1113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Mohamed MA, Matter MA, Saker MM (2010) Effect of salt stress on some defense mechanisms of transgenic and wild potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in vitro. Nat Sci 12:181–193Google Scholar
  219. Molassiotis A, Tanou G, Diamantidis G (2010) NO says more than ‘YES’ to salt tolerance: salt priming and systemic nitric oxide signaling in plants. Plant Signal Behav 5:209–2012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Moussa HR (2006) Influence of exogenous application of silicon on physiological response of salt-stressed maize (Zea mays L.). Int J Agri Biol 8:293–297Google Scholar
  221. Munir N, Aftab F (2011) Enhancement of salt tolerance in sugarcane by ascorbic acid pretreatment. Afr J Biotechnol 10:18362–18370Google Scholar
  222. Munné-Bosch S (2005) The role of α-tocopherol in plant stress tolerance. J Plant Physiol 162:743–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Munné-Bosch S (2007) α-Tocopherol: a multifaceted molecule in plants. Vitam Horm 76:375–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Munns R (2002a) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Munns R (2002b) Salinity, growth and phytohormones. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment – plants – molecules. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 271–290Google Scholar
  226. Munns R (2005) Genes and salt tolerance: bringing them together. New Phytol 167:645–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Munns R, Husain S, Rivelli AR, James RA, Condon AG(Tony), Lindsay MP, Lagudah ES, Schachtman DP, Hare RA (2002) Avenues for increasing salt tolerance of crops, and the role of physiologically based selection traits. Plant Soil 247:93–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Munns R, James RA, Lauchli A (2006) Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other cereals. J Exp Bot 57:1025–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Murty PSS, Murty KS (1982) Spikelet sterility in relation to nitrogen and carbohydrate contents in rice. Ind J Plant Physiol 25:40–48Google Scholar
  231. Mutlu F, Buzcuk S (2007) Salinity induced changes of free and bound polyamine levels in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) roots differing in salt tolerance. Pak J Bot 39:1097–1102Google Scholar
  232. Nahar K, Hasanuzzaman M (2009) Germination, growth, nodulation and yield performance of three mungbean varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Green Farming 2:825–829Google Scholar
  233. Navakouidis E, Lutz C, Langebartels C, Lutz-Meindl U, Kotzabasis K (2003) Ozone impact on the photosynthetic apparatus and the protective role of polyamines. Bioch Biophys Acta 1621:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Nazar R, Iqbal N, Syeed S, Khan NA (2011) Salicylic acid alleviates decreases in photosynthesis under salt stress by enhancing nitrogen and sulfur assimilation and antioxidant metabolism differentially in two mungbean cultivars. J Plant Physiol 168:807–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Neamatollahi E, Bannayan M, Ghanbari A, Haydari M, Ahmadian A (2009) Does hydro and osmo-priming improve fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds germination and seedlings growth? Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 37:190–194Google Scholar
  236. Nilsen E, Orcutt DM (1996) The physiology of plants under stress – abiotic factors. Wiley, New York, pp 118–130Google Scholar
  237. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Noctor G, Gomez L, Vanacker H, Foyer CH (2002) Interactions between biosynthesis, compartmentation and transport in the control of glutathione homeostasis and signalling. J Exp Bot 53:1283–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Nounjan N, Nghia PT, Theerakulpisut P (2012) Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes. J Plant Physiol 169:596–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Oertli JJ (1991) Nutrient management under water and salinity stress. In: Proceeding of the symposium on nutrient management for sustained productivity. Dept. Soils Punjab Agric. Unver. Ludhiana, India. P. 138–165Google Scholar
  241. Okuma E, Murakami Y, Shimoishi Y, Tada M, Murata Y (2004) Effects of exogenous application of proline and betaine on the growth of tobacco cultured cells under saline solutions. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50:1301–1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Othman Y, Al-Karaki G, Al-Tawaha AR, Al-Horani A (2006) Variation in germination and ion uptake in barley genotypes under salinity conditions. World J Agric Sci 2:11–15Google Scholar
  243. Panda SK, Upadhyay RK (2004) Salt stress injury induces oxidative alterations and antioxidative defence in the roots of Lemna minor. Biol Plant 48:249–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effect on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Parida AK, Das AB, Mohanty P (2004) Investigations on the antioxidative defense responses to NaCl stress in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential regulations of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes. Plant Growth Regul 42:213–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Parveen N, Ashraf M (2010) Role of silicon in mitigating the adverse effects of salt stress on growth and photosynthetic attributes of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars grown hydroponically. Pak J Bot 42:1675–1684Google Scholar
