Impact of Extreme Events on Salt-Tolerant Forest Species of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India)

  • Alok SaxenaEmail author
  • P. Ragavan
  • Mani Saxena


Mangroves are the salt-tolerant plants that grow mainly in the tropical and sub-tropical intertidal regions of the world. Nature has therefore endowed mangroves with a series of remarkable adaptations which enable them to flourish in an environment characterized by high temperatures, wide fluctuating salinities and shifting of anaerobic substrates. The root systems show remarkable morphological, anatomical as well as physiological adaptations to withstand salinity and so do the leaves. Many mangroves exhibit vivipary—a specialized way of reproduction for propagation in unfavourable conditions. The mangroves are vulnerable to the consequences of climate change particularly due to sea-level rise. They are also considered to be an important carbon sink. It is estimated that the present annual loss of mangroves results into a loss of about 225,000 t of carbon sequestration potential per year with an additional release of approximately 11 million t of carbon from disturbed mangrove soils each year. In this chapter, a case study has been presented on the impact of an extreme natural calamity, i.e. tsunami, which happened on December 26, 2004 preceded by a massive earthquake of 9.1 on Richter scale on the mangrove vegetation in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India. The immediate damage to the mangroves was mainly due to the impact of tsunami. However, the massive earthquake that preceded the tsunami brought about changes in the geo-morphology of these islands resulting in significant rise of land in the northern islands and submergence of land in the southern islands of the Nicobar group. The results of the study are based on the analysis of temporal satellite data as well as field verification. The results show that there is a continuous degradation in the mangroves in North Andaman as well as Nicobar islands and the trend is likely to continue.


Andaman and Nicobar Carbon sequestration Climate change Mangroves Salt stress Temperature 



Authors acknowledge with gratitude the valuable contribution of Mr. Abhaya Saxena, Senior Technical Assistant, Forest Survey of India in the case study conducted on the impact of tsunami on the mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Contribution of Dr. K. Kethiresan, Scientist, Annamalai University, India, is also acknowledged with sincere gratitude for his valuable suggestions.


  1. Aktsu M, Hosoi Y, Sasamoto H, Ashihara H (1996) Purine metabolism in cells of a mangrove plant, Sonneratia alba, in tissue culture. J Plant Physiol 149:133–137Google Scholar
  2. Andrews TJ, Clough BF, Muller GJ (1984) Photosynthetic gas exchange and carbon isotope ratios of some mangroves in North Queensland. In: Teas HJ (ed) Physiology and management of mangroves, tasks for vegetation science. Junk, The Hague, pp 15–23Google Scholar
  3. Armentano TV, Doren RF, Platt WJ, Mullins T (1995) Effects of Hurricane Andrew on coastal and interior forests of Southern Florida: overview and synthesis. J Coast Res 2:111–114Google Scholar
  4. Arora A, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC (2002) Oxidative stress and antioxidative systems in plants. Curr Sci 82:1227–1238Google Scholar
  5. Ashihara H, Adachi K, Otawa M, Yasumoto E, Fukushima Y, Kato M, Sano H, Sasamoto H, Baba S (1997) Compatible solutes and inorganic ions in the mangrove plant Avicennia marina and their effects on the activities of enzymes. Z Naturforsch 52:433–440Google Scholar
  6. Aziz I, Khan MA (2001) Experimental assessment of salinity tolerance of Ceriops tagal seedlings and saplings from the Indus delta, Pakistan. Aquat Bot 70:259–268Google Scholar
  7. Azocar A, Rada F, Orozco A (1992) Relaciones hidricas e intercambio de gases en dos especies de mangle, con mecanismos contrastantes de regulacion de la salinidad interna. Ectropico 5:11–19Google Scholar
  8. Ball MC, Farquhar GD (1984) Photosynthetic and stomatal responses of two mangrove species, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina, to long term salinity and humidity conditions. Plant Physiol 74:1–6Google Scholar
  9. Ball MC, Passioura JB (1993) Carbon gain in relation to water use: photosynthesis in mangroves. In: Sehulze ED, Caldwell NM (eds) Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Kiedelberg, pp 247–257Google Scholar
