Behavior and Impact of Zirconium in the Soil–Plant System: Plant Uptake and Phytotoxicity

  • Muhammad ShahidEmail author
  • Emmanuel Ferrand
  • Eva Schreck
  • Camille Dumat
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 221)


Because of the large number of sites they pollute, toxic metals that contaminate terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly of environmental and sanitary concern (Uzu et al. 2010, 2011; Shahid et al. 2011a, b, 2012a). Among such metals is zirconium (Zr), which has the atomic number 40 and is a transition metal that resembles titanium in physical and chemical properties (Zaccone et al. 2008). Zr is widely used in many chemical industry processes and in nuclear reactors (Sandoval et al. 2011; Kamal et al. 2011), owing to its useful properties like hardness, corrosion-resistance and permeable to neutrons (Mushtaq 2012). Hence, the recent increased use of Zr by industry, and the occurrence of the Chernobyl and Fukashima catastrophe have enhanced environmental levels in soil and waters (Yirchenko and Agapkina 1993; Mosulishvili et al. 1994; Kruglov et al. 1996).


Transfer Factor Immobile Element Zirconium Hydroxide Zirconium Oxychloride Zirconium Carbide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank the “Agence Nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs” (Andra) for financial support. We thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan ( and the French Society for Export of Educative Resources (SFERE, for the scholarship granted to M. Shahid.


  1. Abollino O, Aceto M, Malandrino M, Mentasti E, Sarzanini C, Barberis R (2002) Distribution and mobility of metals in contaminated sites. Chemometric investigation of pollutant profiles. Environ Pollut 119:177–193Google Scholar
  2. Aja SU, Wood SA, Williams-Jones AE (1995) The aqueous geochemistry of Zr and the solubility of some Zr-bearing minerals. Appl Geochem 10:603–620Google Scholar
  3. Ali S, Bai P, Zeng F, Cai S, Shamsi IH, Qiu B, Wu F, Zhang G (2011) The ecotoxicological and interactive effects of chromium and aluminum on growth, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzymes on two barley genotypes differing in Al tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 70:185–191Google Scholar
  4. Alleman LY, Lamaison L, Perdrix E, Robache A, Galloo J-C (2010) PM10 metal concentrations and source identification using positive matrix factorization and wind sectoring in a French industrial zone. Atmos Res 96:612–625Google Scholar
  5. Anderson SP, Dietrich WE, Brimhall GH Jr (2002) Weathering profiles, mass balance analysis, rates of solute loss; linkages between weathering and erosion in a small, steep catchment. Geol Soc Am Bull 114:1143–1158Google Scholar
  6. Arshad M, Silvestre J, Pinelli E, Kallerhoff J, Kaemmerer M, Tarigo A, Shahid M, Guiresse M, Pradere P, Dumat C (2008) A field study of lead phytoextraction by various scented Pelargonium cultivars. Chemosphere 71:2187–2192Google Scholar
  7. Aznar J-C, Richer-Laflèche M, Paucar-Muñoz H, Bordeleau M, Bégin Y (2009) Is tree growth reduction related to direct foliar injuries or soil chemistry modifications? Chemosphere 76:1366–1371Google Scholar
  8. Baes CF, Mesmer RE (1986) The hydrolysis of cations, 2nd edn. Kreiger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bain DC, Mellor A, Wilson MJ, Duthie DML (1994) Chemical and mineralogical weathering rates and processes in an upland granitic till catchment in Scotland. Water Air Soil Pollut 73:11–27Google Scholar
  10. Baker AJM (1981) Accumulators and excluders—strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals. J Plant Nutr 3:643–654Google Scholar
  11. Bali R, Siegele R, Harris AT (2010) Phytoextraction of Au: uptake, accumulation and cellular distribution in Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea. Chem Eng J 156:286–297Google Scholar
  12. Belousova EA, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY (2006) Zircon crystal morphology, trace element signatures and Hf isotope composition as a tool for petrogenetic modeling: examples from Eastern Australian granitoids. J Petrol 47:329–353Google Scholar
  13. Belousova EA, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Fisher NI (2002) Igneous zircon: trace element composition as an indicator of source rock type. Contrib Mineral Petrol 143:602–622Google Scholar
  14. Benekos K, Kissoudis C, Nianiou-Obeidat I, Labrou N, Madesis P, Kalamaki M, Makris A, Tsaftaris A (2010) Overexpression of a specific soybean GmGSTU4 isoenzyme improves diphenyl ether and chloroacetanilide herbicide tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants. J Biotechnol 150:195–201Google Scholar
  15. Bern CR, Chadwick OA, Hartshorn AS, Khomo LM, Chorover J (2011) A mass-balance model to separate and quantify colloidal and solute redistributions in soil. Chem Geol 282:113–119Google Scholar
  16. Bhuiyan MAH, Parvez L, Islam MA, Dampare SB, Suzuki S (2010) Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh. J Hazard Mater 173:384–392Google Scholar
  17. Bi X, Ren L, Gong M, He Y, Wang L, Ma Z (2010) Transfer of cadmium and lead from soil to mangoes in an uncontaminated area, Hainan Island, China. Geoderma 155:115–120Google Scholar
  18. Blumental WB (1976) Zirconium-behavior in biological systems. J Sci Ind Res 35:485–490Google Scholar
  19. Blumenthal WB (1963) The chemical behavior of zirconium (D. van Nostrand, New York, 1958). Inostrannaya Literatura, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowen H (1979) Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Braun J-J, Ngoupayou JRN, Viers J, Dupre B, Bedimo JPB, Boeglin JL, Robain H, Nyeck B, Freydier R, Nkamdjou LS, Rouiller J (2005) Present weathering rates in a humid tropical watershed: Nsimi, South Cameroon. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:357–387Google Scholar
  22. Brun CB, Åström ME, Peltola P, Johansson MB (2008) Trends in major and trace elements in decomposing needle litters during a long-term experiment in Swedish forests. Plant Soil 306:199–210Google Scholar
  23. Caffau E, Faraggiana R, Ludwig H-G, Bonifacio P, Steffen M (2010) The solar photospheric abundance of zirconium. Astron Nachr 999:789–800Google Scholar
  24. Calagari AA, Abedini A (2007) Geochemical investigations on Permo-Triassic bauxite horizon at Kanisheeteh, east of Bukan, West-Azarbaidjan, Iran. J Geochem Explor 94:1–18Google Scholar
  25. Carvajal M, Martinez-Sanchez F, Alcaraz CF (1994) Effect of titanium (IV) application on some enzymatic activities in several developing stages of red pepper plants. J Plant Nutr 17: 243–253Google Scholar
  26. Caspari T, Bäumler R, Norbu C, Tshering K, Baillie I (2006) Geochemical investigation of soils developed in different lithologies in Bhutan, Eastern Himalayas. Geoderma 136:436–458Google Scholar
  27. Chadwick OA, Brimhall GH, Hendricks DM (1990) From black box to grey box: a mass balance interpretation of pedogenesis. Geomorphology 3:369–390Google Scholar
  28. Chaignon V, Hinsinger P (2003) A biotest for evaluating copper bioavailability to plants in a ­contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 32:824–833Google Scholar
  29. Che VB, Fontijn K, Ernst GGJ, Kervyn M, Elburg M, Van Ranst E, Suh CE (2012) Evaluating the degree of weathering in landslide-prone soils in the humid tropics: the case of Limbe, SW Cameroon. Geoderma 170:378–389Google Scholar
  30. Chow JC, Watson JG, Ashbaugh LL, Magliano KLCN (2003) Similarities and differences in PM10 chemical source profiles for geological dust from the San Joaquin Valley, California. Atmos Environ 37:1317–1340Google Scholar
  31. Clearfield A (1964) Structural aspects of zirconium chemistry. Rev Pure Appl Chem 14:91–108Google Scholar
  32. Cornu S, Lucas Y, Lebon E, Ambrosi J, Luizão F, Rouiller J, Bonnay M, Neal C (1999) Evidence of titanium mobility in soil profiles, Manaus, central Amazonia. Geoderma 91:281–295Google Scholar
  33. Cotton FA, Wilkinson G (1980) Advanced inorganic chemistry, 4th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Couture P, Blaise C, Cluis D, Bastien C (1989) Zirconium toxicity assessment using bacteria, algae and fish assays. Water Air Soil Pollut 47:87–100Google Scholar
  35. Davis RV, Beckett PHT, Wollan E (1978) Critical levels of twenty potentially toxic elements in young spring barley. Plant Soil 49:395–408Google Scholar
  36. Davydov YP, Davydov DY, Zemskova LM (2006) Speciation of Zr(IV) radionuclides in solutions. Radiochemistry 48:358–364Google Scholar
  37. Dessureault-Rompré J, Luster J, Schulin R, Tercier-Waeber M-L, Nowack B (2010) Decrease of labile Zn and Cd in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens with time. Environ Pollut 158:1955–1962Google Scholar
  38. Dou X, Zhang Y, Wang H, Wang T, Wang Y (2011) Performance of granular zirconium–iron oxide in the removal of fluoride from drinking water. Water Res 45:3571–3578Google Scholar
  39. Dumat C, Quenea K, Bermond A, Toinen S, Benedetti MF (2006) Study of the trace metal ion influence on the turnover of soil organic matter in cultivated contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 142:521–529Google Scholar
  40. Dupré B, Gaillardet J, Rousseau D, Allègre CJ (1996) Major and trace elements of river-borne material: the Congo Basin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60(8):1301–1321Google Scholar
