Extraocular Muscle Structure and Function
It has become increasingly clear that skeletal muscles are not all the same, but have significant differences in terms of embryological development, fiber type, physiological properties, metabolic properties, and disease profile. If one thinks about skeletal muscle as a continuum from the least to most complex, with the leg muscle soleus at one end, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) would be at the other end. The combination of its unusual properties compared to other skeletal muscles has resulted in the suggestion that the EOM represent a distinct allotype (Hoh and Hughes 1988). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the characteristics of the EOM that make them so unique amongst skeletal muscles.
KeywordsFatigue Migration Depression Lactate Adduct
Supported by NIH grant EY015313, the Minnesota Lions and Lionessess, and an unrestricted grant to the Department of Ophthalmology from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc.
- Das V (2012) Motor control and biomechanics. In: McLoon LK, Andrade F (eds) Craniofacial muscles. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Harel I, Tzahor E (2012) Development of craniofacial muscles. In: McLoon LK, Andrade F (eds) Craniofacial muscles. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Milller JM, Bockisch CJ, Pavlovski DS (2002) Missing lateral rectus force and absence of medial rectus co-contraction in ocular convergence. J Neurophysiol 87:2421–2433Google Scholar
- Pedrosa-Domellöf F (2012) Extraocular muscle response to neuromuscular diseases and specific pathologies. In: McLoon LK, Andrade F (eds) Craniofacial muscles. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Stirn Kranjc B, Sketelj J, D’Albis A, Erzen I (2001) Long term changes in myosin heavy chain composition after botulinum toxin A injection into rat medial rectus muscle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:3158–3164Google Scholar