  10. Banzai T, Hershkovits G, Katocoff DJ, Hanagata N (2002a) Identification and characterization of mRNA transcripts differentially expressed in response to high salinity by means of differential display in the mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Plant Sci 162:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Banzai T, Sumiya K, Hanagata N (2002b) Molecular cloning and characterization of genes encoding BURP domain-containing protein in the mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Trees 16:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Banzai T, Hanagata N, Dubinsky Z (2003) Fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate contents were increased in response to salt, water and osmotic stress in leaves of Bruguiera gymnorhiza by differential changes in the activity of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase. Plant Mol Biol 53:51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Belperio, AP (1993) Land subsidence and sea-level rise in the Port-Adelaide Estuary—implications for monitoring the greenhouse-effect. Aust J Earth Sci 40:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhosale IJ, Mulik NJ (1991) Strategies of seed germination in mangroves. In: David NS, Mohammed S (eds) Proceedings on international seed symposium. Jodhpur, India, pp 201–205Google Scholar
  15. Blasco F (1977) Outline of ecology, botany and forestry of the mangals of the Indian subcontinent. In: Chapman VJ (ed) Ecosystems of the World 1: Wet Coastal Ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 241–260Google Scholar
  16. Blasco F, Chanda S, Thanikaimoni G (1975) Main characteristics of Indian Mangroves. In: Walsh G, Snedaker SC, Teas HJ (eds) Proceedings of international symposium on biology and management of mangroves. Institute of Food and Agricultural Science, University of Florida, pp 71–83Google Scholar
  17. Blasco F, Saenger P, Janodet E (1996) Mangroves as indicators of coastal change. Catena 27:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bohnert HJ, Jensen RG (1996) Strategies for engineering water-stress tolerance in plants.Trends Biotechnol 14:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Borsani O, Valpuesta V, Botella MA (2003) Developing salt tolerant plants in a new century: a molecular biology approach. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 73:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowman HHM (1917) Ecology and physiology of the red mangrove. Proc Am Philos 56:589–672Google Scholar
  21. Bunt JS (1992) Introduction. In: Robertson AI, Alongi DM (eds) Tropical mangrove ecosystem. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  22. Burchett MD, Clark CJ, Field DC, Pulkownik A (1989) Growth and respiration in two mangrove species at a range of salinities. Physiol Plant 75:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cahoon DR, Lynch J (2003) Surface Elevation Table (SET). US Department of the Interior, US geological survey.
  24. Carey G (1934) Further investigations on the embryology of viviparous seeds. J Proc Linn Soc N S W 59:392–410 (cited in Tomlinson 1986)Google Scholar
  25. Chatterjee B, Porwal MC, Hussin YA (2008) Assessment of tsunami damage to mangrove in India using remote sensing and GIS. Int Arch Photogramm Remote Sens Spatial Inform Sci 37(Part B):8Google Scholar
  26. Cherian S, Reddy MP (2003) Evaluation of NaCl tolerance in the callus cultures ofSuaedanudiflora Moq. Biol Plant 46:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cherian S, Reddy MP, Pandya JB (1999) Studies on salt tolerance in Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh: effect of NaCl salinity on growth, ion accumulation and enzyme activity. Indian J Plant Physiol 4:266–270Google Scholar
  28. Church J, Gregory J, Huybrechts P, Kuhn M, Lambeck K, Nhuan M, Qin D, Woodworth P (2001) Chapter 11. Changes in sea level. In: Houghton J, Ding Y, Griggs D, Noguer M, Van Der Linden P, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson C (eds) Climate change. The scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 639–693 (Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)Google Scholar
  29. Clough, BF, Andrews TJ, Cowan IR (1982) Primary productivity of mangroves. In: Clough BF (ed) Mangrove ecosystems in Australia—structure, function and management. AIMS with ANU Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  30. Dagar JC, Mongia AD, Bandhyopadhyay AK (1991) Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Oxford and IBH, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. Dam Roy S (2003) A compendium on mangrove biodiversity of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Director, CARI, Port Blair, and Agro Ecosystem Director, NATP, p 196Google Scholar
  32. Dam Roy S, Krishnan P (2005) Mangrove stands of Andamans vis-à-vis tsunami. Curr Sci 89:1800–1804Google Scholar
  33. Dat JF, Vandenabeele E, Vranova M, Mantagu V, Inz´e D, Breusegem FV (2000) Dual action of the active oxygen species during plant stress responses. Cell Mol Life Sci 57:779–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dawes CJ (1981) Marine biology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Drennan PM, Berjak P, Pammenter NW (1992) Ion gradients and adenosine triphosphatase localization in the salt glands of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. South African J Bot 58:486–490Google Scholar