  41. Duvallet L, Martin F, Soubies F, Salvi S, Melfi AJ, Fortune JP (1999) The mobility of zirconium and identification of secondary Zr-bearing phases in bauxite from Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil; a mass-balance and X-ray absorption spectroscopic study. Can Mineral 37:635–651Google Scholar
  42. Egli M, Fitze P (2001) Quantitative aspects of carbonate leaching of soils with differing ages and climates. Catena 46:35–62Google Scholar
  43. Ekberg C, Källvenius G, Albinsson Y, Brown PL (2004) Studies on the hydrolytic behavior of zirconium(IV). J Solution Chem 33:47–79Google Scholar
  44. Evangelou MWH, Bauer U, Ebel M, Schaeffer A (2007) The influence of EDDS and EDTA on the uptake of heavy metals of Cd and Cu from soil with tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. Chemosphere 68:345–353Google Scholar
  45. Feng J-L (2010) Behaviour of rare earth elements and yttrium in ferromanganese concretions, gibbsite spots, and the surrounding terra rossa over dolomite during chemical weathering. Chem Geol 271:112–132Google Scholar
  46. Feng J-L (2011) Trace elements in ferromanganese concretions, gibbsite spots, and the surrounding terra rossa overlying dolomite: their mobilization, redistribution and fractionation. J Geochem Explor 108:99–111Google Scholar
  47. Ferrand E, Dumat C, Leclerc-Cessac E, Benedetti MF (2006) Phytoavailability of zirconium in relation to its initial added form and soil characteristics. Plant Soil 287:313–325Google Scholar
  48. Flohr MJK, Ross M (1990) Alkaline igneous rocks of Magnet Cove, Arkansas: mineralogy and geochemistry of syenites. Lithos 26:67–98Google Scholar
  49. Fodor M, Hegedus A, Stefanovits-Banyai E (2002) Examination of effect of zirconium ascorbate on wheat seedlings. In: I. Pais (ed) Proceedings of the 10th international trace element symposium. Budapest, pp 76–82Google Scholar
  50. Fodor M, Hegedus A, Stefanovits-Banyai E (2005) Zirconium induced physiological alterations in wheat seedlings. Biol Plantarum 49:633–636Google Scholar
  51. Fodor M, Hegóczki J, Vereczkey G (2003) The effects of zirconium, a less known microelement, on basic fermentation characteristics and protein composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acta Aliment 32:353–362Google Scholar
  52. Gagnevin D, Daly JS, Kronz A (2009) Zircon texture and chemical composition as a guide to magmatic processes and mixing in a granitic environment and coeval volcanic system. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:579–596Google Scholar
  53. Garnham GW, Codd GA, Gadd GM (1993) Accumulation of zirconium by microalgae and cyanobacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39:666–672Google Scholar
  54. Ghosh S, Sharma A, Talukder G (1992) Zirconium. An abnormal trace element in biology. Biol Trace Elem Res 35:247–271Google Scholar
  55. Goldich SS (1938) A study in rock weathering. J Geol 46:17–58Google Scholar
  56. Grover P, Rekhadevi P, Danadevi K, Vuyyuri S, Mahboob M, Rahman M (2010) Genotoxicity evaluation in workers occupationally exposed to lead. Int J Hyg Environ Health 213:99–106Google Scholar
  57. Gundersen V, Bechmann IE, Behrens A, Stürup S (2000) Comparative investigation of concentrations of major and trace elements in organic and conventional Danish agricultural crops. 1. Onions (Allium cepa Hysam) and peas (Pisum sativum ping pong). J Agric Food Chem 48:6094–6102Google Scholar
  58. Gupta DK, Huang HG, Yang XE, Razafindrabe BHN, Inouhe M (2010) The detoxification of lead in Sedum alfredii H. is not related to phytochelatins but the glutathione. J Hazard Mater 177:437–444Google Scholar
  59. Hao Q, Guo Z, Qiao Y, Xu B, Oldfield F (2010) Geochemical evidence for the provenance of middle Pleistocene loess deposits in southern China. Quaternary Sci Rev 29:3317–3326Google Scholar
  60. Hill SJ, Arowolo TA, Butler OT, Chenery SRN, Cook JM, Cresser MS, Miles DL (2002) Atomic spectrometry update. Environmental analysis. J Anal At Spectrom 17:284–317Google Scholar
  61. Hinsinger P, Bengough AG, Vetterlein D, Young IM (2009) Rhizosphere: biophysics, biogeochemistry and ecological relevance. Plant Soil 321:117–152Google Scholar
  62. Hinsinger P, Brauman A, Devau N, Gérard F, Jourdan C, Laclau J-P, Cadre E, Jaillard B, Plassard C (2011) Acquisition of phosphorus and other poorly mobile nutrients by roots. Where do plant nutrition models fail? Plant Soil 348:29–61Google Scholar
  63. Hirsch AM, Fang A, Asad S, Kapulnik Y (1998) The role of phytohormones in plant-microbe symbioses. Plant Soil 194:171–184Google Scholar
  64. Hodson M (2002) Experimental evidence for mobility of Zr and other trace elements in soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:819–828Google Scholar
  65. Horvath T, Szilagyi V, Hartyani Z (2000) Characterization of trace element distributions in soils. Microchem J 67:53–56Google Scholar
