Chemistry of Conductive Solutions

  • Sandro Carrara


When we interface our CMOS circuits with an environment suitable for life, we usually obtain an interface between a conducting or an insulating surface and a conductive solution. The reason is that an environment suitable for life requires two conditions: first, water in liquid phase is required to support complex molecules for free movement, and second, salts dissolved in that water are required to support the right 3D structure of the molecules. The 3D organization is necessary for the functionality of any organic or biological molecule. Mobility and functionality are two of the main features of living organisms and their components. These features are of key importance for the complexity and the high degree of organization of life. They assure the proper functioning of all organs in organisms. They serve to harvest, transport, transform, and use energy and matter for organisms’ benefit. They also facilitate communication and exchange between biological systems.


Electrolyte Concentration Dilute Solution Electrolytic Solution Conductive Solution Hydrogen Cyanide 
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Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Pauling L (1988) General chemistry, Dover Book on Chemistry. Courier Dover Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zumdahl SS, Zumdahl SA (2008) Chemistry. Brooks Cole, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Houk CC, Post R (1996) Chemistry: concepts and problems: a self-teaching guide (Wiley self-teaching guides). Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Timberlake K (2011) Chemistry: an introduction to general, organic, & biological chemistry (11th edn). Prentice Hall, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandro Carrara
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculties Sciences et Techniques de l’Ingénieur and Informatique et Communications Labo. Systèmes Intégrés (LSI)LausanneSwitzerland

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