Skip to main content

Future Adults or Old Children? Integrating Life History Frameworks for Understanding Primate Positional Patterns

Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR,volume 37)

Abstract

Positional behavior is a measurable and observable link between the functional morphology/physiology and behavior of an animal in its environment. Locomotion, posture, and the morphology that allows movement abilities and expressed behaviors throughout the life stages interact with every aspect of an individual primate’s life and are important life history characteristics. Locomotion and posture in adults relate to survival and maintenance, thus allowing for reproduction, whereas in infants and juveniles, positional behavior is essential to survival and growth to reproductive maturity. The timing of life stages and biobehavioral strategies for survival and reproduction in different species are the products of natural selection. A life history perspective integrates knowledge of evolutionary processes with understanding the multifaceted roles of positional behavior in primates.

Keywords

  • Positional behavior
  • Ontogeny
  • Life history
  • Posture
  • Locomotion

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4060-4_19
  • Chapter length: 24 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4614-4060-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 19.1

References

  • Altmann J (1980) Baboon mothers and infants. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 242 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Altmann SA (1998) Foraging for survival: yearling baboons in Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 617 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Austad SN, Fischer KE (1992) Primate longevity: its place in the mammalian scheme. Am J Primatol 28:251–262

    Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin JD, Baldwin JI (1978) Exploration and play in howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata). Primates 19:411–422

    Google Scholar 

  • Beckoff M, Byers JA (1998) Animal play: evolutionary, comparative, and ecological perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 292 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergeson DJ (1996) The positional behavior and prehensile-tail use of Alouatta palliata, Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus [dissertation]. Washington University: St Louis, 387 pp. Available from: Proquest dissertations and theses; AAT 9704417

    Google Scholar 

  • Bezanson M (2006) Ontogenetic patterns of positional behavior in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata [dissertation]. University of Arizona: Tucson, 246 pp. Available from Proquest dissertations and theses AAT 3215372

    Google Scholar 

  • Bezanson M (2009) Life history and locomotion in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:508–517

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard ML, Crompton RH (2011) Field study methods for primate locomotor ecology and biomechanics. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory Research. Springer, New York, pp 183–199

    Google Scholar 

  • Bock W, von Wahlert G (1965) Adaptation and the form-function complex. Evolution 19:269–299

    Google Scholar 

  • Boinski S (1989) The positional behavior and substrate use of squirrel monkeys: ecological implications. J Hum Evol 18:659–677

    Google Scholar 

  • Cant JGH (1992) Positional behavior and body size of arboreal primates: a theoretical framework for field studies and an illustration of its application. Am J Phys Anthropol 88:273–283

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cant JGH, Temerin A (1984) A conceptual approach to foraging adaptations in primates. In: Rodman P, Cant J (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates: contributions to an organismal biology of prosimians, monkeys, and apes. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 304–342

    Google Scholar 

  • Carrier DR (1983) Postnatal ontogeny of the musculo-skeletal system in the black-tailed jack ­rabbit (Lepus californicus). J Zool (Lond) 201:27–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Carrier DR (1996) Ontogenetic limits on locomotor performance. Physiol Zool 69:467–488

    Google Scholar 

  • Cartmill M (1985) Climbing. In: Hildebrand M, Bramble DM, Liem KF, Wake DB (eds) Functional vertebrate morphology. Belknap, Cambridge, pp 73–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Cords M, Chowdhury S (2010) Life history of Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni in the Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Int J Primatol 31:433–455

    Google Scholar 

  • Crompton RH (1983) Age differences in locomotion of two subtropical Galaginae. Primates 24:241–259

    Google Scholar 

  • Currey JD (2002) Bones: structure and mechanics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 436 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Dagosto M (1994) Testing positional behavior of Malagasy lemurs: a randomization approach. Am J Phys Anthropol 94:189–202

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dagosto M (1995) Seasonal variation in positional behavior of Malagasy lemurs. Int J Primatol 16:807–833

    Google Scholar 

  • Dagosto M, Gebo DL (1998) Methodological issues in studying positional behavior: meeting Ripley’s challenge. In: Strasser E, Fleagle J, Rosenberger A, McHenry H (eds) Primate locomotion: recent advances. Plenum, New York, pp 5–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Doran DM (1992) The ontogeny of chimpanzee and pygmy chimpanzee locomotor behavior: a case study of paedomorphism and its behavioral correlates. J Hum Evol 23:139–157

    Google Scholar 

  • Doran DM (1997) Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees. J Hum Evol 32:323–344

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dunbar DC, Badam GL (1998) Development of posture and locomotion in free-ranging primates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22:541–546