  66. Hoskin PWO (2005) Trace-element composition of hydrothermal zircon and the alteration of Hadean zircon from the Jack Hills, Australia. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:637–648Google Scholar
  67. Jiang W, Liu D (2010) Pb-induced cellular defense system in the root meristematic cells of Allium sativum L. BMC Plant Biol 10:40Google Scholar
  68. Jones DL (1998) Organic acids in the rhizosphere—a critical review. Plant Soil 205:25–44Google Scholar
  69. Jung S, Hoernes S, Mezger K (2000) Geochronology and petrogenesis of Pan-African, syn-tectonic, S-type and post-tectonic A-type granite (Namibia): products of melting of crustal sources, fractional crystallization and wallrock entrainment. Lithos 50:259–287Google Scholar
  70. Kabata-Pendias A (1993) Behavioural properties of trace metals in soils. Appl Geochem 8:Supplement 2, 3–9Google Scholar
  71. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1992) Trace elements in soils and plants, 2nd edn. CRC, Boca Raton, 365 pGoogle Scholar
  72. Kamal A, Kumar BA, Suresh P, Shankaraiah N, Kumar MS (2011) An efficient one-pot synthesis of benzothiazolo-4β-anilino-podophyllotoxin congeners: DNA topoisomerase-II inhibition and anticancer activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 21:350–353Google Scholar
  73. Klechkovsky VM, Gulyakin IV (1958) Behavior in soils and plants of the micro-quantities of strontium, cesium, ruthenium and zirconium. Soil Sci 3:1–15 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  74. Kopittke PM, Asher CJ, Blamey FPC, Menzies NW (2007) Toxic effects of Pb2+ on the growth and mineral nutrition of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana). Plant Soil 300:127–136Google Scholar
  75. Kopittke PM, Asher CJ, Menzies NW (2008) Prediction of Pb speciation in concentrated and dilute nutrient solutions. Environ Pollut 153:548–554Google Scholar
  76. Kovalenko NI, Ryzhenko BN (2009) Comparative study of the solubility of zircon and baddeleyite. Geochem Int 47:405–413Google Scholar
  77. Kruglov SV, Vasil’yeva NA, Kurinov AD, Aleksakhin AM (1996) Distribution of radionuclides from Chernobyl fallout with regard to fractions of the soil-particle distribution of sod-podzolic soils. Eur Soil Sci 28:26–35Google Scholar
  78. Krzeslowska M, Lenartowska M, Mellerowicz EJ, Samardakiewicz S, Wozny A (2009) Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation—a response of moss protonemata cells to lead. Environ Exp Bot 65:119–131Google Scholar
  79. Krzeslowska M, Lenartowska M, Samardakiewicz S, Bilski H, Wozny A (2010) Lead deposited in the cell wall of Funaria hygrometrica protonemata is not stable—a remobilization can occur. Environ Pollut 158:325–338Google Scholar
  80. Kumpiene J, Brännvall E, Taraškevičius R, Aksamitauskas Č, Zinkutė R (2011) Spatial variability of topsoil contamination with trace elements in preschools in Vilnius, Lithuania. J Geochem Explor 108:15–20Google Scholar
  81. Kurtz AC, Derry LA, Chadwick OA, Alfano MJ (2000) Refractory element mobility in volcanic soils. Geology 28:683–686Google Scholar
  82. Langmuir D, Herman JS (1980) The mobility of thorium in natural waters at low temperatures. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:1753–1766Google Scholar
  83. LeRiche HH (1973) The distribution of minor elements among the components of a soil developed in loess. Geoderma 9:43–57Google Scholar
  84. Liao YC, Chien SWC, Wang MC, Shen Y, Hung PL, Das B (2006) Effect of transpiration on Pb uptake by lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids in rhizosphere. Chemosphere 65:343–351Google Scholar
  85. Little MG, Lee C-TA (2010) Sequential extraction of labile elements and chemical characterization of a basaltic soil from Mt. Meru, Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 57:444–454Google Scholar
  86. Liu X, Wang Q, Deng J, Zhang Q, Sun S, Meng J (2010) Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of the Dajia Salento-type bauxite deposits, western Guangxi, China. J Geochem Explor 105:137–152Google Scholar
  87. Lomonte C, Doronila AI, Gregory D, Baker AJM, Kolev SD (2010) Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction. J Hazard Mater 173:494–501Google Scholar
  88. Louvel M, Sanchez-Valle C, Petitgirard S, Cardon H, Daniel I, Cauzid J (2009) Zr speciation and partitioning in SiO2-rich aqueous fluids and silicate melts. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts. p 73Google Scholar
  89. Lowery Claiborne L, Miller CF, Walker BA, Wooden JL, Mazdab FK, Bea F (2006) Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: an example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada. Mineral Mag 70:517–543Google Scholar
  90. Lyubenova L, Schröder P (2011) Plants for waste water treatment—effects of heavy metals on the detoxification system of Typha latifolia. Bioresour Technol 102:996–1004Google Scholar
