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HIV/AIDS Treatment and Control in India and the Millennium Development Goals

Chapter

Abstract

India has a large HIV burden, with a concentrated type of epidemic in high-risk groups distributed unevenly in different parts of India. The advent of the “3 by 5” program for specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) during 2003–2005 provided the experience and a trigger for a quantum leap in the treatment program under a 5-year NACP (National AIDS Control Program) III beginning 2006. ART is provided free of charge at about 292 ART Centers and additional Link ART Centers, which people living with AIDS (PLHA) in need can access. A well-coordinated system of pre-ART registration of PLHA and their periodic checkup enables identifying those who need to be initiated in ART. Response to treatment and adherence is satisfactory, with an average of about 80 % of patients initiated on ART available and continuing treatment beyond 12 months. By the end of December 2010, about 387,205 PLHA had been enrolled for treatment. During 2010, about 8,000 patients were inducted to the ART program in India each month. While updated data are not yet available, continued enrollment at the same rate each month would mean about 500,000 patients would have been enrolled by the end of 2011. Lifelong treatment and increased life expectancy in PLHAs require the provision of health care services to an ever-increasing number of PLHA on ART in successive years. Health manpower development, infrastructure facilities, associated laboratory backup, and the increased quantity of drugs required need to be built into the planning for the next phase—NACP IV during 2012–2016. With the political determination exhibited so far and with the determination, dedication, and concerted efforts of health care planners and providers and with active participation and cooperation of patients, the challenges of AIDS Control leading to the realization of the Millennium Development Goals are likely to be largely met in India.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Melinda Gate Foundation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

3TC

Lamivudine

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ART

Antiretroviral treatment/therapy

ATT

Anti-tuberculosis treatment/therapy

ATV

Atazanavir

CD4 count

CD4 T-lymphocyte count

COE

Centers of excellence

d4T

Stavudine

ddI

Didanosine

EFV

Efavirenz

FTC

Emtricitabine

Hb

Hemoglobin

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

IDV

Indinavir

LPV

Lopinavir

NACO

National AIDS Control Organization

NACP

National AIDS Control Program

NNRTI

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NVP

Nevirapine

PI

Protease inhibitor

PLHA

People living with HIV/AIDS

RNTCP

Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program

RTV

Ritonavir

SACS

State AIDS Control Society

TB

Tuberculosis disease

TDF

Tenofovir disproxil fumarate

ZDV

Zidovudine

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National AIDS Research InstitutePuneIndia
  2. 2.Indian Council of Medical ResearchPuneIndia

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