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Behavior and Impact of Zirconium in the Soil–Plant System: Plant Uptake and Phytotoxicity

  • Muhammad ShahidEmail author
  • Emmanuel Ferrand
  • Eva Schreck
  • Camille Dumat
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 221)

Abstract

Because of the large number of sites they pollute, toxic metals that contaminate terrestrial ecosystems are increasingly of environmental and sanitary concern (Uzu et al. 2010, 2011; Shahid et al. 2011a, b, 2012a). Among such metals is zirconium (Zr), which has the atomic number 40 and is a transition metal that resembles titanium in physical and chemical properties (Zaccone et al. 2008). Zr is widely used in many chemical industry processes and in nuclear reactors (Sandoval et al. 2011; Kamal et al. 2011), owing to its useful properties like hardness, corrosion-resistance and permeable to neutrons (Mushtaq 2012). Hence, the recent increased use of Zr by industry, and the occurrence of the Chernobyl and Fukashima catastrophe have enhanced environmental levels in soil and waters (Yirchenko and Agapkina 1993; Mosulishvili et al. 1994; Kruglov et al. 1996).

Keywords

Transfer Factor Immobile Element Zirconium Hydroxide Zirconium Oxychloride Zirconium Carbide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the “Agence Nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs” (Andra) for financial support. We thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (www.hec.gov.pk) and the French Society for Export of Educative Resources (SFERE, http://www.sfere.fr/) for the scholarship granted to M. Shahid.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Emmanuel Ferrand
    • 4
  • Eva Schreck
    • 1
    • 2
  • Camille Dumat
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSATCastanet-Tolosan, ToulouseFrance
  2. 2.EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPSCastanet-Tolosan, ToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyVehariPakistan
  4. 4.Laboratoire d’Etude Radioécologique en milieux Continental et Marin, Service d’Etude et de Surveillance de la Radioactivité de l’EnvironnementIRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Direction de l’Environnement et de l’Intervention, CadaracheGardanneFrance

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