  91. Maeck WJ, Spraktes FW, Tromp RL, Keller JH (1975) Analytical results, recommended nuclear constants and suggested correlations for the evaluation of Oklo fission-product data. In: IAEA Vienna. Le Phénomène d’Oklo, pp 319–324Google Scholar
  92. Maestri E, Marmiroli M, Visioli G, Marmiroli N (2010) Metal tolerance and hyperaccumulation: costs and trade-offs between traits and environment. Environ Exp Bot 68:1–13Google Scholar
  93. Malandrino M, Abollino O, Buoso S, Giacomino A, La Gioia C, Mentasti E (2011) Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite. Chemosphere 82:169–178Google Scholar
  94. Maria GES, Cogliatti DH (1988) Bidirectional Zn-fluxes and compartmentation in wheat seeding roots. J Plant Physiol 132:312–315Google Scholar
  95. Martínez Cortizas A, Gayoso EG-R, Muñoz JCN, Pombal XP, Buurman P, Terribile F (2003) Distribution of some selected major and trace elements in four Italian soils developed from the deposits of the Gauro and Vico volcanoes. Geoderma 117:215–224Google Scholar
  96. Meyers DER, Auchterlonie GJ, Webb RI, Wood B (2008) Uptake and localisation of lead in the root system of Brassica juncea. Environ Pollut 153:323–332Google Scholar
  97. Mirza N, Mahmood Q, Pervez A, Ahmad R, Farooq R, Shah MM, Azim MR (2010) Phytoremediation potential of Arundo donax in arsenic-contaminated synthetic wastewater. Bioresour Technol 101:5815–5819Google Scholar
  98. Mosulishvili LM, Shoniya NI, Katamadze NM, Ginturi EN (1994) Environmental radionuclide distribution in the republic of Georgia after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Zh Anal Khim 49:135–139Google Scholar
  99. Mou D, Yao Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Tian C, Achal V (2011) Plant high tolerance to excess manganese related with root growth, manganese distribution and antioxidative enzyme activity in three grape cultivars. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:776–786Google Scholar
  100. Muhs D, Budahn J (2009) Geochemical evidence for African dust and volcanic ash inputs to terra rossa soils on carbonate reef terraces, northern Jamaica, West Indies. USGS Staff—published researchGoogle Scholar
  101. Muhs DR, Budahn J, Avila A, Skipp G, Freeman J, Patterson D (2010) The role of African dust in the formation of Quaternary soils on Mallorca, Spain and implications for the genesis of Red Mediterranean soils. Quaternary Sci Rev 29:2518–2543Google Scholar
  102. Muhs DR, Budahn JR, Prospero JM, Carey SN (2007) Geochemical evidence for African dust inputs to soils of western Atlantic islands: Barbados, the Bahamas, and Florida. J Geophys Res 112:126Google Scholar
  103. Mushtaq A (2012) Producing radioisotopes in power reactors. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 292:793–802Google Scholar
  104. Naudet R (1974) Summary report on the Oklo phenomenon. French CEA Report. Bull Inf Sci Tech 193:7–85Google Scholar
  105. Oliva VJ, Dupre B, Fortune JP, Martin F, Braun JJ, Nahon D, Robain H (1999) The effect of organic matter on chemical weathering: study of a small tropical watershed: nsimi-zoetele site, cameroon. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:4013–4035Google Scholar
  106. Owojori OJ, Reinecke AJ, Rozanov AB (2010) Influence of clay content on bioavailability of copper in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:407–414Google Scholar
  107. Pais I, Jones JB (1983) The handbook of trace elements. St Lucie Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  108. Pais I (1983) The biological importance of titanium. J Plant Nutr 6:3–131Google Scholar
  109. Panahi A, Young GM, Rainbird RH (2000) Behavior of major and trace elements (including REE) during Paleoproterozoic pedogenesis and diagenetic alteration of an Archean granite near Ville Marie, Quebec, Canada. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:2199–2220Google Scholar
  110. Patino L, Velbel M, Price J, Wade J (2003) Trace element mobility during spheroidal weathering of basalts and andesites in Hawaii and Guatemala. Chem Geol 202:343–364Google Scholar
  111. Patra M, Bhowmik N, Bandopadhyay B, Sharma A (2004) Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 52:199–223Google Scholar
  112. Peng J-F, Song Y-H, Yuan P, Cui X-Y, Qiu G-L (2009) The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment. J Hazard Mater 161:633–640Google Scholar
  113. Pettijohn FJ (1941) Persistence of heavy minerals and geologic age. J Geol 49:610–625Google Scholar
  114. Pettke T, Audetat A, Schaltegger U, Heinrich CA (2005) Magmaticto-hydrothermal crystallization in the W–Sn mineralized mole granite (NSW, Australia)—Part II: evolving zircon and thorite trace element chemistry. Chem Geol 220:191–213Google Scholar