  247. Pastori GM, Foyer CH (2002) Common components, networks, and pathways of cross-tolerance to stress. The central role of “Redox” and abscisic acid-mediated controls. Plant Physiol 129:460–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Pastori G, Kiddle G, Antoniw J, Bernard S, Veljovic-Jovanovic S, Verrier PJ, Noctor G, Foyer CH (2003) Leaf vitamin C contents modulate plant defense transcripts and regulate genes that control development through hormone signaling. Plant Cell 15:939–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Pedranzani H, Racagni G, Alemano S, Miersch O, Ramirez I, Pena-Cortes H, Taleisnik E, Machado-Domenech E, Abdala G (2003) Salt tolerant tomato plants show increased levels of jasmonic acid. Plant Growth Regul 41:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Pettigrew WT, Meredith WR (1994) Leaf gas exchange parameters vary among cotton genotypes. Crop Sci 34:700–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Pilon-Smits EAH, Quinn CF, Tapken W, Malagoli M, Schiavon M (2009) Physiological functions of beneficial elements. Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:267–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Pitman MG, Läuchli A (2002) Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystems. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment – plants – molecules. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 3–20Google Scholar
  253. Pompella A, Visvikis A, Paolicchi A, De Tata V, Casini AF (2003) The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist. Biochem Pharm 66:1499–1503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Pons LJ (1973) Outline of genesis, characteristics, classification and improvement of acid sulfate soils. In: Dost H (ed) Acid sulfate soils. Proc Int Symp ILRI Publ 18:3–23Google Scholar
  255. Poór P, Gémes K, Horváth F, Szepesi A, Simon ML, Tari I (2011) Salicylic acid treatment via the rooting medium interferes with stomatal response, CO2 fixation rate and carbohydrate metabolism in tomato, and decreases harmful effects of subsequent salt stress. Plant Biol 13:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Pourcel L, Routaboul JM, Cheynier V (2007) Flavonoid oxidation in plants: from biochemical properties to physiological functions. Trends Plant Sci 12:29–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Promila K, Kumar S (2000) Vigna radiata seed germination under salinity. Biol Plant 43:423–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Qadir M, Schubert S (2002) Degradation processes and nutrient constraints in sodic soils. Land Degrad Dev 13:275–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Quinet M1, Ndayiragije A, Lefèvre I, Lambillotte B, Dupont-Gillain CC, Lutts S (2010) Putrescine differently influences the effect of salt stress on polyamine metabolism and ethylene synthesis in rice cultivars differing in salt resistance. J Exp Bot 61:2719–2733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Rady MM, Sadak MS, El-Bassiouny HMS, Abd El-Monem AA (2011) Alleviation the adverse effects of salinity stress in sunflower cultivars using nicotinamide and α-Tocopherol. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 5:342–355Google Scholar
  261. Rahman MS, Miyake H, Takeoka Y (2002) Effect of exogenous glycinebetaine on growth and ultrastructure of salt-stressed rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Prod Sci 5:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Rasheed R (2009) Salinity and extreme temperature effects on sprouting buds of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.): Some histological and biochemical studies. Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  263. Rawia Eid A, Taha LS, Ibrahiem SMM (2011) Alleviation of adverse effects of salinity on growth, and chemical constituents of marigold plants by using glutathione and ascorbate. J Appl Sci Res 7:714–721Google Scholar
  264. Rehman S, Harris PJC, Bourne WF, Wilkin J (2000) The relationship between ions, vigour and salinity tolerance of Acacia seeds. Plant Soil 220:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Rhee SG (2006) H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling. Science 312:1882–1883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Ribaut JM, Pilet PE (1991) Effect of water stress on growth, osmotic potential and abscisic acid content of maize roots. Physiol Plant 81:156–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Richmond KE, Sussman M (2003) Got silicon? The non-essential beneficial plant nutrient. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Rodríguez M, Canales E, Borrás-Hidalgo O (2005) Molecular aspects of abiotic stress in plants. Biotecnol Aplic 22:1–10Google Scholar
