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Regulation of Endothelial Activation and Vascular Inflammation by Shear Stress

  • Annapurna Nayak
  • Carola S. König
  • Uday Kishore
  • Paul C. EvansEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Bioanalysis book series (BIOANALYSIS, volume 2)

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors such as cholesterol, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking and is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Blood flow is known to exert shear stress on the vascular endothelium. Atherosclerotic lesions occur predominantly at sites of low shear, whereas regions of the vasculature exposed to high shear are protected. Low shear stress leads to activation of endothelial cells which in turn can initiate inflammation. Shear stress can also modulate several signalling pathways mediated by the activated endothelial cells. The molecules involved in these signalling pathways can be atheroprotective or atherogenic. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the effects of low shear stress on the regulation of endothelial activation and subsequent vascular inflammation.

Keywords

Shear Stress Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Endothelial Activation Laminar Shear Stress Oscillatory Shear Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

MKP-1

Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase 1

KLF2

Kruppel like factor 2

Nrf2

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

PECAM-1

Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1

ICAM-1

Intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1

MCP-1

Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

ATF2

Activating transcription factor 2

NF-κB

Nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NOS

Nitric oxide

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annapurna Nayak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carola S. König
    • 3
  • Uday Kishore
    • 1
  • Paul C. Evans
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Infection, Immunity and Disease Mechanisms, Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social CareBrunel UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Centre for Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Institute for Advanced StudiesSecunderabadIndia
  3. 3.Brunel Institute for BioengineeringBrunel UniversityLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Cardiovascular ScienceSheffield University Medical School, Sheffield UniversitySheffieldUK

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