  36. Duke NC (1992) Mangrove floristics and biogeography. In: Robertson AI, Alongi DM (eds) Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, pp 63–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Egler FE (1948) The dispersal and establishment of red mangroves, Rhizophora in Florida. Caribb For 9:299–319Google Scholar
  38. Elizabeth M, Rodney VS (2006) Managing mangroves for resilience to climate change. IUCN resilience science group working paper series no 2, p 63Google Scholar
  39. Ellison JC (2000) How South Pacific mangroves may respond to predicted climate change and sea-level rise. In: Gillespie A, Burns W (eds) Climate change in the South Pacific: impacts and responses in Australia, New Zealand, and Small Island States. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 289–301Google Scholar
  40. Ellison JC (2004) Vulnerability of Fiji’s mangroves and associated coral reefs to climate change. Review for the World Wildlife Fund. University of Tasmania, LauncestonGoogle Scholar
  41. Ellison JC (2005) Impact on mangrove ecosystems. The great greenhouse gamble: A conference on the Impacts of climate change on biodiversity and natural resource management: conference proceedings, Sydney, NSW, EJGoogle Scholar
  42. Ellison JC, Stoddart DR (1991) Mangrove ecosystem collapse during predicted sea-level rise: Holocene analogues and implications. J Coast Res 7:151–165Google Scholar
  43. Eong OJ (1993) Mangroves—a carbon source and sink. Chemosphere 27:1097–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Field CD (1995) Impact of expected climate change on mangroves. Hydrobiologia 295:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. FSI (2003) State of forest report 2003. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India publication, Dehradun (India)Google Scholar
  46. FSI (2005) State of forest report 2005. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India publication, Dehradun (India)Google Scholar
  47. FSI (2006) An overview on projects in Forest Survey of India 2006. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India publication, Dehradun (India)Google Scholar
  48. FSI (2007) India state of forest report 2007. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India publication, Dehradun (India)Google Scholar
  49. FSI (2009) India state of forest report 2009. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India publication, Dehradun (India)Google Scholar
  50. Fu XH, Huang YL, Deng SL (2005) Construction of a SSH library of Aegiceras corniculatum under salt stress and expression analysis of four transcripts. Plant Sci 169:147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fukushima Y, Sasamoto H, Baba S, Ashihara H (1997) Effect of salt stress on the catabolism of sugars in leaves and roots of a mangrove plant Avicennia marina. Z Naturforsch 52:187–192Google Scholar
  52. Gill AM, Tomlinson PB (1969) Studies on growth of red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle L) I, Habit and general morphology. BiotropicaI 1:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gómez-Cadenas A, Tadeo FR, Primo-Millo E, Talon M (1998) Involvement of abscisic acid and ethylene in the responses of citrus of seedlings to salt shock. Physiol Plant 103:475–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Guan L, Scandalios JG (1998) Two structurally similar maize cytosolic superoxide dismutase genes, Sod4 and Sod4A, respond differentially to abscisic acid and high osmoticum. Plant Physiol 117:217–224Google Scholar
  55. Harty C (2004) Planning strategies for mangrove and saltmarsh changes in Southeast Australia. Coast Manag 32:405–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hibino T, Meng YL, Kawamistu Y (2001) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two kinds of betaine-2-aldehyde dehydrogenase in betain accumulating mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh. Plant Mol Biol 45:353–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Houghton J, Ding Y, Griggs D, Noguer M, Van Der Linden P, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnso C (2001) Climate change. The scientific basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 881 (Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)Google Scholar
  58. Hutchings P, Saenger P (1987) Ecology of mangroves. University of Queensland Press, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  59. Ibrahim K, Bukhar RZ, Jusoff K, Ismail MH (2010) Atmospheric based correction vegetation index for mangrove mapping at Kelantan delta. In: Proceedings of world engineering congress, conference on engineering and technology education, Malaysia, 2–5 August 2010Google Scholar
  60. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] (1997) The regional impacts of climate change: assessment of vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  61. Jimenez JA, Lugo AE, Cintron G (1985) Tree mortality in mangrove forests. Biotropica 17:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jin Eong O, Khoon GW, Clough BF (1995) Structure and productivity of a 20-year-old stand of Rhizophora apiculata Bl. mangrove forest. J Biogeogr 22:417–424Google Scholar
  63. Jithesh MN, Prashanth SR, Sivaprakash KR, Parida AK (2006a) Monitoring expression profiles of antioxidant genes to salinity, iron, oxidative, light and hyperosmotic stresses in the highly salt tolerant grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) mRNA analysis. Plant Cell Rep 25:865–876Google Scholar
  64. Jithesh MN, Prashanth SR, Sivaprakash KR, Parida AK (2006b) Antioxidative response mechanisms in halophytes: their role in stress defence. J Genet 85(3):237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kennish MJ (2002) Environmental threats and environmental future of estuaries. Environ Conserv 29:78–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Khan MA, Aziz I (2001) Salinity tolerance in some mangrove species from Pakistan. Wetl Ecol Manag 9:219–223Google Scholar
  67. Knutson TR, Tuleya RE (1999) Increased hurricane intensities with CO2-induced warming as simulated using the GFDL hurricane prediction system. Clim Dyn 15:503–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kuenzler EJ (1974) Mangrove swamp systems. In: Odum HT, Copeland BJ, WcMahan EA (eds) Coastal ecological systems of the United States, vol 1. The Conservation Foundation, Washington DC, pp 346–371Google Scholar
  69. Kumar R (2000) Conservation and management of mangroves in India, with special reference to the State of Goa and the Middle Andaman Islands. Unasylva 51:41–46Google Scholar
  70. Kura-Hotta M, Mimura M, Tsujimura T (2001) High salt treatment—induced Na+ extrusion and low salt treatment-induced Na+ accumulation in suspension—cultured cells of the mangrove plant, Bruguierasexangula. Plant Cell Environ 24:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li N, Li C, Chen S, Chang Y, Zhang Y, Wang R, Shi Y, Zheng X, Fritz E, Hüttermann A (2009) Abscisic acid, calmodulin response to short-term and long-term salinity and the relevance to NaCl-induced antioxidant defense in two mangrove species. Open For Sci J 2:48–58Google Scholar
  72. Liang S (2007) Transcript profile of Ceriops tagal in response to salinity and its implication for adaptiv evolution (in Chinese). Ph.D. thesis, Sun Yat-sen University, GuangzhouGoogle Scholar
  73. Macnae W (1968) A general account of the flora and fauna of a mangrove swamps forest in the Indo-West Pacific region. Adv Mar Biol 6:73–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Malik JN, R Murty CV, Rai DC (2006) Landscape changes in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) after the December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami. Earthquake Spectra 22:S43–S66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maurel C, Chrispeels MJ (2001) Aquaporins, a molecular entry into plant water relations. Plant Physiol 125:135–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McGill JT (1959) Coastal classification maps. In: Russel RJ (ed) Second coastal geomorphology conference. Coastal Studies Institute, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  77. Mimura T, Kura-Hotta M, Tsujimura T (2003) Rapid increase of vacuolar volume in response to salt stress. Planta 216:397–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Mittler R, Van Der Auwerra S, Gollery M, Breusegem FV (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 10:490–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miyama M, Shimizu H, Sugiyama M, Hanagata N (2006) Sequencing and analysis of 14,842 expressed sequence tags of Burma mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Plant Sci 171:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miyama M, Hanagata N (2007) Microarray analysis of 7029 gene expression patterns in Burma mangrove under high-salinity stress. Plant Sci 172:948–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Montero E, Cabot C, Barceló J, Poschenrieder C (1997) Endogenous abscisic acid levels are linked to decreased growth of bush bean plants treated with NaCl. Physiol Plant 101:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Morel Y, Barouki Y (1999) Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress. Biochem J 342:481–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Naidoo G (1983) Effects of flooding on leaf water potential and stomatal resistance in Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L) Lam. New Phytol 93:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ning ZH, Turner RE, Doyle T, Abdollahi KK (2003) Integrated assessment of the climate change impacts on the Gulf Coast region. Gulf Coast Climate Change Assessment Council (GCRCC) and Louisiana State University (LSU) Graphic ServicesGoogle Scholar
