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How Can Chips Live Under Radiation?

  • Erik H. M. HeijneEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Interactions of different types of radiation in silicon are discussed together with effects on devices. Long-term irradiations cause ‘Total-Ionization-Dose’ degradation and ‘Single Event Effects’ occur when dense ionization upsets a small area in a chip. At the CERN Large Hadron Collider LHC we expect a severe radiation environment, yet sophisticated chips are needed. Some remedies against radiation effects are illustrated. One can use changes in technology, in device geometry, in circuit design or in layout. At system level one can recover loss of functions or data. Trends in CMOS technology call for continuous study of behaviour of new devices under radiation. The increased use of chips for critical functions everywhere imposes study of rare effects of radiation, not only in extreme conditions. With large areas of silicon in operation worldwide, low probabilities do result in real incidents.

Keywords

CMOS Technology Gate Oxide Radiation Environment Threshold Shift Single Effect Transient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Many people have contributed to the know-how at CERN in radiation effects in chips. Contrary to my original fears, it has been quite possible to meet with many scientists and learn about this subject in open scientific meetings. The IEEE has played an important role from the beginning. It is through these contacts and through the yearly NSREC and RADECS that progress continues to be made.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CERN PH DepartmentGenève 23Switzerland
  2. 2.IEAP-CTUPragueCzech Republic
  3. 3.NIKHEFAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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