Bioaugmentation for Aerobic Degradation of CIS-1,2-Dichloroethene
Polaromonas sp. strain JS666 is the first isolate capable of using cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) as its sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions (Coleman et al., 2002a). It is a promising candidate for bioaugmentation at cis-DCE-contaminated sites where cis-DCE has migrated downgradient into an aerobic zone. Addition of the strain can circumvent the problems associated with cometabolic oxidation as a bioremediation strategy because it catalyzes rapid degradation without the addition of a cosubstrate, and the requirements for oxygen are much lower than for cometabolic transformations. The metabolic capabilities of JS666, development of a molecular probe for process monitoring, microcosm assessment of site suitability, and the preliminary results of a field-scale study are discussed in this chapter.
KeywordsToxicity DMSO Glutathione Acetonitrile Toluene
This research was supported in part by contracts with the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and the SERDP. L.K. Jennings and C. G. S. Giddings were recipients of National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellowships. The authors thank F. Liu, E. Wood, and S. Nishino for sharing unpublished data; and D. Major, C. Aziz, and M. Watling of Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., who conducted the bioaugmentation field study at St. Julien’s Creek Annex, Virginia.
- Amann RI, Ludwig W, Schleifer K-H. 1995. Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev 59:143–169.Google Scholar
- Azizian MF, Istok JD, Semprini L. 2005. Push-pull test evaluation of the in situ aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated ethenes by toluene-utilizing microorganisms. Water Sci Technol 52:35–40.Google Scholar
- Hartmans S, Kaptein A, Tramper J, de Bont JAM. 1992. Characterization of a Mycobacterium sp. and a Xanthobacter sp. for the removal of vinyl-chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane from waste gases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 37:796–801.Google Scholar
- Holliger C, Hahn D, Harmsen H, Ludwig W, Schumacher W, Tindall B, Vazquez F, Weiss N, Zehnder AJB. 1998. Dehalobacter restrictus gen. nov. and sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium that reductively dechlorinates tetra- and trichloroethene in an anaerobic respiration. Arch Microbiol 169:313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jennings LK. 2005. Culturing and Enumeration of Polaromonas sp. Strain JS666 for its Use as a Bioaugmentation Agent in the Remediation of cis-Dichloroethene-Contaminated Sites. MS Thesis. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Jennings LK. 2009. Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses Reveal Genes Upregulated by cis-Dichloroethene in Polaromonas JS666. PhD Dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.Google Scholar
- Kohler-Staub D, Leisinger T. 1985. Dichloromethane dehalogenase of Hyphomicrobium sp. strain DM2. J Bacteriol 162:676–681.Google Scholar
- Lendvay JM, Löffler FE, Dollhopf M, Aiello MR, Daniels G, Fathepure BZ, Gebhard M, Heine R, Helton R, Shi J, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Major CL, Barcelona MJ, Petrovskis E, Hickey R, Tiedje JM, Adriaens P. 2003. Bioreactive barriers: A comparison of bioaugmentation and biostimulation for chlorinated solvent remediation. Environ Sci Technol 37:1422–1431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Major D, Aziz C, Watling M, Gossett J, Spain J. 2010. Enhancing natural attenuation through bioaugmentation with aerobic bacteria that degrade cis-1,2-dichloroethene. ESTCP project ER-200516 Final Report. ESTCP, Arlington, VA, USA. http://serdp-estcp.org/content/download/8532/104563/file/ER-0516_FR_PMA_Final. Accessed March 20, 2012.
- Mattes TE, Alexander AK, Richardson PM, Munk AC, Han CS, Stothard P, Coleman NV. 2008. The genome of Polaromonas sp. strain JS666: Insights into the evolution of a hydrocarbon- and xenobiotic-degrading bacterium, and features of relevance to biotechnology. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:6405–6416.Google Scholar
- Schaefer CE, Condee CW, Vainberg S, Steffan RJ. 2009. Bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethenes using Dehalococcoides sp.: Comparison between batch and column experiments. Chemosphere 75:141–148.Google Scholar
- Semprini L. 1995. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvents. Environ Health Perspect 103:101–105.Google Scholar
- Semprini L, Dolan ME, Mathias MAB, Hopkins GD, McCarty PL. 2007. Laboratory, field, and modeling studies of bioaugmentation of butane-utilizing microorganisms for the in situ cometabolic treatment of 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Adv Water Resour 30:1528–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seshadri R, Adrian L, Fouts DE, Eisen JA, Phillippy AM, Methe BA, Ward NL, Nelson WC, Deboy RT, Khouri HM, Kolonay JF, Dodson RJ, Daugherty SC, Brinkac LM, Sullivan SA, Madupu R, Nelson KT, Kang KH, Impraim M, Tran K, Robinson JM, Forberger HA, Fraser CM, Zinder SH, Heidelberg JF. 2005. Genome sequence of the PCE-dechlorinating bacterium Dehalococcoides ethenogenes. Sci 307:105–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sleep BE, Seepersad DJ, Mo K, Heidorn CM, Hrapovic L, Morrill PL, McMaster ML, Hood ED, Lebrón C, Sherwood Lollar B, Major DW, Edwards EA. 2006. Biological enhancement of tetrachloroethene dissolution and associated microbial community changes. Environ Sci Technol 40:3623–3633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steffan R, Schaefer C, Lippincott D. 2010. Bioaugmentation for groundwater remediation. Project ER-200515 Final Report. ESTCP, Arlington, VA, USA. 345 p.Google Scholar
- Yagi JM, Sims D, Brettin T, Bruce D, Madsen EL. 2009. The genome of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans strain CJ2, isolated from coal tar-contaminated sediment, reveals physiological and metabolic versatility and evolution through extensive horizontal gene transfer. Environ Microbiol 11:2253–2270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar