Digital Watermarking

  • Srdjan Stanković
  • Irena Orović
  • Ervin Sejdić


During the last decade, digital watermarking has become an active research area focused on digital data protection. The modern multimedia systems require powerful data protection algorithms. Due to the advances in the development of digital data and the modern way of communication, a number of watermarking procedure have been proposed. The watermarking purposes are classified as ownership protection, protection and proof of copyrights, data authenticity protection, tracking of digital copies, and copy and access control.

This chapter deals with the concepts of watermark embedding and watermark detection theory. Several interesting and commonly used algorithms for image and audio watermarking are presented. As an advanced level, the recently developed combined time–frequency watermarking approaches are also considered.


Image Watermark Pseudorandom Sequence Watermark Embedding Watermark Technique Fragile Watermark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Al-khassaweneh M, Aviyente S (2005) A time-frequency based perceptual and robust watermarking scheme. In: Proceedings of the EUSIPCO 2005, Antalya, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barni M, Bartolini F (2004) Watermarking systems engineering. Marcel Dekker Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Briassouli A, Strintzis MG (2004) Locally optimum nonlinearities for DCT watermark detection. IEEE Trans Image Process 13(12):1604–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cox IJ, Miller ML, Bloom JA (2002) Digital watermarking. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Djurović I, Stanković S, Pitas I (2001) Digital watermarking in the fractional Fourier transformation domain. J Netw Comput Appl Academic 24(2):167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Esmaili S, Krishnan S, Raahemifar K (2003) Audio watermarking time-frequency characteristics. Canadian J Electr Comput Eng 28(2):57–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Foo SW, Ho SM, Ng LM (2004) Audio watermarking using time-frequency compression expansion. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on circuits and systems, ISCAS 04, vol 3, pp III-201–III-4Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hernandez JR, Amado M, Perez Gonzales F (2000) DCT-domain watermarking techniques for still images: detector performance analysis and a new structure. IEEE Trans Image Process 9:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirovski D, Malvar HS (2003) Spread-spectrum watermarking of audio signals. IEEE Trans Signal Process 51(4):1020–1033MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mobasseri BG, Zhang Y, Amin MG, Dogahe BM (2005) Designing robust watermarks using polynomial phase exponentials. In: Proceedings of acoustics, speech, and signal processing (ICASSP’05), vol 2, pp ii/833–ii/836Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muharemagić E, Furht B (2006) Survey of watermarking techniques and applications (Chapter 3). In: Furht B, Kirovski D (eds) Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications. Auerbach Publication, Boca Raton, pp 91–130Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nikolaidis A, Pitas I (2003) Asymptotically optimal detection for additive watermarking in the DCT and DWT domains. IEEE Trans Image Process 12(5):563–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Proceedings of the IEEE: special issue on identification and protection of multimedia information, vol 87, July 1999Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stankovic LJ, Stankovic S, Djurovic I (2000) Space/spatial-frequency based filtering. IEEE Trans Signal Process 48(8):2343–2352MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stanković S, Djurović I, Herpers R, Stanković LJ (2003) An approach to the optimal watermark detection. AEUE Int J Electron Commun 57(5):355–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stanković S, Djurović I, Pitas I (2001) Watermarking in the space/spatial-frequency domain using two-dimensional Radon-Wigner distribution. IEEE Trans Image Process 10:650–658MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stanković S, Orović I, Žarić N (2008) Robust watermarking procedure based on JPEG-DCT image compression. J Electron Imaging 17(4):043001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stanković S, Orović I, Žarić N (2010) An application of multidimensional time-frequency analysis as a base for the unified watermarking approach. IEEE Trans Image Process 19(2):736–745MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stanković S (2000) About time-variant filtering of speech signals with time-frequency distributions for hands-free telephone systems. Signal Process 80(9):1777–1785MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stanković S, Orović I, Žarić N (2008) Robust speech watermarking in the time-frequency domain. EURASIP J Adv Signal Process, Issue ID 519206Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steinebach M, Dittmann J (2003) Watermarking-based digital audio data authentication. EURASIP J Appl Signal Process 2003(10):1001–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wickens TD (2002) Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Srdjan Stanković
    • 1
  • Irena Orović
    • 1
  • Ervin Sejdić
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro
  2. 2.University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations