Extraocular Muscle Structure and Function

  • Linda K. McLoon
  • Christy L. Willoughby
  • Francisco H. Andrade


It has become increasingly clear that skeletal muscles are not all the same, but have significant differences in terms of embryological development, fiber type, physiological properties, metabolic properties, and disease profile. If one thinks about skeletal muscle as a continuum from the least to most complex, with the leg muscle soleus at one end, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) would be at the other end. The combination of its unusual properties compared to other skeletal muscles has resulted in the suggestion that the EOM represent a distinct allotype (Hoh and Hughes 1988). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the characteristics of the EOM that make them so unique amongst skeletal muscles.


Rectus Muscle Inferior Rectus MyHC Isoforms Neural Crest Cell Migration Inferior Oblique Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Supported by NIH grant EY015313, the Minnesota Lions and Lionessess, and an unrestricted grant to the Department of Ophthalmology from Research to Prevent Blindness Inc.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda K. McLoon
    • 1
  • Christy L. Willoughby
    • 2
  • Francisco H. Andrade
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Ophthalmology and NeuroscienceUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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