Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

  • Stefanie Henriet
  • Paul E. Verweij
  • Steven M. Holland
  • Adilia WarrisEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 764)


Invasive fungal infections are a major threat for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of published invasive fungal infections in the CGD host through an extensive review of epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data. In addition to the often mild clinical presentation, the currently used diagnostics for invasive aspergillosis have low sensitivity in CGD patients and cannot be easily translated to this non-neutropenic host. Aspergillus fumigatus and A. nidulans are the most commonly isolated species. A. nidulans infections are seldom reported in other immunocompromised patients, indicating a unique interaction between this fungus and the CGD host. The occurrence of mucormycosis is mainly noted in the setting of treatment of inflammatory complications with immunosuppressive drugs. Candida infections are infrequently seen and do not cause mucocutaneous disease but do show an age-dependent clinical presentation. The CGD patient is susceptible to a wide range of fungal pathogens, indicating the need to determine the causative fungus, often by invasive diagnostics, to guide optimal and rational treatment. This review summarizes current understanding of invasive fungal infections in patients with CGD and will serve as a starting point to guide optimal treatment strategies and to direct further research aimed at improving outcomes.


Fungal Infection Antifungal Therapy Invasive Aspergillosis Chronic Granulomatous Disease Invasive Fungal Infection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie Henriet
    • 1
  • Paul E. Verweij
    • 2
  • Steven M. Holland
    • 3
  • Adilia Warris
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and ImmunologyNijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Medical MicrobiologyNijmegen Institute for Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Laboratory of Clinical Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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