Skip to main content

History of Self-Expandable Metal and Self-Expandable Plastic Stent Development

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Self-Expandable Stents in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Abstract

The first self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) for biliary use was devised by Gianturco and reported by Wright et al. in 1985. The Gianturco Z-stent was made of stainless steel wire bent into a zigzag pattern with connected ends. It was compressed and introduced through a Teflon sheath of 8–12 French depending on the wire caliber and the diameter of the stent. Since then, many investigators have devised different kinds of SEMS for the biliary system and the gastrointestinal tract and one self-expandable plastic stent (SEPS) for esophageal use. SEMS have been found to be effective for relief of esophageal, gastroduodenal, colonic, and biliary obstructions, either palliatively or as a bridge to surgical resection, in patients with primary or metastatic cancer. SEPS have been used for palliation of esophageal obstruction and fistula but are approved for benign esophageal disease and removal. In recent years, indications for placement of a SEMS have been extended to patients with benign biliary, esophageal, and gastrointestinal strictures when patients have failed balloon dilation therapy. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history of SEMS/SEPS development in the biliary system and the gastrointestinal tract.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Symonds CJ. A case of malignant stricture of the oesophagus illustrating the use of the new form of oesophageal catheter. Trans Chir Soc Lond. 1885;18:155–8.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ogilvie AL, Dronfield MW, Percuson R, Atkinson M. Palliative intubation of oesophagogastric neoplasms at fiberoptic endoscopy. Gut. 1982;23: 1060–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Liakakos TK, Ohri SK, Townsend ER, Fountain SW. Palliative intubation for dysphagia in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992;53:460–3.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Domschke W, Foerster EC, Matek W, Rodl W. Self-expanding mesh stent for esophageal cancer stenosis. Endoscopy. 1990;22:134–6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bethge N, Knyrim K, Wagner HJ, et al. Self-expanding metal stents for palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction. A pilot study of eight patients. Endoscopy. 1992;24:411–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Knyrim K, Wagner HJ, Bethge N, et al. A controlled trial of an expansile metal stent for palliation of esophageal obstruction due to inoperable cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1302–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Acunas B, Rozanes I, Akpinar S, Tunaci A, et al. Palliation of malignant esophageal strictures with self-expanding nitinol stents: drawbacks and complications. Radiology. 1996;199:648–52.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Adam A, Ellul J, Watkinson AF, et al. Palliation of inoperable esophageal carcinoma: a prospective randomized trial of laser therapy and stent placement. Radiology. 1997;202:344–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Cwikiel W, Tranberg KG, Cwikiel M, et al. Malignant dysphagia: palliation with esophageal stents – long-term results in 100 patients. Radiology. 1998;207: 513–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Song HY, Choi KC, Cho BH, et al. Esophagogastric neoplasms: palliation with a modified Gianturco stent. Radiology. 1991;180:349–54.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Song HY, Do YS, Han YM, et al. Covered, expandable esophageal metallic stent tubes: experiences in 119 patients. Radiology. 1994;193:689–95.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Saxon RR, Barton RE, Katon RM, et al. Treatment of malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas with silicone-covered metallic Z stents. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1995;6:237–42.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Morgan RA, Ellul JP, Denton ER, et al. Malignant esophageal fistulas and perforations: management with plastic-covered metallic endoprostheses. Radiology. 1997;204:527–32.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Shin JH, Song HY, Ko GY, et al. Esophagorespiratory fistulae: long-term results of palliative treatment with covered expandable metallic stents in 61 patients. Radiology. 2004;232:252–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Wu WC, Katon RM, Saxon RR, et al. Silicone-covered self-expanding metallic stents for the palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistulas: experience in 32 patients and a review of the literature. Gastrointest Endosc. 1994;40:22–33.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Kozarek RA, Raltz S, Brugge WR, et al. Prospective multicenter trial of esophageal Z-stent placement for malignant dysphagia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996;44:562–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Bartelsman JEW, Bruno MJ, Jensema AI, et al. Palliation of patients with esophagogastric neoplasm by insertion of a covered expandable modified Gianturco-Z endoprosthesis: experiences in 153 patients. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;51:134–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Siersema PD, Hop WCJ, van Blankenstein M, et al. A comparison of 3 types of covered metal stents for the palliation of patients with dysphagia caused by esophagogastric carcinoma: a prospective, randomized study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54:145–53.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Song HY, Park SI, Jung HY, et al. Benign and malignant esophageal strictures: treatment with a polyurethane-covered retrievable expandable metallic stent. Radiology. 1997;203:747–52.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Yoon CJ, Shin JH, Song HY, et al. Removal of retrievable esophageal and gastrointestinal stents: experience in 113 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004;183:1437–44.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Song HY, Jung HY, Park SI, et al. Covered retrievable expandable nitinol stents in patients with benign esophageal strictures: initial experience. Radiology. 2000;217:551–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Kim JH, Song HY, Choi EK, et al. Temporary metallic stent placement in the treatment of refractory benign esophageal strictures: results and factors associated with outcome in 55 patients. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:348–90.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Dormann AJ, Eisendrath P, Wigginghaus B, et al. Palliation of esophageal carcinoma with self-expanding plastic stent. Endoscopy. 2003;35:207–11.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Conigliaro R, Battaglia G, Repici A, et al. Polyflex stents for malignant oesophageal and oesophagogastric stricture: a prospective, multicentric study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19:195–203.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Fernández A, Vila JJ, Vázquez S, et al. Self-expanding plastic stents for the treatment of post-operative esophago-jejuno anastomosis leak. A case series study. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2010;102: 704–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Szegedi L, Gál I, Kósa I, Kiss GG. Palliative treatment of esophageal carcinoma with self-expanding plastic stents: a report on 69 cases. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;18:1197–201.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Conio M, Repici A, Battaglia G, et al. A randomized prospective comparison of self-expandable plastic stents and partially covered self-expandable metal stents in the palliation of malignant esophageal dysphagia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102:2667–77.