Seeds pp 341-376 | Cite as

Longevity, Storage, and Deterioration

  • J. Derek Bewley
  • Kent J. Bradford
  • Henk W. M. Hilhorst
  • Hiro Nonogaki
Chapter

Abstract

Many seeds are capable of surviving dehydration at maturity, in which state they can survive for long periods (up to hundreds of years in some cases) and resume growth when rehydrated. However, deteriorative chemical processes continue in dry seeds, resulting in their gradual loss of vigor and eventual death. The rate of loss of seed viability is dependent primarily on their moisture content and the temperature at which they are stored. High temperatures and moisture contents accelerate seed deterioration, so low temperatures and moisture contents are used for long-term seed storage for germplasm conservation. While many processes may contribute to seed deterioration, it is likely that reactive oxygen species and related chemical oxidation are primarily responsible. Dormancy of some seeds that is alleviated by dry storage (after-ripening) may also be due to such oxidation events that could inactivate inhibitors or modify components of molecular regulatory pathways. Some seeds, including many tropical species, do not develop desiccation tolerance and are termed “recalcitrant.” This property renders them difficult to store, complicating the preservation of their diversity in seed banks.

Keywords

Longevity Storage Deterioration Conservation Diversity After-ripening Oxidation Recalcitrant 

Useful Literature References

Section 8.1

  1. Becquerel MP (1934) Compt Rend Acad Sci (Paris) 199:1662–1664 (Viability records of museum species)Google Scholar
  2. Sallon S, Solowey E, Cohen Y, Korchinsky R, Egli M, Woodhatch I, Somchoni O, Kislev M (2008) Science 320:1464 (Date seeds from Masada)Google Scholar
  3. Shen-Miller J (2002) Seed Sci Res 12:131–143 (Longevity of sacred lotus seeds)Google Scholar
  4. Telewski FW, Zeevaart JAD (2002) Am J Bot 89:1285–1288 (Beal’s buried seed experiment at 120 years)Google Scholar
  5. Zazula GD, Harington CR, Telka AM, Brock F (2009) New Phytol 182:788–792 (Radiocarbon dating of lupin seeds)Google Scholar

Section 8.2

  1. Bradford KJ, Tarquis AM, Duran JM (1993) J Exp Bot 44:1225–1234 (A population-based threshold model of seed deterioration)Google Scholar
  2. Dickie JB, Ellis RH, Kraak HL, Ryder K, Tompsett PB (1990) Ann Bot 65:197–204 (Temperature and seed storage longevity)Google Scholar
  3. Ellis RH (1988) Seed Sci Technol 16:29–50 (The viability equation, seed viability nomographs, and practical advice on seed storage)Google Scholar
  4. Ellis RH, Roberts EH (1981) Seed Sci Technol 9:373–409 (The seed viability equation)Google Scholar
  5. Roberts EH (1972) In: Roberts EH (ed) Viability of seeds. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 14–58 (Storage environment and seed viability)Google Scholar
  6. Roberts EH, Ellis RH (1989) Ann Bot 63:39–52 (Water and seed survival)Google Scholar
  7. Schwember AR, Bradford KJ (2011) Seed Sci Res 21:175–185 (Effects of oxygen on seed longevity)Google Scholar
  8. TeKrony DM, Egli DB (1997) In: Ellis RH, Black M, Murdoch AJ, Hong TD (eds) Basic and applied aspects of seed biology. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 593–600 (Accelerated aging of soybean seeds)Google Scholar
  9. Walters C, Wheeler LM, Grotenhuis JM (2005) Seed Sci Res 15:1–20 (Longevity of stored seeds of diverse species)Google Scholar
  10. Zhang JH, McDonald MB (1997) Seed Sci Technol 25:123–131 (Saturated salt accelerated aging test for small-seeded crops)Google Scholar

Section 8.3

  1. Ladizinsky G (1998) In: Plant evolution under domestication. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht (Vavilov centers of plant domestication, in situ conservation)Google Scholar
  2. Smith RD (ed) (2003) Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Multiauthor work on seed storage and seed bank technology)Google Scholar

Section 8.4

  1. Bailly C, El-Maarouf-Bouteau H, Corbineau F (2008) CR Biologies 331:806–814 (Reactive oxygen species in seed physiology)Google Scholar
  2. Black M, Pritchard HW (2002) Desiccation and survival in plants. Drying without dying. CABI Publishing, Wallingford (Multiauthored book covering many aspects of damage and survival in dry organisms)Google Scholar
  3. Butler LH, Hay FR, Ellis RH, Smith RD, Murray TB (2009) Ann Bot 103:1261–1270 (Repair processes and seed longevity, differential effects within a seed population)Google Scholar
  4. McDonald MB (1999) Seed Sci Technol 27:177–237 (Mechanisms and consequences of seed deterioration)Google Scholar
  5. Osborne DJ (1980) In: Thimann KV (ed) Senescence in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 13–37 (Review of seed aging)Google Scholar
  6. Priestley DA (1986) Seed aging. Implications for seed storage and persistence in the soil. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (Comprehensive review of seed aging)Google Scholar
  7. Rajjou L, Lovigny Y, Groot SP, Belghazi M, Job C, Job D (2008) Plant Physiol 148:620–641 (Carbonylation of proteins in aged seeds)Google Scholar
  8. Roberts EH, Ellis RH (1989) Ann Bot 63:39–52 (Water and seed survival)Google Scholar
  9. Walters C, Ballesteros D, Vertucci VA (2010) Plant Sci 179:565–573 (Structural mechanics of seed deterioration)Google Scholar
  10. Walters C, Farrant JM, Pammenter NW, Berjak P (2002) In: Black M, Pritchard HW (eds) Desiccation and survival in plants. Drying without dying. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 263–291 (Mechanisms of damage in dry seeds)Google Scholar

Section 8.5

  1. Bazin J, Langlade N, Vincourt P, Arribat S, Balzergue S, El-Maarouf-Bouteau H, Bailly C (2011) Plant Cell 23:2196–2208 (Targeted mRNA oxidation during dry after-ripening)Google Scholar
  2. Carrera E, Holman T, Medhurst A, Dietrich D, Footitt S, Theodoulou FL, Holdsworth MJ (2008) Plant J 53:214–224 (Seed after-ripening as a discrete developmental pathway)Google Scholar
  3. Leubner-Metzger G (2005) Plant J 41:133–145 (Apparent gene expression during after-ripening)Google Scholar

Section 8.6

  1. Berjak P, Bartels P, Benson EE, Harding K, Mycock DJ, Pammenter NW, Sershen N, Wesley-Smith J (2011) In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 47:65–81 (Cryopreservation)Google Scholar
  2. Berjak P, Farrant JM, Pammenter NW (1989) In: Taylorson RB (ed) Recent advances in the development and germination of seeds. Plenum Press, New York, pp 89–108 (Storage of recalcitrant seeds)Google Scholar
  3. Dickie JB, May K, Morris SVA, Titley SE (1991) Seed Sci Res 1:149–162 (Recalcitrance and orthodoxy in two Acer species)Google Scholar
  4. Ellis RH, Hong TD, Roberts EH (1990) J Exp Bot 41:1167–1174 (Intermediate category of storage behavior)Google Scholar
  5. Farrant JM, Pammenter NW, Berjak P (1993) Seed Sci Res 3:1–14 (Recalcitrance in Avicennia marina)Google Scholar
  6. King MW, Roberts EH (1979) Report for the International Board for Genetic Resources Secretariat. Rome 96 (Recalcitrant seed storage)Google Scholar
  7. Kovach DA, Bradford KJ (1992) J Exp Bot 43:767–757 (Drying conditions and recalcitrance in wild rice)Google Scholar
  8. Pammenter NW, Berjak P (2000) Rev Brasil Fisiol Veg 12:56–69 (Review of recalcitrant seed physiology)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Derek Bewley
    • 1
  • Kent J. Bradford
    • 2
  • Henk W. M. Hilhorst
    • 3
  • Hiro Nonogaki
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Molecular and Cellular BiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  2. 2.Seed Biotechnology Center Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Plant Physiology Wageningen Seed LaboratoryWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of HorticultureOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

Personalised recommendations