  115. Pokrovsky O, Schott J (2002) Iron colloids/organic matter associated transport of major and trace elements in small boreal rivers and their estuaries (NW Russia). Chem Geol 190:141–179Google Scholar
  116. Pourrut B, Perchet G, Silvestre J, Cecchi M, Guiresse M, Pinelli E (2008) Potential role of NADPH-oxidase in early steps of lead-induced oxidative burst in Vicia faba roots. J Plant Physiol 165:571–579Google Scholar
  117. Prisyagina NI, Kovalenko NI, Ryzhenko BN, Starshinova NP (2008) Experimental determination of ZrO2 solubility in alkaline fluoride solutions at 500°C and 1000 bar. Geochem Int 46:1164–1167Google Scholar
  118. Quenea K, Lamy I, Winterton P, Bermond A, Dumat C (2009) Interactions between metals and soil organic matter in various particle size fractions of soil contaminated with waste water. Geoderma 149:217–223Google Scholar
  119. Qureshi MI, D’Amici GM, Fagioni M, Rinalducci S, Zolla L (2010) Iron stabilizes thylakoid protein-pigment complexes in Indian mustard during Cd-phytoremediation as revealed by BN-SDS-PAGE and ESI-MS/MS. J Plant Physiol 167:761–770Google Scholar
  120. Rascio N, Navari-Izzo F (2011) Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting? Plant Sci 180:169–181Google Scholar
  121. Ribeiroa J, da Silvab EF, Li Z, Ward C, Flores D (2010) Petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Serrinha coal waste pile (Douro Coalfield, Portugal) and the potential environmental impacts on soil, sediments and surface waters. Int J Coal Geol 83:456–466Google Scholar
  122. Rubin JN, Henry CD, Price JG (1993) The mobility of zirconium and other “immobile” elements during hydrothermal alteration. Chem Geol 110:29–47Google Scholar
  123. Ryzhenko BN, Kovalenko NI, Prisyagina NI, Starshinova NP, Krupskaya VV (2008) Experimental determination of zirconium speciation in hydrothermal solutions. Geochem Int 46:328–339Google Scholar
  124. Saifullah ME, Qadir M, de Caritat P, Tack FMG, Du Laing G, Zia MH (2009) EDTA-assisted Pb phytoextraction. Chemosphere 74:1279–1291Google Scholar
  125. Saifullah ZMH, Meers E, Ghafoor A, Murtaza G, Sabir M, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Tack FMG (2010) Chemically enhanced phytoextraction of Pb by wheat in texturally different soils. Chemosphere 79:652–658Google Scholar
  126. Sako A, Mills AJ, Roychoudhury AN (2009) Rare earth and trace element geochemistry of termite mounds in central and northeastern Namibia: mechanisms for micro-nutrient accumulation. Geoderma 153:217–230Google Scholar
  127. Sammut ML, Noack Y, Rose J, Hazemann JL, Proux O, Depoux M, Ziebel A, Fiani E (2010) Speciation of Cd and Pb in dust emitted from sinter plant. Chemosphere 78:445–450Google Scholar
  128. Sandoval R, Cooper AM, Aymar K, Jain A, Hristovski K (2011) Removal of arsenic and methylene blue from water by granular activated carbon media impregnated with zirconium dioxide nanoparticles. J Hazard Mater 193:296–303Google Scholar
  129. Sanzharova DI, Aleksakhin RM (1982) Uptake of 22Na, 32P, 65Zn, ″Sr and ″″Ru by crops. Pochvovedeniye 9:59–64Google Scholar
  130. Schulin R, Curchod F, Mondeshka M, Daskalova A, Keller A (2007) Heavy metal contamination along a soil transect in the vicinity of the iron smelter of Kremikovtzi (Bulgaria). Geoderma 140:52–61Google Scholar
  131. Senesi N, Padovano G, Brunetti G (1988) Scandium, titanium, tungsten and zirconium content in ­commercial inorganic fertilizers and their contribution to soil. Environ Technol Lett 9:1011–1020Google Scholar
  132. Shahid M, Arshad M, Kaemmerer M, Pinelli E, Probst A, Baque D, Pradere P, Dumat C (2012a) Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Int J Phytorem 14:493–505Google Scholar
  133. Shahid M, Dumat C, Silvestre J, Pinelli (2012c) Effect of fulvic acids on lead-induced oxidative stress to metal sensitive Vicia faba L. plant. Biol Fert Soils.  10.1007/s00374-012-0662-9
  134. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Dumat C (2012b) Review of Pb availability and toxicity to plants in relation with metal speciation; role of synthetic and natural organic ligands. J Hazard Mater.  10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.060
  135. Shahid M, Pinelli E, Pourrut B, Silvestre J, Dumat C (2011a) Lead-induced genotoxicity to Vicia faba L. roots in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:78–84Google Scholar
  136. Shahid M, Pourrut B, Dumat C, Winterton P, Pinelli E (2011b) Lead uptake, toxicity, and detoxification in plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 213:113–136Google Scholar
  137. Shahid M, Kirmani SAA, Zaidi SAH (2011c) Effect of pH and fulvic acid on cadmium speciation. Int Poster J Sci Technol 1:83–88Google Scholar