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Escobar-Páramo P (1989) The development of the wild black-capped capuchin (Cebus apella) in La Macarena, Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia, 2:45–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Fagen R (1993) Primate juveniles and primate play. In: Pereira M, Fairbanks L (eds) Juvenile primates. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 182–196

    Google Scholar 

  • Fedigan LM (1997) Changing views of female life history. In: Morbeck ME, Galloway A, Zihlman AL (eds) The evolving female: a life history perspective. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 15–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleagle JG (1976) Locomotion and posture of the Malayan siamang and implications for hominoid evolution. Folia Primatol 26:245–269

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fleagle JG (1978) Locomotion, posture and habitat utilization in two sympatric, Malaysian leaf-monkeys (Presbytis obscura and Presbytis melalophos). In: Montgomery GG (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Press, Washington, pp 243–262

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleagle JG, Mittermeier RA (1980) Locomotor behavior, body size, and comparative ecology of seven Surinam monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 52:301–314

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontaine RP (1994) Play as physical flexibility training in five ceboid primates. J Comp Psychol 108:203–212

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fragaszy DM, Adams-Curtis L (1997) Developmental changes in manipulation in tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) from birth through two years and their relation to foraging and weaning. J Comp Psychol 111:201–211

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fragaszy DM, Boinski S (1995) Patterns of individual diet choice and efficiency of foraging in wedge-capped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus). J Comp Psychol 109:339–348

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fragaszy DM, Visalberghi E, Fedigan LM (2004) The complete capuchin: the biology of the genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 356

    Google Scholar 

  • Garber PA (1984) Use of habitat and positional behavior in a neotropical primate, Saguinus oedipus. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates: contributions to an organismal biology of prosimians, monkeys, and apes. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 112–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Garber PA (2011) Primate locomotor positional behavior and ecology. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SK, Stumpf RM (eds) Primates in perspective, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 548–563

    Google Scholar 

  • Gebo DL, Chapman CA (1995) Positional behavior in five sympatric Old World monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 97:49–76

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Godfrey LR, Samonds KE, Jungers WL, Sutherland MR (2001) Teeth, brains, and primate life histories. Am J Phys Anthropol 114:192–214

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gomberg N, Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H (1979) Multidisciplinary research in the analysis of primate morphology and behavior. In: Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N (eds) Environment, behavior, and morphology: dynamic interactions in primates. Fischer, New York, pp 5–21

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodall J (1986) Chimpanzees of Gombe. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 673 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould SJ (1977) Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 520 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Gould L, Sussman RW, Sauther ML (2003) Demographic and life-history patterns in a population of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar: a 15-year perspective. Am J Phys Anthropol 120:182–194

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graham KL, Burghardt GM (2010) Current perspectives on the biological study of play: signs of progress. Q Rev Biol 85:393–418

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Grand T (1972) A mechanical interpretation of terminal branch feeding. J Mammal 53:198–201

    Google Scholar 

  • Grand T (1977) Body weight: it’s relation to tissue composition, segment distribution, and motor function. I. Interspecific comparisons. Am J Phys Anthropol 47:211–239

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grand T (1978) Adaptations of tissue and limb segments to facilitate moving and feeding in arboreal folivores. In: Montgomery GG (ed) The ecology of arboreal folivores. Smithsonian Press, Washington, pp 231–241

    Google Scholar 

  • Grand T (1981) The anatomy of growth and its relationship to locomotor capacity in Macaca. In: Chiarelli AB, Corrucini RS (eds) Primate evolutionary biology. Springer, Berlin, pp 35–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Grand T (1984) Motion economy within the canopy: four strategies for mobility. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH (eds) Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates: contributions to an organismal biology of prosimians, monkeys, and apes. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 54–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Hanna JB, Schmitt D (2011) Locomotor energetics in primates: gait mechanics and their relationships to the energetics of vertical and horizontal locomotion. Am J Phys Anthropol 145:43–54

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hildebrand M (1967) Symmetrical gaits of primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 26:119–130

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinde K (2012) Lactational programming of infant behavioral phenotype. In: Hinde K, Clancy KBH, Rutherford JN (eds) Building babies: primate development in proximate and ultimate perspectives. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunt KD, Cant JGH, Gebo DL, Rose MD, Walker SE, Youlatos D (1996) Standardized descriptions of primate locomotor and postural modes. Primates 37:363–387

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurov JR (1982) Diagonal walking in captive infant vervet monkeys. Am J Primatol 2:211–213

