Advertisement

Technical Advances in Veterinary Diagnostic Microbiology

  • Dongyou Liu
Chapter

Abstract

Forming a significant part of biomass on earth, microorganisms are renowned for their abundance and diversity. From submicroscopic infectious particles (viruses), small unicellular cells (bacteria and yeasts) to multinucleate and multicellular organisms (filamentous fungi, protozoa, and helminths), microorganisms have found their way into virtually every environmental niche, and show little restrain in making their presence felt. While a majority of microorganisms are free-living and involved in the degradation of plant debris and other organic materials, others lead a symbiotic, mutually beneficial life within their hosts. In addition, some microorganisms have the capacity to take advantage of temporary weaknesses in animal and human hosts, causing notable morbidity and mortality. Because clinical manifestations in animals and humans resulting from infections with various microorganisms are often nonspecific (e.g., general malaise and fever), it is necessary to apply laboratory diagnostic means to identify the culprit organisms for treatment and prevention purposes.

Keywords

Microbial Pathogen Nucleic Acid Amplification Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism Virulence Determination Repetitive Extragenic Palindrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Rao SS, Mohan KV, Atreya CD (2010) Detection technologies for Bacillus anthracis: prospects and challenges. J Microbiol Methods 82:1–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ray K, Bobard A, Danckaert A et al (2010) Tracking the dynamic interplay between bacterial and host factors during pathogen-induced vacuole rupture in real time. Cell Microbiol 12:545–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bobard A, Mellouk N, Enninga J (2011) Spotting the right location-imaging approaches to resolve the intracellular localization of invasive pathogens. Biochim Biophys Acta 1810:297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dupres V, Alsteens D, Andre G, Dufrêne YF (2010) Microbial nanoscopy: a closer look at microbial cell surfaces. Trends Microbiol 18:397–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alsteens D, Dupres V, Andre G, Dufrêne YF (2011) Frontiers in microbial nanoscopy. Nanomedicine (Lond) 6:395–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Simonet BM, Ríos A, Valcárcel M (2008) Capillary electrophoresis separation of microorganisms. Methods Mol Biol 384:569–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seibold E, Maier T, Kostrzewa M, Zeman E, Splettstoesser W (2010) Identification of Francisella tularensis by whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: fast, reliable, robust, and cost-effective differentiation on species and subspecies levels. J Clin Microbiol 48:1061–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prickett JR, Zimmerman JJ (2010) The development of oral fluid-based diagnostics and applications in veterinary medicine. Anim Health Res Rev 11:207–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saravanan P, Kumar S (2009) Diagnostic and immunoprophylactic applications of synthetic peptides in veterinary microbiology. Microbiol Res 1:1eGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Houpikian P, Raoult D (2002) Traditional and molecular techniques for the study of emerging bacterial diseases: one laboratory’s perspective. Emerg Infect Dis 8:122–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilkins W, Rajić A, Parker S et al (2010) Examining heterogeneity in the diagnostic accuracy of culture and PCR for Salmonella spp. in swine: a systematic review/meta-regression approach. Zoonoses Public Health 57:S121–S134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andreu N, Zelmer A, Wiles S (2011) Noninvasive biophotonic imaging for studies of infectious disease. FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:360–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Luker KE, Luker GD (2010) Bioluminescence imaging of reporter mice for studies of infection and inflammation. Antiviral Res 86:93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu D (2008) Preparation of Listeria monocytogenes specimens for molecular detection and identification. Int J Food Microbiol 122:229–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson W (2009) Species-specific probes for the identification of the African tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes. Parasitology 136:1501–1507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Banér J, Gyarmati P, Yacoub A et al (2007) Microarray-based molecular detection of foot-and-mouth disease, vesicular stomatitis and swine vesicular disease viruses, using padlock probes. J Virol Methods 143:200–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu D (1994) Development of gene probes of Dichelobacter nodosus for differentiating strains causing virulent, intermediate or benign ovine footrot. Br Vet J 150:451–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu D, Webber J (1995) A polymerase chain reaction assay for improved determination of virulence of Dichelobacter nodosus, the specific causative pathogen for ovine footrot. Vet Microbiol 43:197–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu D, Ainsworth AJ, Austin FW, Lawrence ML (2003) Characterization of virulent and avirulent Listeria monocytogenes strains by PCR amplification of putative transcriptional regulator and internalin genes. J Med Microbiol 52:1065–1070PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu D, Ainsworth AJ, Austin FW, Lawrence ML (2004) PCR detection of a putative N-acetylmuramidase gene from Listeria ivanovii facilitates its rapid identification. Vet Microbiol 101:83–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Drozd M, Kassem II, Gebreyes W, Rajashekara G (2010) A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:265–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tarlinton RE, Dunham SP (2011) Pushing the envelope: advances in molecular techniques for the detection of novel viruses. Vet J 190:185–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tasker S (2010) The polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Vet Clin Pathol 39:261–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bexfield N, Kellam P (2011) Metagenomics and the molecular identification of novel viruses. Vet J 190:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clothier KA, Jordan DM, Thompson CJ, Kinyon JM, Frana TS, Strait EL (2010) Mycoplasma bovis real-time polymerase chain reaction assay validation and diagnostic performance. J Vet Diagn Invest 22:956–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gabig-Ciminska M (2006) Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems. Microb Cell Fact 5:9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belák S, Thorén P, LeBlanc N, Viljoen G (2009) Advances in viral disease diagnostic and molecular epidemiological technologies. Exp Rev Mol Diagn 9:367–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johansson A, Petersen JM (2010) Genotyping of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia. J AOAC Int 93:1930–1943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu D, Lawrence ML, Austin FW, Ainsworth AJ (2007) A multiplex PCR for species- and virulence-specific determination of Listeria monocytogenes. J Microbiol Methods 71:33–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weese JS (2010) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals. ILAR J 51:233–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Morgan M (2008) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and animals: zoonosis or humanosis? J Antimicrob Chemother 62:1181–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cohn LA, Middleton JR (2010) A veterinary perspective on methicillin-resistant staphylococci. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 20:31–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smout MJ, Kotze AC, McCarthy JS, Loukas A (2010) A novel high throughput assay for anthelmintic drug screening and resistance diagnosis by real-time monitoring of parasite motility. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hidalgo A, Carvajal A, Vester B, Pringle M, Naharro G, Rubio P (2011) Trends towards lower antimicrobial susceptibility and characterization of acquired resistance among clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3330–3337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Biosecurity Quality Assurance ProgramVirology Research LaboratoryRandwickAustralia

Personalised recommendations