  138. Shahid M (2010) Lead-induced toxicity to Vicia faba L. in relation with metal cell uptake and initial speciation. PhD Thesis, INPT, Toulouse-FranceGoogle Scholar
  139. Shi JJ, Chen H (2002) Dynamics of accumulation and disappearance of zirconium-95 in the maize/soil and soybean/soil ecosystem. J Environ Sci 23:109–113Google Scholar
  140. Shi JJ, Guo JF (2002) Uptake from soil and distribution of 95Zr in Chinese cabbage. J Agric Sci 139:431–435Google Scholar
  141. Shi JJ, Guo JF, Chen H (2002) Dynamics of 95Zr in the rice/water/soil system. Appl Radiat Isot 56:735–740Google Scholar
  142. Shi JJ, Li MY (2003) Migration and distribution of 95Zr in a simulated marine fishes/seawater/sediment ecosystem. Acta Ecologica Sinica 23:330–335Google Scholar
  143. Simon L, Hajdu F, Balogh Á, Pais I (1998) Effect of titanium on growth and photosynthetic pigment composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (green alga). II. Effect of titanium ascorbate on pigment content and chlorophyll metabolism of Chlorella. In: Pais I (ed) New results in the research of hardly known trace elements and their role in the food chain. University of Horticulture and Food Science, Budapest, pp 87–101Google Scholar
  144. Smith IC, Carson BL (1978) Trace metals in the environment: vol 3—Zirconium. Ann Arbour Sci Pub Inc, Ann Arbour, p 405Google Scholar
  145. Sommer M, Halm D, Weller U, Zarei M, Stahr K (2000) Lateral podzolization in a granite landscape. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:1434–1442Google Scholar
  146. Stiles CA, Mora CI, Driese SG (2003) Pedogenic processes and domain boundaries in a Vertisol climosequence: evidence from titanium and zirconium distribution and morphology. Geoderma 116:279–299Google Scholar
  147. Stojilovic N, Bender ET, Ramsier RD (2005) Surface chemistry of zirconium. Prog Surf Sci 78:101–184Google Scholar
  148. Swindale LD, Jackson ML (1956) Genetic processes in some residual podzolised soils of New Zealand. In: 6th International Congress of Soil Science, vol 37. Paris, pp 233–239Google Scholar
  149. Tejan-Kella MS, Chittleborough DJ, Fitzpatrick RW (1991) Weathering assessment of heavy minerals in age sequences of Australian sandy soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55:527–538Google Scholar
  150. Tematio P, Fritsch E, Hodson ME, Lucas Y, Bitom D, Bilong P (2009) Mineral and geochemical characterization of a leptic aluandic soil and a thapto aluandic-ferralsol developed on trachytes in Mount Bambouto (Cameroon volcanic line). Geoderma 152:314–323Google Scholar
  151. Thomas JB, Bodnar RJ, Shimizu N, Sinha AK (2002) Determination of zircon/melt trace element partition coefficients from SIMS analysis of melt inclusions in zircon. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:2887–2901Google Scholar
  152. Tome FV, Blanco Rodriguez MP, Lozano JC (2003) Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides and stable elements in a Mediterranean area. J Environ Radioact 65:161–175Google Scholar
  153. Udovic M, Lestan D (2009) Pb, Zn and Cd mobility, availability and fractionation in aged soil remediated by EDTA leaching. Chemosphere 74:1367–1373Google Scholar
  154. USGS (United States Geological Survey) (2012) Assessed 23 Apr 2012
  155. Uzu G, Sobanska S, Aliouane Y, Pradere P, Dumat C (2009) Study of lead phytoavailability for atmospheric industrial micronic and sub-micronic particles in relation with lead speciation. Environ Pollut 157:1178–1185Google Scholar
  156. Uzu G, Sobanska S, Sarret G, Muñoz M, Dumat C (2010) Foliar lead uptake by lettuce exposed to atmospheric fallouts. Environ Sci Technol 44:1036–1042Google Scholar
  157. Uzu G, Sobanska S, Sarret G, Sauvain J, Pradère P, Dumat C (2011) Characterization of lead-recycling facility emissions at various workplaces: major insights for sanitary risks assessment. J Hazard Mater 186:1018–1027Google Scholar
  158. Vadas TM, Ahner BA (2009) Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots. Environ Pollut 157:2558–2563Google Scholar
  159. Valeton I, Biermann M, Reche R, Rosenberg F (1987) Genesis of nickel laterites and bauxites in Greece during the Jurassic and Cretaceous, and their relation to ultrabasic parent rocks. Ore Geol Rev 2:359–404Google Scholar
  160. Vega FA, Andrade ML, Covelo EF (2010) Influence of soil properties on the sorption and retention of cadmium, copper and lead, separately and together, by 20 soil horizons: comparison of linear regression and tree regression analyses. J Hazard Mater 174:522–533Google Scholar
  161. Venable FP (1922) Zirconium and its compounds (American Chemical Society, Monograph Series). The Chemical Catalog Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Verbruggen N, Hermans C, Schat H (2009) Molecular mechanisms of metal hyperaccumulation in plants. New Phytol 181:759–776Google Scholar
  163. Verel I, Visser GWM, Boerman OC, Van Eerd JEM, Finn R, Boellaard R, Vosjan MJWD, Stigter-Van Walsum M, Snow GB, Van Dongen GAMS (2003) Long-lived positron emitters zirconium-89 and iodine-124 for scouting of therapeutic radioimmunoconjugates with PET. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 18:655–661Google Scholar
  164. Viers J, Dupre B, Braun JJ, Deberdt S, Angeletti B, Ngoupayou JN, Michard A (2000) Major and trace element abundances, and strontium isotopes in the Nyong basin rivers (Cameroon): constraints on chemical weathering processes and elements transport mechanisms in humid tropical environments. Chem Geol 169:211–241Google Scholar
  165. Wang HF, Takematsu N, Ambe S (2000) Effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements in soybean and tomato plants. Appl Radiat Isot 52:803–811Google Scholar
  166. Wang X, Griffin WL, O’Reilly SY, Zhou XM, Xu XS, Jackson SE, Pearson NJ (2002) Morphology and geochemistry of zircons from late Mesozoic igneous complexes in coastal SE China: implications for petrogenesis. Mineral Mag 66:235–251Google Scholar
  167. Whicker FW, Schultz V (1982) Radioecology: nuclear energy and the environment, vol I. CRC press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  168. Whitfield CJ (2011) Evaluation of elemental depletion weathering rate estimation methods on acid-sensitive soils of north-eastern Alberta, Canada. Geoderma 166:189–197Google Scholar
  169. Wu F-L, Lin D, Su D (2011) The effect of planting oilseed rape and compost application on heavy metal forms in soil and Cd and Pb uptake in rice. Agric Sci China 10:267–274Google Scholar
  170. Wu Y, Hendershot WH (2010) The effect of calcium and pH on nickel accumulation in and rhizotoxicity to pea (Pisum sativum L.) root–empirical relationships and modeling. Environ Pollut 158:1850–1856Google Scholar
  171. Xu H, Song P, Gu W, Yang Z (2011) Effects of heavy metals on production of thiol compounds and antioxidant enzymes in Agaricus bisporus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf.  org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2011.04.010
  172. Yadav SK (2010) Heavy metals toxicity in plants: an overview on the role of glutathione and phytochelatins in heavy metal stress tolerance of plants. S Afr J Bot 76:167–179Google Scholar
  173. Yan ZZ, Ke L, Tam NFY (2010) Lead stress in seedlings of Avicennia marina, a common mangrove species in South China, with and without cotyledons. Aquat Bot 92:112–118Google Scholar
  174. Yau TL (2010) 3.14—corrosion of zirconium and its alloys. Shreir Corros 3:2094–2134Google Scholar
  175. Yip TCM, Yan DYS, Yui MMT, Tsang DCW, Lo IMC (2010) Heavy metal extraction from an artificially contaminated sandy soil under EDDS deficiency: Significance of humic acid and chelant mixture. Chemosphere 80:416–421Google Scholar
  176. Yirchenko YP, Agapkina GI (1993) Organic radionuclide compounds in soils surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Eur Soil Sci 25:51–59Google Scholar
  177. Zaccone C, Cocozza C, Cheburkin AK, Shotyk W, Miano TM (2008) Distribution of As, Cr, Ni, Rb, Ti and Zr between peat and its humic fraction along an undisturbed ombrotrophic bog profile (NW Switzerland). Appl Geochem 23:25–33Google Scholar
  178. Zaraisky G, Aksyuk A, Devyatova V, Udoratina O, Chevychelov V (2008) Zr/Hf ratio as an indicator of fractionation of rare-metal granites by the example of the Kukulbei complex, eastern Transbaikalia. Petrology 16:710–736Google Scholar
  179. Zaraisky G, Aksyuk A, Devyatova V, Udoratina O, Chevychelov V (2009) The Zr/Hf ratio as a fractionation indicator of rare-metal granites. Petrology 17:25–45Google Scholar
  180. Zeng F, Ali S, Zhang H, Ouyang Y, Qiu B, Wu F, Zhang G (2011) The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ Pollut 159:84–91Google Scholar
  181. Zou Z, Qiu R, Zhang W, Dong H, Zhao Z, Zhang T, Wei X, Cai X (2009) The study of operating variables in soil washing with EDTA. Environ Pollut 157:229–236Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Emmanuel Ferrand
    • 4
  • Eva Schreck
    • 1
    • 2
  • Camille Dumat
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSATCastanet-Tolosan, ToulouseFrance
  2. 2.EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPSCastanet-Tolosan, ToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyVehariPakistan
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Etude Radioécologique en milieux Continental et Marin, Service d’Etude et de Surveillance de la Radioactivité de l’EnvironnementIRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Direction de l’Environnement et de l’Intervention, CadaracheGardanneFrance

Personalised recommendations