Mountain Waters as Witnesses of Global Pollution

  • Jordi Catalan
  • Mireia Bartrons
  • Lluis Camarero
  • Joan O. Grimalt


Mountains lakes, streams, and rivers, collectively known as headwaters, are popularly seen as waters of the highest quality. However, human-related pollution has reached remote areas of the planet everywhere through atmospheric transportation. Mountain freshwater ecosystems are extreme environments for life and thus are particularly sensitive to some new stressors. This chapter begins by summarizing the main features of mountain freshwater ecosystems and then comments on the effects they have historically suffered. It focuses particularly on two environmental problems: (1) acidification and (2) contamination with persistent organic pollutants. These problems are at different stages of development and knowledge. Acidification mechanisms are well understood, and mitigation actions have been applied successfully. The pace of recovery and interaction with climate change are now focusing research interests. In contrast, the environmental problem of persistent organic pollutants in mountain waters has been unveiled only recently. Some initially unexpected findings, such as the increasing concentration of some pollutants with altitude, have stirred further investigations on bioaccumulation processes, which are summarized here.

Actions against contamination of sites far from the pollution sources, such as mountains, require the development of international protocols. The fight against acidification constitutes a successful example of such actions, and efforts against other atmospheric pollutants are following suit. These large-scale actions require adequate long-term monitoring networks, models for interpretating the results, and sound understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the observed patterns. Research may focus on: (1) increasing understanding of biotransformation of organic pollutants in natural conditions; (2) better evaluation of toxicological effects on both organisms and ecosystems as a whole; and (3) the ways that climate change influences the transport, accumulation, and toxicity of pollutants, a subject that cuts across all freshwater quality issues.


Critical Load Acid Deposition Altitudinal Gradient Trophic Position Nitrogen Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.




Ongoing decrease in the pH of soil and freshwater caused by acid rain.

Acid–base Balance

Equilibrium between acids and alkalis in a body of water.


Suspension of particles dispersed in air.

ANC (acid-neutralizing capacity)

Measures the buffering capacity against acidification in water. It is defined as the difference between cations of strong bases and anions of strong acids. ANC is often used in models to estimate acidification levels from acid rain pollution and as a basis for calculating critical loads for soils and freshwaters.


Accumulation of some toxic substance in an organism’s body.


General concept for the diversity of life. It is commonly used in a more restrictive way as numbers of different species of plants and animals in a habitat.


Bioaccumulation of a toxic substance obtained via food intake.

Biotransformation Capacity

Ability of an organism to transform a toxic substance.

Cation and Anion

Ions with a positive or negative charge, respectively.

Critical Load

Quantitative estimate of exposure to one or more pollutants below which level significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the ecosystems do not occur (according to our present knowledge).


Release of an adsorbed substance from a surface to a gaseous or solution state.


Debris of organic matter produced by erosion or decomposition.


Biological community of interacting organisms and their environment.


Protein that accelerates a chemical reaction and remains unchanged by the process.

Exocrine Pancreatic Cancer

Disease in which malignant cells (cancer) form in the exocrine tissues of the pancreas, which produce digestive juice—in contrast to endocrine tissues, which produce hormones.

Eutrophication: Nutrient

enrichment, which eventually leads to dense populations of phytoplankton (microscopic algae) in aquatic systems.

Greenhouse Gases

Any of several gases that cause global warming.


Any of several electronegative elements that form a salt when combined with metals.


Lacking attraction for water.


Having affinity for water.

Intrauterine Exposure

Fetal exposure to pollutants that occurs during intrauterine development because the mother has been contaminated.

Lipid Content

Amount of fats in a tissue or body.


Having an affinity for lipids, usually in contrast to hydrophilic.

Littoral Biota

Organisms living close to the shores of lakes or seas, in contrast to those living in open waters.


Microequivalents per liter. In chemistry, an equivalent is the mass of a particular substance that can combine with or displace another substance in a reaction. It is used when expressing combining powers of elements and compounds.

