Interstellar Ionized Nebulae

  • Walter J. Maciel


This chapter discusses ionized interstellar nebulae, in particular the photoionized H II regions and planetary nebulae. It is shown that the ionized gas is confined in the so-called Stromgren sphere. The effects of grains are analyzed, and an example is given of the heating and cooling processes in H II regions.


Electron Temperature Optical Depth Brightness Temperature Supernova Remnant Diffuse Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abraham, Z., Lépine, J.R.D., Braz, M.A.: H66-alpha radio recombination line observations of southern H II regions. Mon. Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 193, 737 (1980). Determination of electron temperature in H II regions from radio recombination lines. The results mentioned in Section 8.6 are from this referenceADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Aller, L.H.: Physics of Thermal Gaseous Nebulae. Kluwer, Dordrecht (1984). Basic text about physical processes in ionized nebulae, with a discussion on the heating processes, excitation conditions, and abundance determinationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowers, R.L., Deeming, T.: Astrophysics II. Jones and Bartlett, Boston (1984). Referred to in Chapter 1. Includes a good discussion on ionized hydrogen regionsGoogle Scholar
  4. Costa, R.D.D., Chiappini, C., Maciel, W.J., Freitas, P.J.A.: New abundances of southern planetary nebulae. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 116, 249 (1996). Plasma diagnostics and abundance determination in planetary nebulae in the Galaxy. The results mentioned in Section 8.7 are taken from this referenceADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dyson, J., Williams, D.A.: The Physics of the Interstellar Medium. Institute of Physics Publishing, London (1997). Referred to in Chapter 1. Includes a quite accessible discussion on ionized H interstellar regions, their temperatures, and dynamical processesMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gurzadyan, G.S.: The Physics and Dynamics of Planetary Nebulae. Springer, Berlin (1997). Very complete monograph on planetary nebulaeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kwok, S.: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Nebulae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000). Recent book about the principal aspects of astrophysics of planetary nebulae, including their origins and evolutionCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maciel, W.J., Pottasch, S.R.: Photoelectric heating of H II regions. Astron. Astrophys. 106, 1 (1982). Study of photoelectric heating by grains in H II regions. The results from Section 8.5 and Figure 8.6 are based on this referenceGoogle Scholar
  9. Osterbrock, D.: Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei. University Science Books, Mill Valley (1989). Referred to in Chapter 1. Classical text on ionized gaseous nebulae, with an extension to active galactic nuclei. Excellent discussion on spectral analysis, abundance determination, and plasma diagnostics, including tables with atomic constants of the main ions observed in these nebulae. Table 8.3 and Figures 8.3 and 8.5 are based on this referenceCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Pottasch, S.R.: Planetary Nebulae. Reidel, Dordrecht (1984). Classical monograph about planetary nebulae, with a particularly interesting discussion on abundancesGoogle Scholar
  11. Spitzer, L.: Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium. Wiley, New York (1978). Referred to in Chapter 1. Includes an advanced treatment of interstellar ionized nebulae, in particular its thermodynamic aspects, Strömgren radius determination, abundances, and dynamical evolution. Tables 8.2 and 8.4 and Figure 8.7 are based on this referenceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter J. Maciel
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Astronomia IAG/USPCidade UniversitariaSão PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations