Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

  • Ettore Seregni
  • Andrew Mallia
  • Carlo Chiesa
  • Gabriele Scaramellini
  • Maura Massimino
  • Emilio Bombardieri
Chapter

Abstract

The incidence of thyroid carcinomas is steadily increasing. Primary tumors of the thyroid gland include carcinomas that originate from epithelial cells (carcinomas of thyrocytes and C-cells), and from non-epithelial cells (lymphomas and sarcomas). Thyrocytes are the main functional cells that produce thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), which are vital for human metabolism. The epithelial tumors can be divided into the well-differentiated (papillary and follicular carcinomas), poorly-differentiated, undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinomas) carcinomas, and tumor of the parafollicular or C-cells (medullary carcinoma). Three common histopathological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) include classical PTC, follicular variant PTC and mixed PTC, and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC). Mixed medullary and follicular carcinomas are rare neoplasms which show morphologic features of both follicular and C-cell differentiation. These neoplasms must be distinguished from the follicular variant of medullary carcinoma and from medullary carcinoma with entrapped normal follicles. Table 8.1 summarizes the WHO classification of thyroid tumors published in 2004 [1]. According to the American Cancer Society there are 37,000 new cases of thyroid cancer annually in the United States, with approximately 75 % occurring in women [2].

Keywords

Leukemia Radionuclide Sarcoma Hypothyroidism Bisphosphonates 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ettore Seregni
    • 1
  • Andrew Mallia
    • 2
  • Carlo Chiesa
    • 1
  • Gabriele Scaramellini
    • 3
  • Maura Massimino
    • 4
  • Emilio Bombardieri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilanItaly
  2. 2.School of Specialization in Nuclear MedicineUniversity of MilanoMilanItaly
  3. 3.Division of ORL SurgeryFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilanItaly
  4. 4.Division of Pediatric OncologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale TumoriMilanItaly

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