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurov JR (1991) Rethinking primate locomotion: what can we learn from development? J Mot Behav 23:211–218

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jack KM, Fedigan L (2004) Male dispersal patterns in white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus. Part 1: patterns and causes of natal emigration. Anim Behav 67:761–769

    Google Scholar 

  • Janson CH, van Schaik CP (1993) Ecological risk aversion in juvenile primates: slow and steady wins the race. In: Pereira ME, Fairbanks LA (eds) Juvenile primates. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 57–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Joffe TH (1997) Social pressures have selected for an extended juvenile period in primates. J Hum Evol 32:593–605

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jungers WL (1985) Body size and scaling of limb proportions in primates. In: Jungers WL (ed) Size and scaling in primate biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 345–381

    Google Scholar 

  • Jungers WL, Fleagle JG (1980) Postnatal growth allometry of the extremities in Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella: a longitudinal and comparative study. Am J Phys Anthropol 53:471–478

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kappeler PM, Pereira ME (2003) Primate life histories and socioecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 416

    Google Scholar 

  • Lawler RR (2006) Sifaka positional behavior: ontogenetic and quantitative genetic approaches. Am J Phys Anthropol 131:261–271

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Leigh SR (2004) Brain growth, life history, and cognition in primate and human evolution. Am J Primatol 62:139–164

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leigh SR, Blomquist GE (2011) Life history. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SK, Stumpf RM (eds) Primates in perspective, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 418–428

    Google Scholar 

  • Lemelin P, Cartmill M (2010) The effect of substrate size on the locomotion and gait patterns of the kinkajou (Potos flavus). J Exp Zool 313A:157–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Lyall ZS (1996) The early development of behavior and independence in howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata mexicana. Neotropical Primates 4:4–8

    Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon KC (2002) Social development of wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica: an examination of social interactions between immatures and adult males [dissertation]. University of California: Berkeley, 274 pp. Available from: Proquest dissertations and theses. Order number 3063465

    Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon KC (2006) Food choice by juvenile capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest. In: Estrada A, Garber PA, Pavelka M, Luecke L (eds) New perspectives in the study of Mesoamerican primates: distribution, ecology, behavior, and conservation. Springer, New York, pp 349–365

    Google Scholar 

  • MacKinnon KC (2012) Ontogeny of social behavior in the genus Cebus and the application of an integrative framework for examining plasticity and complexity in evolution. In: Hinde K, Clancy KBH, Rutherford JN (eds) Building babies: primate development in proximate and ultimate perspectives. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • McGraw WS (1998a) Comparative locomotion and habitat use of six monkeys in the Tai Forest, Ivory Coast. Am J Phys Anthropol 105:493–510

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McGraw WS (1998b) Locomotion, support use, maintenance activities and habitat structure: the case of the Tai cercopithecids. In: Strasser E, Fleagle J, Rosenberger A, McHenry H (eds) Recent advances in primate locomotion. Plenum, New York, pp 79–94

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendel F (1976) Postural and locomotor behavior of Alouatta palliata on various substrates. Folia Primatol 26:36–53

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Milligan LA (2012) Do bigger brains mean better milk? In: Hinde K, Clancy KBH, Rutherford JN (eds) Building babies: primate development in proximate and ultimate perspectives. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME (1974) Positional behavior in Colobus guereza: a preliminary quantitative analysis. Symposium of the 5th Congress of the International Primatological Society. pp 331–343

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME (1977) Positional behavior, selective use of habitat substrate and associated non-positional behavior in free-ranging Colobus guereza (Ruppel 1835). Primates 18:35–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME (1979) Forelimb use and positional adaptation in Colobus guereza. In: Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N (eds) Environment, behavior, and morphology: dynamic interactions in primates. Fischer, New York, pp 95–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME (1997) Life history, the individual, and evolution. In: Morbeck ME, Galloway A, Zihlman AL (eds) The evolving female: a life-history perspective. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 3–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N (1979) Environment, behavior, and morphology: dynamic interactions in primates. Fischer, New York, p 410

    Google Scholar 

  • Morbeck ME, Galloway A, Zihlman AL (1997) The evolving female: a life-history perspective. Princeton University Press, Princeton, p 344

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakano Y (1996) Footfall patterns in the early development of the quadrupedal walking of Japanese macaques. Folia Primatol (Basel) 66:113–125

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Needham J (1933) On the dissociability of the fundamental processes in ontogenesis. Biol Rev 8:180–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Pagel MD, Harvey PH (1993) Evolution of the juvenile period in mammals. In: Pereira ME, Fairbanks LA (eds) Juvenile primates: life history, development, and behavior. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 28–37

    Google Scholar 

  • Pereira ME, Leigh SR (2003) Modes of primate development. In: Kappeler PM, Pereira ME (eds) Primate life histories and socioecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 149–176

    Google Scholar 

  • Prates HS, Bicca MJ (2008) Age-sex analysis of activity budget, diet, and positional behavior in Alouatta caraya in an orchard forest. Int J Primatol 29:703–715

    Google Scholar 

  • Prost JH (1965) A definitional system for the classification of primate locomotion. Am Anthropol 67:1198–1214

    Google Scholar 

  • Prost JH, Sussman RW (1969) Monkey locomotion on inclined surfaces. Am J Phys Anthropol 31:53–58

    Google Scholar 

  • Raff RA (1996) The shape of life. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 544 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Raichlen DA (2005) Ontogeny of limb mass distribution in infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus). J Hum Evol 49:452–467

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rawlins RG (1982) Locomotor ontogeny in Macaca mulatta [dissertation]. Northwestern University: Evanston, 336 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Richard A (1970) A comparative study of the activity patterns and behavior of Alouatta villosa and Ateles geoffroyi. Folia Primatol 12:241–263

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ripley S (1967) The leaping of langurs, a problem in the study of locomotor adaptation. Am J Phys Anthropol 26:149–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Ripley S (1979) Environmental grain, niche diversification, and positional behavior in Neogene primates: an evolutionary hypothesis. In: Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N (eds) Environment, behavior, and morphology: dynamic interactions in primates. Gustav Fischer, New York, pp 37–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Rose MD (1974) Postural adaptations in New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. In: Jenkins F (ed) Primate locomotion. Academic, New York, pp 201–222

    Google Scholar 

  • Rose MD (1979) Positional behavior of natural populations: some quantitative results of a field study of Colobus guereza and Cercopithecus aethiops. In: Morbeck ME, Preuschoft H, Gomberg N (eds) Environment, behavior, and morphology: dynamic interactions in primates. Fischer, New York, pp 75–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross C (1991) Life history pattern in New World primates. Int J Primatol 12:481–502

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruff CB (2003) Ontogenetic adaptation to bipedalism: age changes in femoral to humeral length and strength proportions in humans, with a comparison to baboons. J Hum Evol 45:317–349

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Russo GA, Young JW (2011) Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella). Am J Phys Anthropol 146:465–473

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schmitt D (2011) Translating primate locomotor biomechanical variables from laboratory to the field. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. Springer, New York, pp 7–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro LJ, Raichlen D (2005) Lateral sequence walking in infant Papio cynocephalus: implications for the evolution of diagonal sequence walking in primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 126:205–213

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro LJ, Raichlen DA (2006) Limb proportions and the ontogeny of quadrupedal walking in infant baboons (Papio cynocephalus). J Zool 269:191–203

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro LJ, Young JW (2010) Is primate-like quadrupedalism necessary for fine-branch locomotion? A test using sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps). J Hum Evol 58:309–319

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro LJ, Young JW, Souther A (2010) Quadrupedal locomotion of Saimiri boliviensis: a comparison of field and lab-based kinematic data. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. Springer, New York, pp 335–356

    Google Scholar 

  • Shea BT (1990) Dynamic morphology: growth, life history, and ecology in primate evolution. In: de Rousseau CJ (ed) Primate life history and evolution. Wiley, New York, pp 325–352

    Google Scholar 

  • Sherrow HM, MacKinnon KC (2011) Juvenile and adolescent primates: the application of life-history theory. In: Campbell CJ, Fuentes A, MacKinnon KC, Bearder SK, Stumpf RM (eds) Primates in perspective, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 455–464

    Google Scholar 

  • Sockol MD, Raichlen DA, Pontzer H (2007) Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:12265–12269

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Steudel K (2000) The physiology and energetics of movement effects on individuals and groups. In: Boinski S, Garber PA (eds) On the move: how and why animals travel in groups. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 9–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens NJ (2007) The effect of branch diameter on primate gait sequence pattern. Am J Primatol 70:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens NJ, Ratsimbazafy JH, Ralainasolo F (2011) Linking field and laboratory approaches for studying primate locomotor responses to support orientation. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. Springer, New York, pp 311–333

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone A (2006) Foraging ontogeny is not linked to delayed maturation in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Ethology 112:105–115

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone A (2007a) Ecological risk aversion and foraging behaviors of juvenile squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Ethology 113:782–792

    Google Scholar 

  • Stone A (2007b) Age and seasonal effects on predator-sensitive foraging in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Am J Primatol 69:127–141