  85. Oku H, Baba S, Koga H, Takara K, Iwasaki H (2003) Lipid composition of mangrove and its relevance to salt tolerance. J Plant Res 116:37–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ong JE (2002) The hidden costs of mangrove services, use of mangroves for shrimp aquaculture. International Science Roundtable for the Media, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  87. Panigrahy RK, Ray SS, Panigrahy S (2009) Study on the utility of IRS-P6 AWIFS SWIR band for crop discrimination and classification. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 37:325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Parida AK, Das AB, Mohanty P (2004) Defense potentials to NaCl in a mangrove, Bruguiera parviflora: differential changes of isoforms of some antioxidative enzymes. J Plant Physiol 161:531–542Google Scholar
  89. Pernetta JC (1993) Mangrove forests, climate change and sea-level rise: hydrological influences on community structure and survival, with examples from the Indo-West Pacific. A marine conservation and development report. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland vii: 46Google Scholar
  90. Polania J (1990) Physiological adaptations in some species of mangroves. Acta Biologica Columbiana 2:23–36Google Scholar
  91. Popp M, Polania J, Weiper M (1993) Physiological adaptations to different salinity levels in mangroves. In: Lieth H, Masoom AA (eds) Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants, vol 1. Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp 217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ramachandran S, Sundaramoorthy S, Krishnamoorth YR, Devasenapathy J, Thanikachalam M (1998) Application of remote sensing and GIS to coastal wetland ecology of Tamil Nadu and Andaman & Nicobar group of islands with special reference to mangroves.Current Sci 75(3):236–244Google Scholar
  93. Ramachandran S, Anitha S, Balamurugan V, Dharanirajan K, Ezhil Vendhan K, Marie Irene Preeti Divien, Senthil Vel A, Sujjahad Hussain I, Udayaraj A (2005) Ecological impact of tsunami on Nicobar Islands (Camorta, Katchal, Nancowry and Trinkat). Current Sci 89:195–200Google Scholar
  94. Rosevear DR (1947) Mangrove swamps. Farm For 8:23–30Google Scholar
  95. Roth LC (1997) Implications of periodic hurricane disturbance for sustainable management of Caribbean mangroves. In: Kjerfve B, Lacerda L, Diop S (eds) Mangrove ecosystem studies in Latin America and Africa. UNESCO, Paris, pp 18–33Google Scholar
  96. Saenger P, Hegerl EJ, Davie JDS (1983) Global status of mangrove ecosystems. Commission on ecology, paper no 3. IUCN, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  97. Salin ML (1987) Toxic oxygen species and protective systems of the chloroplast. Physiol Plant 72:681–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Scholander PF (1968) How mangroves desalinate water. Physical Plant 21:251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Hemmingsen EA, Cray W (1962) Salt balance in mangroves. Plant Physiol 37:722–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Hemmingsen EA, Bradstreet ED (1964) Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic potential in leaves of mangroves and some other plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 52:119–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Scholander PF, Hammel HT, Bradstreet ED, Hemmingsen EA (1965) Sap pressure in vascular plants. Science 148:339–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schwamborn R, Saint-Paul U (1996) Mangroves—forgotten forests? Nat Resour Dev 43–44:13–36Google Scholar
  103. Semeniuk V (1994) Predicting the effect of sea-level rise on mangroves in northwestern Australia. J Coast Res 10:1050–1076Google Scholar
  104. Serrano R, Mulet J, Rios G, Marquez J, de Larrinoa I, Leube M (1999) A glimpse of the mechanisms of ion homeostasis during salt stress. J Exp Bot 50:1023–1036Google Scholar
  105. Shan L, RenChao Z, SuiSui D, SuHua SHI (2008) Adaptation to salinity in mangroves: implication on the evolution of salt-tolerance. Chinese Sci 53:1708–1715Google Scholar
  106. Sidhu SS (1963) Studies on mangroves. Proc Indian Acad Sci 33:129–136Google Scholar
  107. Smirnoff N (1993) The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and dessication. New Phytol 125:27–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Snedaker SC (1978) Mangroves: their value and perpetuation. Nat Resour 14:6–13Google Scholar
  109. Snedaker SC (1995) Mangroves and climate change in the Florida and Caribbean region: scenarios and hypotheses. Hydrobiologia 295:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Spalding M (1997) The global distribution and status of mangrove ecosystems. Int News Lett Coast Manag-Intercoast Netw 1:20–21 (Special edition)Google Scholar
  111. Sridhar R, Thangaradjou T, Kannan L, Ramachandran A, Jayakumar S (2006) Rapid assessment of the impact of tsunami on mangrove vegetation of the Great Nicobar Island. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 34:1Google Scholar
  112. Suarez N, Medina E (2006) Influence of salinity on Na+ and K+ accumulation, and gas exchange in Avicennia germinans. Photosynthetica 44:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sugihara K, Hanagata N, Dubinsky Z (2000) Molecular characterization of cDNA encoding oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 increased by salt treatment in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Plant Cell Physiol 41:1279–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Takemura T, Hanagata N, Sugihara K (2000) Physiological and biochemical response to salt stress in the mangrove, Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Aquat Bot 68:15–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Takemura T, Hanagata N, Dubinsky Z (2002) Molecular characterization and response to salt stress of mRNAs encoding cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase from Bruguiera gymnorhiza. Trees 16:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Teas HJ (1979) Silviculture with saline water. Biosaline Concept 1974:117–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tomlinson PB (1986) The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York, p 433Google Scholar
  118. Trenberth K (2005) Uncertainty in hurricanes and global warming. Science 308:1753–1754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Twilley RR, Chen RH, Hargis T (1992) Carbon sinks in mangroves and their implications to carbon budget of tropical coastal ecosystems. Water Air Soil Pollut 64:265–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (1973) International classification and mapping of vegetation. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  121. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1994) Assessment and monitoring of climatic change impacts on mangrove ecosystems. UNEP regional seas reports and studies report no 154Google Scholar
  122. Van Breusegem F, Vranova E, Dat JF, Inz´e D (2001) The role of active oxygen species in plant signal transduction. Plant Sci 161:405–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van Der Pijl I (1936) Fledermause and bluemen. Flora 31:1–40Google Scholar
  124. Waditee R, Hibino T, Tanaka Y (2002) Functional characterization of betaine/proline transporters in betaine accumulating mangrove. J Biol Chem 277:18373–18382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Waheed Khan MA (1957) Ecological studies on the mangrove forests in India. In: Proceedings of the mangrove symposium, Calcutta, pp 97–109Google Scholar
  126. Walsh KJE, Ryan BF (2000) Tropical cyclone intensity increase near Australia as a result of climate change. J Climate 13:3029–3036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wang WQ, Ke L, Tam NFY (2002) Change in the main osmotic during the development of Kandelis candel hypocotyls and after mature hypocotyls were transplanted in solutions with different salinities. Mar Biol 141:1029–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Warming E (1883) Tropische Fragment II. Rhizophora mangle. L Bot Jahrb 4:519–548Google Scholar
  129. Werner A, Stelzer R (1990) Physiological response of the mangroves Rhizophora mangle grown in the absence and presence of NaCl. Plant Cell Environ 13:243–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Whitemore TC (1984) Tropical rain forests of Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford (Science publication)Google Scholar
  131. Wilkie ML, Fortuna S (eds) (2003) Status and trends in mangrove area extent worldwide. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Forest Resources Division. Forest resources assessment working paper no 63. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  132. Woodroffe CD (1990) The impact of sea-level rise on mangrove shoreline. Prog Phys Geogr 14:483–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Woodroffe CD, Grindrod J (1991) Mangrove biogeography: the role of quaternary environmental and sea-level change. J Biogeogr 18:479–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Yanney-Ewusie J (1980) Element of tropical ecology. Heinemann Educ Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  135. Yang T, Poovaiah BW (2002) Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci 99:4097–4102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhao K, Munns R, King RW (1991) Abscisic acid synthesis in NaCl treated barley, cotton and saltbush. Aust J Plant Physiol 18:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Zhao KF, Feng LT, Lu YF (1999) The osmotica and their contributions to the osmotic adjustment for Kandelia candel(L) Druce and Avicennia matina(Forsk) Vierh growing in the Jiulongjiang river estuary. Oceanol Limnol Sin (in Chinese) 30:57–61Google Scholar
  138. Zheng WJ, Wang WQ, Lin P (1999) Dynamics of element contents during the development of hypocotyls and leaves of certain mangrove species. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 233:248–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment and ForestAndaman and Nicobar IslandsPort BlairIndia
  2. 2.Andaman and Nicobar Islands Forests and Plantation Corporation Limited (ANIFPDCL)Port BlairIndia

Personalised recommendations