Alternative Sources of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Their Clinical Applications

  • Jonathan A. Gutman
  • Shelly Heimfeld
  • H. Joachim Deeg


Reports on the therapeutic use of bone marrow for the treatment of anemia associated with leukemia or parasitic infections date back about one century (reviewed in [1]). However, it was not until the events at Alamagordo, New Mexico, and the observations in atomic bomb casualties at Hiroshima and Nagasaki that systematic research into hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) got under way [2]. Studies on total body irradiation (TBI) in mice, rats, dogs, and nonhuman primates revealed three levels of TBI-related injury: a marrow (hematopoietic) syndrome at about 500–700 cGy, an intestinal syndrome at 1,200–10,000 cGy, and a cerebral syndrome at even higher doses [3]. In mice, shielding of the spleen during TBI, implantation of a syngeneic spleen, or infusion of syngeneic spleen or marrow cells after TBI rescued animals from the marrow syndrome [4, 5]. Intravenous injection was the most effective way of transplanting hematopoietic cells, which by way of “homing” reached the marrow cavity and other hematopoietic organs. These studies also showed that hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were present at sites other than the marrow and were viable in the circulation. While the infusion of autologous or syngeneic cells rescued animals without complications, animals given cells from allogeneic donors developed “secondary disease,” now known as graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) [3, 6].


Hematopoietic stem cells Peripheral blood Umbilical cord Dose Immunogenicity 



Supported by PHS grants CA015704, CA018029, HL036444, CA078166, DK056465, and HL054881.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan A. Gutman
    • 1
  • Shelly Heimfeld
    • 2
  • H. Joachim Deeg
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Medical OncologyUniversity of ColoradoAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research CenterSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Clinical Research DivisionFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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