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strier KB, Altmann J, Brockman DK, Bronikowski AM, Cords M, Fedigan LM, Lapp H, Liu X, Morris WF, Pusey AE, Stoinski TS, Alberts SC (2010) The primate life history database: a unique shared ecological data resource. Meth Ecol Evol 1:199–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH (2005) Locomotor ecology of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in the Gunung Leuser ecosystem, Sumatra, Indonesia: a multivariate analysis using log-linear modeling. Am J Phys Anthropol 127:58–78

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Turnquist JE, Wells JP (1994) Ontogeny of locomotion in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): I. Early postnatal ontogeny of the musculoskeletal system. J Hum Evol 26:487–499

    Google Scholar 

  • Valenzuela N (1992) Early development of three wild infant Cebus apella at La Macarena Colombia. Field Studies of New World Monkeys, La Macarena, Colombia. 6: 15:23

    Google Scholar 

  • Vilensky JA, Larson SG (1989) Primate locomotion: utilization and control of symmetrical gaits. Ann Rev Anthropol 18:17–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Wagner GP (1996) Homologues, natural kinds, and the evolution of modularity. Am Zool 36:36–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace IJ, Demes B (2008) Symmetrical gaits of Cebus apella: implications for the functional significance of diagonal sequence gait in primates. J Hum Evol 54:783–794

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wells JP, Turnquist JE (2001) Ontogeny of locomotion in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): II. postural and locomotor behavior and habitat use in a free-ranging colony. Am J Phys Anthropol 115:80–94

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • West Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental plasticity and evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 816

    Google Scholar 

  • Williams GC (1966) Adaptation and natural selection: a critique of some current evolutionary thought. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 320 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf SA (2011) Ontogeny of limb growth and locomotor behavior in Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi [MA Thesis]. James Madison University: Harrisonburg

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolf SA, Lawler RR, Wunderlich RE (2011) Ontogeny of limb growth and locomotor behavior in Lemur catta and Propithecus verreauxi. Am J Phys Anthropol 144:314

    Google Scholar 

  • Workman C, Covert B (2005) Learning the ropes: the ontogeny of locomotion in red-shanked douc (Pygathrix nemaeus), Delacour’s (Trachypithecus delacouri), and Hatinh langurs (Trachypithecus hatinhensis) I. positional behavior. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:371–380

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wright KA (2005) Interspecific and ontogenetic variation in locomotor behavior and habitat use, and postcranial morphology in Cebus apella and Cebus olivaceus [dissertation]. Northwestern University: Evanston. Proquest dissertations and theses. Order number 3177831

    Google Scholar 

  • Wunderlich RE, Lawler RR, Williams AE (2011) Field and experimental approaches to the study of locomotor ontogeny in Propithecus verreauxi. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. Springer, New York, pp 135–154

    Google Scholar 

  • Youlatos D (1999) Comparative locomotion of six sympatric primates in Ecuador. Ann Sci ­Nat-Zool Biol Anim 20:161–168

    Google Scholar 

  • Youlatos D, Gasc J (2011) Gait and kinematics of arboreal quadrupedal walking of free-ranging red howlers (Alouatta seniculus) in French Guiana. In: D’Août K, Vereecke EE (eds) Primate locomotion: linking field and laboratory research. Springer, New York, pp 271–287

    Google Scholar 

  • Young J (2005) Ontogeny of muscle mechanical advantage in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella). J Zool 267:351–362

    Google Scholar 

  • Young JW (2009) Substrate determines asymmetrical gait dynamics in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Am J Phys Anthropol 138:403–420

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Young JW, Fernández D, Fleagle JG (2010) Ontogeny of limb bone geometry in capuchin ­monkeys (Cebus albifrons and Cebus apella): implications for locomotor development and life history. Biol Lett 6:197–200

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zihlman AL (1992) Locomotion as a life history character: the contribution of anatomy. J Hum Evol 22:315–325

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Julienne Rutherford, Katie Hinde, and Kate Clancy for organizing this volume and inviting us to contribute a chapter. In addition, we thank three anonymous reviewers for providing comments to improve the manuscript. The line drawing in Fig. 19.1 was drawn from a photo taken by Matthew Wyczalkowski.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michelle Bezanson .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Bezanson, M., Morbeck, M.E. (2013). Future Adults or Old Children? Integrating Life History Frameworks for Understanding Primate Positional Patterns. In: Clancy, K., Hinde, K., Rutherford, J. (eds) Building Babies. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, vol 37. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4060-4_19

Download citation