  269. Rogers ME, Noble CL (1992) Variation in growth and ion accumulation between two selected populations of Trifolium repens L. differing in salt tolerance. Plant Soil 146:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Rogers ME, Grieve CM, Shannon MC (2003) Plant growth and ion relations in lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in response to the combined effects of NaCl and P. Plant Soil 253:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Rohwer CL, Erwin JE (2008) Horticultural applications of jasmonates: a review. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 83:283–304Google Scholar
  272. Romero-Aranda R, Soria T, Cuartero S (2001) Tomato plant-water uptake and plant-water relationships under saline growth conditions. Plant Sci 160:265–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Romero-Aranda MR, Jurado O, Cuartero J (2006) Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status. J Plant Physiol 163:847–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Roychoudhury A, Basu S, Sengupta DN (2011) Amelioration of salinity stress by exogenously applied spermidine or spermine in three varieties of indica rice differing in their level of salt tolerance. J Plant Physiol 168:317–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Rozeff N (1995) Sugarcane and salinity – A review paper. Sugarcane 5:8–19Google Scholar
  276. Ruiz JM, Blumwald E (2002) Salinity-induced glutathione synthesis in Brassica napus. Planta 214:965–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Saeedipour S (2011) Salinity tolerance of rice lines related to endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level synthesis under stress. Afr J Plant Sci 5:628–633Google Scholar
  278. Saha P, Chatterjee P, Biswas AK (2010) NaCl pretreatment alleviates salt stress by enhancement of antioxidant defense system and osmolyte accumulation in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Indian J Exp Biol 48:593–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Sairam RK, Roa KV, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci 163:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Sakhabutdinova AR, Fatkhutdinova DR, Bezrukova MV, Shakirova FM (2003) Salicylic acid prevents the damaging action of stress factors on wheat plants. Bulg J Plant Physiol 314–319Google Scholar
  281. Salama KHA, Al-Mutawa MM (2009) Glutathione-triggered mitigation in salt-induced alterations in plasmalemma of onion epidermal cells. Int J Agric Biol 11:639–642Google Scholar
  282. Saleethong P, Sanitchon J, Kong-ngern K, Theerakulpisut P (2011) Pretreatment with spermidine reverses inhibitory effects of salt stress in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity tolerance. Asian J Plant Sci 10:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Samira IM-H, Dridi-Mouhandes B, ben Mansour-Gueddes S, Denden M (2012) 24-Epibrassinolide ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress (NaCl) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J Stress Physiol Biochem 8:232–240Google Scholar
  284. Saqib M, Zorb C, Schubert S (2008) Silicon-mediated improvement in the salt resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) results from increased sodium exclusion and resistance to oxidative stress. Funct Plant Biol 35:633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Sastry EVD, Shekhawa KS (2001) Alleviatory effect of GA3 on the effect of salt at seedling stage in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian J Agric Res 35:226–231Google Scholar
  286. Schluepmann H, Pellny T, Van Dijken A, Smeekens S, Paul MJ (2003) Trehalose 6-phosphate is indispensable for carbohydrate utilisation and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:6849–6854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Seemann JR, Critchley C (1985) Effects of salt stress on the growth, ion contents, stomatal behaviour and photosynthetic capacity of a salt sensitive species, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Planta 164:66–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Sembdner G, Parthier B (1993) The biochemistry and physiology and molecular actions of jasmonates. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:569–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Seo HS, Kim SK, Jang SW, Choo YS, Sohn EY, Lee IJ (2005) Effect of jasmonic acid on endogenous gibberellins and abscisic acid in rice under NaCl stress. Biol Plant 49:447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Shah SH (2007) Stress on mustard as affected by gibberellic acid application. Gen Appl Plant Physiol 33:97–106Google Scholar
  291. Shahbaz M, Ashraf M (2007) Influence of exogenous application of brassinosteroid on growth and mineral nutrients of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under saline conditions. Pak J Bot 39:513–522Google Scholar
  292. Shalata A, Neumann PM (2001) Exogenous ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) increases resistance to salt stress and reduces lipid peroxidation. J Exp Bot 52:2207–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Shanker AK, Venkateswarlu B (2011) Abiotic stress in plants – mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Rijeka, p ixCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Sharma DK, Dubey AK, Srivastav M, Singh AK, Sairam RK, Pandey RN, Dahuja A, Kaur C (2011) Effect of putrescine and paclobutrazol on growth, physiochemical parameters, and nutrient acquisition of salt-sensitive citrus rootstock Karna khatta (Citrus karna Raf.) under NaCl Stress. J Plant Growth Regul 30:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Sheokand S, Bhankar V, Sawhney V (2010) Ameliorative effect of exogenous nitric oxide on oxidative metabolism in NaCl treated chickpea plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 22:81–90Google Scholar
  296. Sheteawi S (2007) Improving growth and yield of salt-stressed soybean by exogenous application of jasmonic acid and ascobin. Int J Agri Biol 9:473–478Google Scholar
  297. Shigeoka S, Ishikawa T, Tamoi M, Miyagawa Y, Takeda T, Yabuta Y, Yoshimura K (2002) Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes. J Exp Bot 53:1305–1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Shomeili M, Nabipour M, Meskarbashee M, Memari HR (2011) Effects of gibberellic acid on sugarcane plants exposed to salinity under a hydroponic system. Afr J Plant Sci 5:609–616Google Scholar
  299. Shu LZ, Liu YH (2001) Effects of silicon on growth of maize seedlings under salt stress. Agro-environ Prot 20:38–40Google Scholar
  300. Shu S, Sun J, Guo S-R, Li J, Liu C-J, Wang C-Yi Du C-X (2010) Effects of exogenous Putrescine on PS II photochemistry and ion distribution of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. Acta Hort Sin 37:1065–1072Google Scholar
  301. Shu S, Guo S-R, Yuan L-Y (2012) A review: polyamines and photosynthesis. In: Najafpour MM (ed) Advances in photosynthesis – fundamental aspects. InTech, Rijeka, pp 439–464Google Scholar
  302. Smirnoff N, Cumbes QJ (1989) Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry 28:1057–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Smirnoff N, Pallanca JE (1996) Ascorbate metabolism in relation to oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans 24:472–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. Sobahan MA, Arias CR, Okuma E, Shimoishi Y, Nakamura Y, Hirai Y, Mori IC, Murata Y (2009) Exogenous proline and glycinebetaine suppress apoplastic flow to reduce Na+ uptake in rice seedlings. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 73:2037–2042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Srivalli S, Khanna-Chopra R (2008) Role of glutathione in abiotic stress tolerance. In: Khan NA, Singh S, Umar S (eds) Sulfur assimilation and abiotic stress in plants. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 207–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Steudle E (2000) Water uptake by roots: effects of water deficit. J Exp Bot 51:1531–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Stevens J, Senaratna T, Sivasithamparam K (2006) Salicylic acid induces salinity tolerance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Roma): associated changes in gas exchange, water relations and membrane stabilisation. Plant Growth Regul 49:77–83Google Scholar
  308. Sudhir P, Murthy SDS (2004) Effects of salt stress on basic processes of photosynthesis. Photosynthetica 42:481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Suhayda CG, Giannini JL, Briskin DP, Shannon MC (1990) Electrostatic changes in Lycopersicon esculentum root plasma membrane resulting from salt stress. Plant Physiol 93:471–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Sumithra K, Jutur PP, Carmel BD, Reddy AR (2006) Salinity-induced changes in two cultivars of Vigna radiata: responses of antioxidative and proline metabolism. Plant Growth Regul 50:11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sung CH, Hong JK (2010) Sodium nitroprusside mediates seedling development and attenuation of oxidative stresses in Chinese cabbage. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Swamy PM, Smith B (1999) Role of abscisic acid in plant stress tolerance. Curr Sci 76:1220–1227Google Scholar
  313. Szabolcs I (1974) Salt affected soils in Europe. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 63 pGoogle Scholar
  314. Tahir MA, Rahmatullah Aziz T, Ashraf M, Kanwal S, Muhammad A (2006) Beneficial effects of silicon in wheat under salinity stress-pot culture. Pak J Bot 38:1715–1722Google Scholar
  315. Tahir MA, Aziz T, Farooq M, Sarwar G (2012) Silicon-induced changes in growth, ionic composition, water relations, chlorophyll contents and membrane permeability in two salt-stressed wheat genotypes. Arch Agron Soil Sci 58:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant physiology, 4th edn. Sinaur Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  317. Tanou G, Molassiotis A, Diamantidis G (2009) Induction of reactive oxygen species and necrotic death-like destruction in strawberry leaves by salinity. Environ Exp Bot 65:270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Tavakkoli E, Rengasamy P, McDonald GK (2010) High concentrations of Na+ and Cl ions in soil solution have simultaneous detrimental effects on growth of faba bean under salinity stress. J Exp Bot 61:4449–4459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Terry N, Zayed AM, de Souza MP, Tarun AS (2000) Selenium in higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:401–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Thakur P, Kumar S, Malik JA, Berger JD, Nayyar H (2010) Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 67:429–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Torabian AR (2010) Effect of salicylic acid on germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings under water potential loss at salinity stress. Plant Ecophysiol 2:151–155Google Scholar
  322. Torabian AR (2011) Effect of salicylic acid on germination and growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings under water potential loss at salinity stress. Plant Ecophysiol 2:151–155Google Scholar
  323. Tun NN, Santa-Catarina C, Begum T, Silveria V, Handro W, Floh EIS, Scherer GFE (2006) Polyamines induce rapid biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Plant Cell Physiol 47:346–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Tuna AL, Kaya C, Higgs D, Murillo-Amador B, Aydemir S, Girgin AR (2008) Silicon improves salinity tolerance in wheat plants. Environ Exp Bot 62:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Turakainen M, Hartikainen H, Seppänen MM (2004) Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch. J Agric Food Chem 52:5378–5382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Tuteja N (2007) Abscisic acid and abiotic stress signaling. Plant Signal Behav 2:135–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Uchida A, Jagendorf AT, Hibino T, Takabe T (2002) Effects of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide on both salt and heat stress tolerance in rice. Plant Sci 163:515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Ulfat M, Athar H, Ashraf M, Akram NA, Jamil A (2007) Appraisal of physiological and biochemical selection criteria for evaluation of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Pak J Bot 39:1593–1608Google Scholar
  329. Van Huizen R, Ozga JA, Reinecke DM (1997) Seed and hormonal regulation of gibberellins 20-oxidase in pea pericarp. Plant Physiol 115:123–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A (2000) Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: protective role of exogenous polyamines. Plant Sci 151:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Vorasoot N, Songsri P, Akkasaeng C, Jogloy S, Patanothai A (2003) Effect of water stress on yield and agronomic characters of peanut. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 25:283–288Google Scholar
  332. Vysotskaya L, Hedley PE, Sharipova G, Veselov D, Kudoyarova G, Morris J, Jones HG (2010) Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance. AoB Plant. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plq006
  333. Wahid A, Rao R, Rasul E (1997) Identification of salt tolerance traits in sugarcane lines. Field Crop Res 54:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Wahid A, Perveena M, Gelania S, Basra SMA (2007) Pretreatment of seed with H2O2 improves salt tolerance of wheat seedlings by alleviation of oxidative damage and expression of stress proteins. J Plant Physiol 164:283–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Wahid A, Farooq M, Basra SMA, Rasul E, Siddique KHM (2011) Germination of seeds and propagules under salt stress. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop stress, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 321–337Google Scholar
  336. Walaa AE, Shatlah MA, Atteia MH, Sror HAM (2010) Selenium induces antioxidant defensive enzymes and promotes tolerance against salinity stress in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus). Arab Univ J Agric Sci 18:65–76Google Scholar
  337. Wang X, Shi G, Xu Q, Hu J (2007) Exogenous polyamines enhance copper tolerance of Nymphoides peltatum. J Plant Physiol 164:1062–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Wang B, Zhang J, Xia X, Zhang W-H (2011a) Ameliorative effect of brassinosteroid and ethylene on germination of cucumber seeds in the presence of sodium chloride. Plant Growth Regul. doi: 10.1007/s10725-011-9595-9
  339. Wang X, Wei Z, Liu D, Zhao G (2011b) Effects of NaCl and silicon on activities of antioxidative enzymes in roots, shoots and leaves of alfalfa. Afr J Biotechnol 10:545–549Google Scholar
  340. Wasternack C, Hause B (2002) Jasmonates and octadecanoids – signals in plant stress response and development. In: Moldav K (ed) Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology, vol 72. Academic, New York, pp 165–221Google Scholar
  341. Werner JE, Finkelstein RR (1995) Arabidopsis mutants with reduced response to NaCl and osmotic stress. Physiol Plant 93:659–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. White PJ, Broadley MR (2001) Chloride in soils and its uptake and movement within the plant: a review. Ann Bot 88:967–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Wu X, Zhu W, Zhang H, Ding H, Zhang HJ (2011) Exogenous nitric oxide protects against salt-induced oxidative stress in the leaves from two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.). Acta Physiol Plant 33:1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Xiong L, Ishitini M, Lee H, Zhu JK (2001) The Arabidopsis LOS5/ABA3 locus encodes a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase and modulates cold stress and osmotic stress responsive gene expression. Plant Cell 13:2063–2083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. Xiong J, Fu G, Tao L, Zhu C (2010) Roles of nitric oxide in alleviating heavy metal toxicity in plants. Arch Biochem Biophys 497:13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Xu G, Magen H, Tarchitzky J, Kafkafi U (2000) Advances in chloride nutrition of plants. Adv Agron 68:97–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Xu S, Hu B, He Z, Ma F, Feng J, Shen W, Yan J (2011) Enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination by presoaking with hemoglobin. Int J Mol Sci 12:2488–2501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Yadav PV, Kumari M, Ahmed Z (2011) Seed priming mediated germination improvement and tolerance to subsequent exposure to cold and salt stress in Capsicum. Res J Seed Sci 4:125–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Yamaguchi K, Takahashi Y, Berberich T, Imai A, Miyazaki A, Takahashi T, Michael A, Kusano T (2006) The polyamine spermine protects against high salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett 580:6783–6788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Yan Z, Guo S, Shu S, Sun J, Tezuka T (2011) Effects of proline on photosynthesis, root reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in two melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L.) under NaCl stress. Afr J Biotechnol 10:18381–18390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Yang T, Davies PJ, Reid JB (1996) Genetic dissection of the relative roles of auxin and gibberellin in the regulation of stem elongation in intact light-grown peas. Plant Physiol 110:1029–1034PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. Yang C-J, Zhang C, Lu Y-N, Jin J-O, Wang X-L (2011) The mechanisms of Brassinosteroids’ action: From signal transduction to plant development. Mol Plant 4:588–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Yao X, Chu J, Ba C (2010a) Responses of wheat roots to exogenous selenium supply under enhanced ultraviolet-B. Biol Trace Elem Res 137:244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. Yao XQ, Chu JZ, Ba CJ (2010b) Antioxidant responses of wheat seedlings to exogenous selenium supply under enhanced ultraviolet-B. Biol Trace Elem Res 136:96–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Yokoi S, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM (2002) Salt stress tolerance of plants. JIRCAS Working Report 2002. pp. 25–33Google Scholar
  356. Yoon JY, Hamayun M, Lee S-K, Lee I-J (2009) Methyl jasmonate alleviated salinity stress in soybean. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 12:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Yupsanis T, Moustakas M, Domiandou K (1994) Protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in alfalfa seeds germinating under salt stress. J Plant Physiol 143:234–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Yusuf M, Fariduddin Q, Varshney P, Ahmad A (2012) Salicylic acid minimizes nickel and/or salinity-induced toxicity in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) through an improved antioxidant system. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Zeid IM (2009) Trehalose as osmoprotectant for maize under salinity-induced stress. Res J Agric Biol Sci 5:613–622Google Scholar
  360. Zeid FA, El Shihy OM, Ghallab AERM, Ibrahim FEZA (2008) Effect of exogenous ascorbic acid on wheat tolerance to salinity stress conditions. Arab J Biotech 12:149–174Google Scholar
  361. Zhang J, Jia W, Yang J, Ismail AM (2006a) Role of ABA in integrating plant responses to drought and salt stresses. Field Crop Res 97:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Zhang YY, Wang LL, Liu YL, Zhang Q, Wei QP, Zhang WH (2006b) Nitric oxide enhances salt tolerance in maize seedlings through increasing activities of proton-pump and Na+/H+ antiport in the tonoplast. Planta 224:545–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Zhang RH, Li J, Guo SR, Tezuka T (2009) Effects of exogenous putrescine on gas exchange characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence of NaCl-stressed cucumber seedlings. Photosynth Res 100:155–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Zhang R-H, Guo S-R, Duan Z-G (2011) Effects of exogenous putrescine concentrations on growth, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. Jiangsu J Agr Sci 27:836–841Google Scholar
  365. Zheng C, Jiang D, Liu F, Dai T, Liu W, Jing Q, Cao W (2009) Exogenous nitric oxide improves seed germination in wheat against mitochondrial oxidative damage induced by high salinity. Environ Exp Bot 67:222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Zhu ZJ, Wei GQ, Li J, Qian QQ, Yu JQ (2004) Silicon alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant enzymes activity in leaves of salt-stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant Sci 167:527–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of AgricultureKagawa UniversityTakamatsuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations