Emotional Exhaustion and Psychosocial Work Factors

Chapter

Abstract

Because emotional exhaustion is the key component of burnout, it is important to recognize the factors that may promote emotional exhaustion. According to recent studies, psychosocial work factors are likely to generate emotional exhaustion among employees. The central aim of this chapter is to analyze the associations between emotional exhaustion and psychosocial work factors among middle-aged employees. This chapter includes some ideas on what kind of studies and information are required on this issue in the future, as well as some guidelines on how to prevent emotional exhaustion in the workplace and improve employees’ health and well-being.

Keywords

Fatigue Obesity Depression Cortisol Fibromyalgia 

References

  1. Bolger, N., DeLongis, A., Kessler, R. C., & Schilling, E. A. (1989). Effects of daily stress on negative mood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(5), 808–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bosma, H., Peter, R., Siegrist, J., & Marmot, M. (1998). Two alternative job stress models and the risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public Health, 88(1), 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the victim’s perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(5), 998–1012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chrousos, G. P. (2009). Stress and disorders of the stress system. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 5, 374–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Jonge, J., Bosma, H., Peter, R., & Siegrist, J. (2000). Job strain, effort-reward imbalance and employee well-being: A large-scale cross sectional study. Social Science & Medicine, 50, 1317–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duxbury, M., Henly, G., & Armstrong, G. (1982). Measurement of the nurse organizational climate of neonatal intensive care units. Nursing Research, 31(2), 83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Einarsen, S., Matthiesen, S. B., & Skogstad, A. (1998). Bullying, burnout and well-being among assistant nurses. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety Australia and New Zealand, 14(6), 563–568.Google Scholar
  10. Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., & Helkama, K. (2001). Organizational justice evaluations, job control and occupational strain. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 418–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elovainio, M., Ferrie, J. E., Gimeno, D., De Vogli, R., Shipley, M., Brunner, E. J., Kumari, M., Vahtera, J., Marmot, M. G., & Kivimäki, M. (2009). Organizational justice and sleeping problems: The Whitehall II study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71, 334–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Espie, C. A. (2002). Insomnia: Conceptual issues in the development, persistence, and treatment of sleep disorder in adults. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 215–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Golembiewski, R. T., Munzenrider, R. F., & Stevenson, J. G. (1986). Phases of burnout: Developments in concepts and applications. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  14. Hansen, Å. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H., & Ørbæk, P. (2006). Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hansen, Å. M., Hogh, A., & Persson, R. (2011). Frequency of bullying at work, physiological response, and mental health. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 70, 19–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Head, J., Kivimäki, M., Siegrist, J., Ferrie, J. E., Vahtera, J., Shipley, M. J., & Marmot, M. G. (2007). Effort-reward imbalance and relational injustice at work predicts sickness absence: The Whitehall II study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 433–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heim, C., Ehlert, U., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2000). The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25, 1–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Helkavaara, M., Saastamoinen, P., & Lahelma, E. (2011). Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees. BMC Research Notes, 4, 101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hensing, G., Alexanderson, K., Allebeck, P., & Bjurulf, P. (1998). Hoe to measure sickness absence? Literature review and suggestion of five basic measures. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, 26(2), 133–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Heponiemi, T., Kouvonen, A., Vänskä, J., Halila, H., Kivimäki, M., & Elovainio, M. (2008). Health, psychosocial factors and retirement intentions among Finnish physicians. Occupational Medicine, 58, 406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Houkes, I., Winants, Y., Twellaar, M., & Verdonk, P. (2011). Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GP’s. A three-wave panel study. BMC Public Health, 11, 240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson, J. V., & Hall, E. M. (1988). Job strain, workplace social support, and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1336–1342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jourdain, G., & Chênevert, D. (2010). Job demands-resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 709–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karasek, R. A., & Theorell, T. (1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity and the reconstruction of the working life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  26. Kessler, R. C., Maclean, J. R., Petukhova, M., Sarawate, C. A., Short, L., Li, T. T., & Stang, P. (2008). The effects of rheumatoid arthritis on labor force participation, work performance, and healthcare costs in two workplace samples. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50, 88–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M., & Vahtera, J. (2000). Workplace bullying and sickness absence in hospital staff. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 656–660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kivimäki, M., Ferrie, J. E., Head, J., Shipley, M. J., Vahtera, J., & Marmot, M. G. (2004). Organisational justice and change in justice as predictors of employee health: The Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58, 931–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lindeberg, S. I., Rosvall, M., Choi, B., Canivet, C., Isacsson, S.-O., Karasek, R., & Östergren, P.-O. (2011). Psychosocial working conditions and exhaustion in a working population sample of Swedish middle-aged men and women. European Journal of Public Health, 21(2), 190–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marmot, M., Feeney, A., Shipley, M., North, F., & Syme, S. L. (1995). Sickness absence as a measure of health status and functioning: From the UK Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 49, 124–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 498–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W., & Leiter, P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moos, R. (1994). Work environment scale. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  37. Niedhammer, I., David, S., & Degioanni, S. (2006). Association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms in the French working population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61(2), 251–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Niedhammer, I., David, S., Degioanni, S., Drummond, A., & Philip, P. (2009). Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: Findings from a large scale cross-sectional survey in French working population. Sleep, 32(9), 1211–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Niedl, K. (1996). Mobbing and well-being: Economic and personnel development implications. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ortega, A., Høgh, A., & Pejtersen, J. H. (2009). Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups: A representative population study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 82, 417–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Purvanova, R. K., & Muros, J. P. (2010). Gender differences in burnout: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 168–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saastamoinen, P., Laaksonen, M., Leino-Arjas, P., & Lahelma, E. (2009). Psychosocial risk factors of pain among employees. European Journal of Pain, 13, 102–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stansfeld, S., & Candy, B. (2006). Psychosocial work environment and mental health — A meta-analytic review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 32(6), 443–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sutinen, R., Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M., & Virtanen, M. (2002). Organizational fairness and psychological distress in hospital physicians. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 30, 209–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Taris, T. W., LeBlanc, P. M., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. J. G. (2005). Are there causal relationships between the dimensions of the Maslach burnout inventory? a review and two longitudinal tests. Work and Stress, 19(3), 238–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Theorell, T., & Karasek, R. A. (1996). Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(1), 9–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tyler, T., Degoey, P., & Smith, H. (1996). Understanding why the justice of group procedures matters: A test of the psychological dynamics of the group-value model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(5), 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vartia, M. (2001). Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of its targets and the observers of bullying. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 27(1), 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yehuda, R., Teicher, M. H., Trestman, R. L., Levengood, R. A., & Siever, L. J. (1996). Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: A chronobiological analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 79–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zapf, D., Knortz, C., & Kulla, M. (1996). On the relationship between mobbing factors and job content, social work environment and health outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zapf, D., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Vartia, M. (2003). Empirical findings on bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspectives in research and practice (pp. 103–126). London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Public Health, Hjelt-InstituteUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations