Molecular Biology and Classification of Enteroviruses
Enteroviruses (members of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae) have a positive-sense RNA genome enclosed in a naked, icosahedral capsid. They include notable pathogens such as poliovirus, which causes poliomyelitis, and rhinoviruses, the major cause of the common cold. Over 250 enterovirus serotypes capable of infecting humans have been identified. One Enterovirus species, Human enterovirus B, has for a long time been implicated in causing type 1 diabetes. These viruses use a range of cell receptors and similar viruses sometimes use quite different receptors. They also exhibit the ability to adapt to different receptors. Infection causes profound changes to cell processes, antivirus defence mechanisms and cell ultrastructure, usually leading to cell death. The flexibility in receptor usage and changes induced in the infected cell may well underpin the ability of these viruses to target and damage or kill the specific cells involved in type 1 diabetes.
KeywordsInternal Ribosome Entry Site Human Enterovirus Aichi Virus Genus Enterovirus Enterovirus Serotypes
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