Metabolic Rate

Amount of energy expended during a given period by chemical reactions that occur in living organisms to maintain life.

Methylation (demethylation)

Replacement of hydrogen atoms with a methyl group (or vice versa).

Natural Radionuclide

Naturally occurring atom with an unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay.

Oligotrophic Waters

Aquatic ecosystems poor in nutrients and as a consequence having limited productivity.

Oncogene Mutation

Change in a gene that may result in the onset of cancer.

Organic Pollutants

Organic compound that contaminates the environment.

Organohalogen Compounds

Chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (chlorine, bromine, fluorine, or iodine).


Picograms per liter: one-trillionth of a gram dissolved in a liter.


Level of acidity evaluated as the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.

POPs (persistent organic pollutants)

Man-made organic compounds that persist in the environment because they are resistant to degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. They are capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in organisms, biomagnify in food webs, and have a potentially significant impact on human health and the environment. Many POPs are pesticides, but others are used in industrial processes and in the production of a range of goods.

Photo-Oxidative Degradation

Breaking down of a substance in the presence of oxygen or ozone, facilitated by radiant energy such as ultraviolet (UV).

Precipitation Chemistry

Changes that occur during formation of a solid in a solution or inside another solid during a chemical reaction, or by diffusion in a solid.

Reactive Gases

Gases that include surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxidized nitrogen compounds (NOx, NOy) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). All of these compounds play a major role in the chemistry of the atmosphere and so are heavily involved in interrelations between atmospheric chemistry and climate either through control of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere or through the formation of aerosols.


Tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of water and rest against a barrier (rock, sediment, plants).


compound: Shows an intermediate tendency to evaporate.


Organisms that do not tolerate large fluctuations in temperature. Cold-stenotherms require cold environments and do not survive with even relatively low warming.

Stratospheric Ozone

Ozone (O3) located mainly in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 13–20 km above Earth, although the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

State when a system is in thermal equilibrium, mechanical equilibrium, radiative equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. There are no unbalanced potentials, so the system does not experience changes if isolated from its surroundings.

Toxicological Susceptibility

Vulnerability to poisons.


Dynamic aspects related to trophic relations in the ecosystems.


Lowest part of the Earth’s atmosphere. Most weather changes occur here, and temperature generally decreases rapidly with altitude.

UV Radiation

Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light (in the range 10–400 nm).

Visigothic Period

The Visigoths were one of two main branches of Goths, an East Germanic tribe that disturbed the late Roman Empire. Here, the Visigothic period refers to the centuries immediately after the Roman Empire.

Volatilization (revolatilization)

Process whereby a dissolved compound is vaporized.

Wet (dry) Deposition

Process by which aerosol particles collect on solid surfaces, decreasing their concentration in the air. It can be divided into wet deposition (particles are scavenged by rain or snow) and dry deposition (particles settle under dry conditions).


  1. Aber JD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Steudler P, Melillo JM (1989) Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems. Bioscience 39 (6):378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartrons M, Grimalt JO, de Mendoza G, Catalan J (2012) Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs. PLoS ONE 7(7): e41829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041829.Google Scholar
  3. Bartrons M, Grimalt JO, Catalan J (2011) Altitudinal distributions of BDE-209 and other polybromodiphenyl ethers in high mountain lakes. Environmental Pollution 159:1816–1822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartrons M, Grimalt JO, Catalan J (submitted) Food web biomagnification of organochlorine compounds in high mountain lakes.Google Scholar
  5. Battarbee RW (1984) Diatom analysis and the acidification of lakes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 305 (1124):451–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battarbee RW, Monteith DT, Juggins S, Evans CD, Jenkins A, Simpson GL (2005) Reconstructing pre-acidification pH for an acidified Scottish loch: A comparison of palaeolimnological and modelling approaches. Environmental Pollution 137 (1):135–149. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.12.021. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blais JM, Schindler DW, Muir DCG, Kimpe LE, Donald DB, Rosenberg B (1998) Accumulation of persistent organochlorine compounds in mountains of western Canada. Nature 395 (6702):585–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blais JM, Schindler DW, Muir DCG, Sharp M, Donald D, Lafreniere M, Braekevelt E, Strachan WMJ (2001a) Melting glaciers: A major source of persistent organochlorines to subalpine Bow Lake in Banff National Park, Canada. Ambio 30 (7):410–415.Google Scholar
  9. Blais JM, Schindler DW, Sharp M, Braekevelt E, Lafrenière M, MacDonald K, Muir DCG, Strachan WMJ (2001b) Fluxes of semivolatile organochlorine compounds in Bow Lake, a high-altitude, glacier-fed, subalpine lake in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Limnology and Oceanography 46 (8):2019–2031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blais JM, Wilhelm F, Kidd KA, Muir DCG, Donald DB, Schindler DW (2003) Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in amphipods (Gammarus lacustris) along an elevation gradient in mountain lakes of western Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22 (11):2605–2613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brancelj A, Sisko M, Brancelj IR, Jeran Z, Jacimovic R (2000) Effects of land use and fish stocking on a mountain lake – evidence from the sediment. Periodicum Biologorum 102 (3):259–268.Google Scholar
  12. Brown LE, Hannah DM, Milner AM (2007) Vulnerability of alpine stream biodiversity to shrinking glaciers and snowpacks. Global Change Biology 13 (5):958–966. doi: 10.1111/j. 1365-2486.2007.01341.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Camarero L, Catalan J (1996) Variability in the chemistry of precipitation in the Pyrenees (northeastern Spain): Dominance of storm origin and lack of altitude influence. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 101 (D23):29491–29498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Camarero L, Masque P, Devos W, Ani-Ragolta I, Catalan J, Moor HC, Pla S, Sanchez-Cabeza JA (1998) Historical variations in lead fluxes in the Pyrenees (northeast Spain) from a dated lake sediment core. Water Air and Soil Pollution 105 (1–2):439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camarero L, Rogora M, Mosello R, Anderson NJ, Barbieri A, Botev I, Kernan M, Kopacek J, Korhola A, Lotter AF, Muri G, Postolache C, Stuchlik E, Thies H, Wright RF (2009) Regionalisation of chemical variability in European mountain lakes. Freshwater Biology 54 (12):2452–2469. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02296.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carrera G, Fernandez P, Vilanova RM, Grimalt JO (2001) Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas. Atmospheric Environment 35 (2):245–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Catalan J, Barbieri MG, Bartumeus F, Bitusik P, Botev I, Brancelj A, Cogalniceanu D, Manca M, Marchetto A, Ognjanova-Rumenova N, Pla S, Rieradevall M, Sorvari S, Stefkova E, Stuchlik E, Ventura M (2009) Ecological thresholds in European alpine lakes. Freshwater Biology 54 (12):2494–2517. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02286.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Catalan J, Ventura M, Vives I, Grimalt JO (2004) The roles of food and water in the bioaccumulation of organochlorine compounds in high mountain lake fish. Environmental Science & Technology 38 (16):4269–4275. doi: 10.1021/es040035p. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cosby BJ, Ferrier RC, Jenkins A, Wright RF (2001) Modelling the effects of acid deposition: refinements, adjustments and inclusion of nitrogen dynamics in the MAGIC model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 5 (3):499–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Croisé LUE, Duplat P, Jaquet O (2005) Two independent methods for mapping bulk deposition in France,. Atmospheric Environment 39:3923–3941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Mendoza G, Catalan J (2010) Lake macroinvertebrates and the altitudinal environmental gradient in the Pyrenees. Hydrobiologia 648 (1):51–72. doi: 10.1007/s10750-010-0261-4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dearing JA, Battarbee RW, Dikau R, Larocque I, Oldfield F (2006) Human-environment interactions: learning from the past. Regional Environmental Change 6 (1–2):1–16. doi: 10.1007/s10113-005-0011-8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deevey ES, Rice DS, Rice PM, Vaughan HH, Brenner M, Flannery MS (1979) Mayan Urbanism – Impact on a Tropical Karst Environment. Science 206 (4416):298–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Demers MJ, Kelly EN, Blais JM, Pick FR, St Louis VL, Schindler DW (2007) Organochlorine compounds in trout from lakes over a 1600 meter elevation gradient in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (8):2723–2729. doi: 10.1021/es062428p. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fernandez P, Carrera G, Grimalt JO (2005) Persistent organic pollutants in remote freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic Sciences 67 (3):263–273. doi: 10.1007/s00027-005-0747-8. Google Scholar
  26. Fernandez P, Carrera G, Grimalt JO, Ventura M, Camarero L, Catalan J, Nickus U, Thies H, Psenner R (2003) Factors governing the atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to remote areas. Environmental Science & Technology 37 (15):3261–3267. doi: 10.1021/es020137k. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fernandez P, Grimalt JO, Vilanova RM (2002) Atmospheric gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high mountain regions of Europe. Environmental Science & Technology 36 (6):1162–1168. doi: 10.1021/es010190t. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gallego E, Grimalt JO, Bartrons M, Lopez JF, Camarero L, Catalan J, Stuchlik E, Battarbee R (2007) Altitudinal gradients of PBDEs and PCBs in fish from European high mountain lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (7):2196–2202. doi: 10.1021/es062197m. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Galloway JN, Schlesinger WH, Levy H, Michaels A, Schnoor JL (1995) Nitrogen fixation – anthropogenic enhancement – environmental response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9 (2):235–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grimalt JO, Borghini F, Sanchez-Hernandez JC, Barra R, Garcia CJT, Focardi S (2004a) Temperature dependence of the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the mosses of the Andean mountains. Environmental Science & Technology 38 (20):5386–5392. doi: 10.1021/es040051m. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grimalt JO, Fernandez P, Berdie L, Vilanova RM, Catalan J, Psenner R, Hofer R, Appleby PG, Rosseland BO, Lien L, Massabuau JC, Battarbee RW (2001) Selective trapping of organochlorine compounds in mountain lakes of temperate areas. Environmental Science & Technology 35 (13):2690–2697. doi: 10.1021/es000278r. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grimalt JO, Fernandez P, Quiroz R (2009) Input of organochlorine compounds by snow to European high mountain lakes. Freshwater Biology 54 (12):2533–2542. doi: 10.1111/j. 1365-2427.2009.02302.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grimalt JO, van Drooge BL, Ribes A, Fernandez P, Appleby P (2004b) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in soils and sediments of high altitude lakes. Environmental Pollution 131 (1):13–24. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.02.024. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Henriksen A, Posch M (2001) Steady-state models for calculating critical loads of acidity for surface waters. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 1:375–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Howsam M, Grimalt JO, Guino E, Navarro M, Marti-Rague J, Peinado MA, Capella G, Moreno V (2004) Organochlorine exposure and colorectal cancer risk. Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (15):1460–1466. doi: 10.1289/ehp.7143. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jackson ST, Sax DF (2010) Balancing biodiversity in a changing environment: extinction debt, immigration credit and species turnover. Trends Ecol Evol 25 (3):153–160. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2009.10.001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jarque S, Gallego E, Bartrons M, Catalan J, Grimalt JO, Pina B (2010) Altitudinal and thermal gradients of hepatic Cyp1A gene expression in natural populations of Salmo trutta from high mountain lakes and their correlation with organohalogen loads. Environmental Pollution 158 (5):1392–1398. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.01.003. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Johnson RK, Hering D, Furse MT, Clarke RT (2006) Detection of ecological change using multiple organism groups: metrics and uncertainty. Hydrobiologia 566:115–137. doi: 10.1007/s10750-006-0101-8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kapos V, Rhind J, Edwards M, Ravilious C, Price MF (2000) Developing a map of the world’s mountain forests. In: Price MF, Butt N (eds) Forests in sustainable mountain development: A state-of-knowledge report for 2000. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly BC, Ikonomou MG, Blair JD, Morin AE, Gobas FAPC (2007) Food web–specific biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants. Science 317:236–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Knapp RA, Matthews KR, Sarnelle O (2001) Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs 71 (3):401–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Knapp RA, Sarnelle O (2008) Recovery after local extinction: factors affecting re-establishment of alpine lake zooplankton. Ecological Applications 18 (8):1850–1859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kopacek J, Cosby BJ, Majer V, Stuchlik E, Vesely J (2003) Modelling reversibility of central European mountain lakes from acidification: Part II – the Tatra Mountains. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7 (4):510–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kopacek J, Prochazkova L, Stuchlik E, Blazka P (1995) The nitrogen-phosphorus relationship in mountain lakes – Influence of atmospheric input, watershed, and pH. Limnology and Oceanography 40 (5):930–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Korner C (2004) Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function. Ambio:11–17.Google Scholar
  46. Korner C (2007) The use of ‘altitude’ in ecological research. Trends Ecol Evol 22 (11):569–574. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2007.09.006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Korner C, Paulsen J (2004) A world-wide study of high altitude treeline temperatures. Journal of Biogeography 31 (5):713–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lotter AF, Birks HJB (2003) The Holocene palaeolimnology of Sagistalsee and its environmental history – a synthesis. Journal of Paleolimnology 30 (3):333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Magnuson JJ (1990) Long-term ecological research and the invisible present – uncovering the processes hidden because effects lag years behind causes. Bioscience 40 (7):495–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Munthe J, Hellsten S, Zetterberg T (2007) Mobilization of mercury and methylmercury from forest soils after a severe storm-fell event. Ambio 36 (1):111–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pla S, Catalan J (2005) Chrysophyte cysts from lake sediments reveal the submillennial winter/spring climate variability in the northwestern Mediterranean region throughout the Holocene. Climate Dynamics 24 (2–3):263–278. doi: 10.1007/s00382-004-0482-1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pla S, Monteith D, Flower R, Rose N (2009) The recent palaeolimnology of a remote Scottish loch with special reference to the relative impacts of regional warming and atmospheric contamination. Freshwater Biology 54 (3):505–523. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02127.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poleo ABS (1995) Aluminium polymerization – a mechanism of acute toxicity of aqueous aluminium to fish. Aquatic Toxicology 31 (4):347–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Porta M, Malats N, Jariod M, Grimalt JO, Rifa J, Carrato A, Guarner L, Salas A, Santiago-Silva M, Corominas JM, Andreu M, Real FX (1999) Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. Lancet 354 (9196):2125–2129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Psenner R, Catalan J (1994) Chemical composition of lakes in crystalline basins: a combination of atmospheric deposition geologic backgrounds, biological activity and human action. In: Margalef R (ed) Limnology now. A paradigm of planetary problems. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 255–314.Google Scholar
  56. Ribas-Fito N, Torrent M, Carrizo D, Julvez J, Grimalt JO, Sunyer J (2007) Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and children’s social behavior at 4 years of age. Environmental Health Perspectives 115 (3):447–450. doi: 10.1289/ehp.9314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ribas-Fito N, Torrent M, Carrizo D, Munoz-Ortiz L, Julvez J, Grimalt JO, Sunyer J (2006) In utero exposure to background concentrations of DDT and cognitive functioning among preschoolers. American Journal of Epidemiology 164 (10):955–962. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwj299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rockstrom J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson A, Chapin FS, Lambin EF, Lenton TM, Scheffer M, Folke C, Schellnhuber HJ, Nykvist B, de Wit CA, Hughes T, van der Leeuw S, Rodhe H, Sorlin S, Snyder PK, Costanza R, Svedin U, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Corell RW, Fabry VJ, Hansen J, Walker B, Liverman D, Richardson K, Crutzen P, Foley JA (2009) A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263):472–475. doi: 10.1038/461472a. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rogora M, Marchetto A, Mosello R (2001) Trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and surface waters in the Lake Maggiore catchment. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 5 (3):379–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schöpp W, Posch M, Mylona S, Johansson M (2003) Long-term development of acid deposition (1880–2030) in sensitive freshwater regions in Europe. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 7 (4):436–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Solomon S (1999) Stratospheric ozone depletion: A review of concepts and history. Reviews of Geophysics 37 (3):275–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sommaruga R (2001) The role of solar UV radiation in the ecology of alpine lakes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B-Biology 62 (1–2):35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stendera S, Johnson RK (2008) Tracking recovery trends of boreal lakes: use of multiple indicators and habitats. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27 (3):529–540. doi: 10.1899/07-125.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stoddard JL, Larsen DP, Hawkins CP, Johnson RK, Norris RH (2006) Setting expectations for the ecological condition of streams: The concept of reference condition. Ecological Applications 16 (4):1267–1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sunyer J, Torrent M, Garcia-Esteban R, Ribas-Fito N, Carrizo D, Romieu I, Anto JM, Grimalt JO (2006) Early exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, breastfeeding and asthma at age six. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36 (10):1236–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Thies H, Nickus U, Mair V, Tessadri R, Tait D, Thaler B, Psenner R (2007) Unexpected response of high alpine lake waters to climate warming. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (21):7424–7429. doi: 10.1021/es0708060. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tilman D, May RM, Lehman CL, Nowak MA (1994) Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371 (6492):65–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Turner MG, Collins SL, Lugo AE, Magnuson JJ, Rupp TS, Swanson FJ (2003) Disturbance dynamics and ecological response: The contribution of long-term ecological research. Bioscience 53 (1):46–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Van Drooge BL, Fernandez P, Grimalt JO, Stuchlik E, Garcia CJT, Cuevas E (2010) Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in remote European and Atlantic sites located above the boundary mixing layer. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 17 (6):1207–1216. doi: 10.1007/s11356-010-0296-0. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Verta M, Salo S, Korhonen M, Porvari P, Paloheimo A, Munthe J (2010) Climate induced thermocline change has an effect on the methyl mercury cycle in small boreal lakes. Science of the Total Environment 408 (17):3639–3647. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.05.006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Vilanova R, Fernandez P, Martinez C, Grimalt JO (2001a) Organochlorine pollutants in remote mountain lake waters. Journal of Environmental Quality 30 (4):1286–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vilanova RM, Fernandez P, Martinez C, Grimalt JO (2001b) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in remote mountain lake waters. Water Research 35 (16):3916–3926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vilanova RM, Fernandez P, Grimalt JO (2001c) Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning in the waters of a remote mountain lake. Science of the Total Environment 279 (1–3):51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vives I, Grimalt JO, Catalan J, Rosseland BO, Battarbee RW (2004) Influence of altitude and age in the accumulation of organochlorine compounds in fish from high mountain lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 38 (3):690–698. doi: 10.1021/es030089j. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vives I, Grimalt JO, Ventura M, Catalan J (2005) Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the food web of a high mountain lake, Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24 (6):1344–1352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wania F, Mackay D (1993) Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organo-chlorine compounds in Polar Regions. Ambio 22 10–18.Google Scholar
  77. Wania F, Mackay D (1996) Tracking the distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants. Environmental Science and Technology 30 (9):A390–A396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wright RF, Larssen T, Camarero L, Cosby BJ, Ferrier RC, Helliwell R, Forsius M, Jenkins A, Kopacek J, Majer V, Moldan F, Posch M, Rogora M, Schopp W (2005) Recovery of acidified European surface waters. Environmental Science & Technology 39 (3):64A–72A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jordi Catalan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mireia Bartrons
    • 3
  • Lluis Camarero
    • 2
  • Joan O. Grimalt
    • 4
  1. 1.CREAFCataloniaSpain
  2. 2.CSIC-CEAB, Biogeodynamics and Biodiversity groupCataloniaSpain
  3. 3.Center for LimnologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Department of Environmental ChemistryInstitute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC)BarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations