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Brain Functioning When the Voices Are Silent: Aberrant Default Modes in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

  • Vincent van de VenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Almost two decades of functional brain imaging has shown that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia correspond with increased brain activity in a wide variety of different brain areas. However, these localized changes in brain activity are likely the end result of a more profound and fundamental aberration in brain dynamics that ultimately leads to the perception of hallucinated voices. AVH could arise from pathological brain states or modes that occur beyond moments of conscious AVH experiences. In other words, could AVH result from intrinsic brain activity at times when the voices are silent? Recent advances in functional brain imaging have shown that intrinsic brain states possess a rich and complex functional architecture that closely resembles brain dynamics observed during many different kinds of cognitive and sensorimotor tasks. Further, intrinsic brain states may prove to be of importance to goal-directed brain activity, and ultimately to our perception and performance, that is, of importance to our behavior. Pioneering studies provide the first indications that intrinsic brain states may play an important role in AVH and other psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This chapter describes the main findings and advances in measuring intrinsic brain states in humans in vivo, and discusses how intrinsic brain states can contribute to our understanding of the etiology and experience of AVH in schizophrenia.

Keywords

Functional Connectivity Independent Component Analysis Auditory Cortex Supplementary Motor Area Posterior Cingulate Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AVH

Auditory verbal hallucinations

CA

Cluster analysis

DMN

Default mode network

fMRI

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

ICA

Independent component analysis

MPFC

Medial prefrontal cortex

rTMS

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

SMA

Supplementary motor area

PCA

Principal component analysis

PCC

Posterior cingulate cortex

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cognitive NeuroscienceMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands

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