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Do YS, Choo SW, Suh SW, et al. Malignant esophagogastric junction obstruction: palliative treatment with an antireflux valve stent. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001;12:647–51.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Dua KS, Kozarek R, Kim J, et al. Self-expanding metal esophageal stent with anti-reflux mechanism. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;53:603–13.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Laasch HU, Marriott A, Wilbraham L, et al. Effectiveness of open versus antireflux stents for palliation of distal esophageal carcinoma and prevention of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Radiology. 2002;225:359–65.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Guo JH, Teng GJ, Zhu GY, et al. Self-expandable esophageal stent loaded with 125 I seeds: initial experience in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Radiology. 2008;247:574–81.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Won JH, Lee JD, Wang HJ, et al. Self-expandable covered metallic esophageal stent impregnated with beta-emitting radionuclide: an experimental study in canine esophagus. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;53:1005–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Repici A, Vleggaar FP, Hassan C, et al. Efficacy and safety of biodegradable stents for refractory benign esophageal strictures: the BEST (Biodegradable Esophageal Stent) study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:927–34.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Lei L, Liu X, Guo S, et al. 5-Fluorouracil-loaded multilayered films for drug controlled releasing stent application: drug release, microstructure, and ex vivo permeation behaviors. J Control Release. 2010;146:45–53.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Kim EY, Shin JH, Jung YY, et al. A rat esophageal model to investigate stent-induced tissue hyperplasia. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;21:1287–91.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Fujino Y, Suzuki Y, Kamigaki T, et al. Evaluation of gastroenteric bypass for unresectable pancreatic cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2001;48:563–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Song HY, Yang DH, Kuhn JH, Choi KC. Obstructing cancer of the gastric antrum: palliative treatment with covered metallic stents. Radiology. 1993;187: 357–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Kozarek RA, Ball TJ, Patterson DJ. Metallic self-expanding stent application in the upper gastrointestinal tract: caveats and concerns. Gastrointest Endosc. 1992;38:1–6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Strecker EP, Boos I, Husfeldt KJ. Malignant duodenal stenosis: palliation with peroral implantation of a self-expanding nitinol stent. Radiology. 1995;196: 349–51.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. de Baere T, Harry G, Ducreaux M, et al. Self-expanding metallic stents as palliative treatment of malignant gastroduodenal stenosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169:1079–83.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Adler DG, Baron TH. Endoscopic palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction using self-expanding metal stents: experience in 36 patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:72–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Yates MR, Morgan DE, Baron TH. Palliation of malignant gastric and small intestinal strictures with self-expandable metal stents. Endoscopy. 1998;30: 266–72.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Nassif T, Prat F, Meduri B, et al. Endoscopic palliation of malignant gastric outlet obstruction using self-expandable metallic stents: results of a multicenter study. Endoscopy. 2003;35:483–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Jung GS, Song HY, Kang SG, et al. Malignant gastroduodenal obstructions: treatment by means of a covered expandable metallic stent-initial experience. Radiology. 2000;216:758–63.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Lopera JE, Alvarez O, Castano R, Castaneda-Zuniga W. Initial experience with Song’s covered duodenal stent in the treatment of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001;12: 1297–303.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Park KB, Do YS, Kang WK, et al. Malignant obstruction of gastric outlet and duodenum: palliation with flexible covered metallic stents. Radiology. 2001;219:679–83.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Jung GS, Song HY, Seo TS, et al. Malignant gastric outlet obstructions: treatment by means of coaxial placement of uncovered and covered expandable nitinol stents. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13: 275–83.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Kim JH, Song HY, Shin JH, et al. Membrane degradation of covered stents in the upper gastrointestinal tract: frequency and clinical significance. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19:220–4.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Song HY, Shin JH, Yoon CJ, et al. A dual expandable nitinol stent: experience in 102 patients with malignant gastroduodenal strictures. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:1443–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Kim JH, Song HY, Shin JH, et al. Metallic stent placement in the palliative treatment of malignant gastroduodenal obstructions: prospective evaluation of results and factors influencing outcome in 213 patients. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66:256–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Katsanos K, Sabharwal T, Adam A. Stenting of the lower gastrointestinal tract: current status. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2011;34:462–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Jung MK, Park SY, Jeon SW, et al. Factors associated with the long-term outcome of a self-expandable colon stent used for palliation of malignant colorectal obstruction. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:525–30.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Dionigi G, Villa F, Rovera F, et al. Colonic stenting for malignant disease: review of literature. Surg Oncol. 2007;16(Suppl 1):S153–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Baron TH. Expandable metal stents for the treatment of cancerous obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(22):1681–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Dohmoto M, Rupp KD, Hohlbach G. Endoscopically-implanted prosthesis in rectal carcinoma [German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1990;115:915.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Keen RR, Orsay CP. Rectosigmoid stent for obstructing colonic neoplasm. Dis Colon Rectum. 1992;35: 912–3.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Tejero E, Mainar A, Fernandez L, et al. New procedure for the treatment of colorectal neoplastic obstructions. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:1158–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. de Gregorio MA, Laborda A, Tejero E, et al. Ten-year retrospective study of treatment of malignant colonic obstructions with self-expandable stents. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22:870–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Fregonese D, Naspetti R, Ferrer S, et al. Ultraflex precision colonic stent placement as a bridge to surgery in patients with malignant colon obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:68–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Camúñez F, Echenagusia A, Simó G, et al. Malignant colorectal obstruction treated by means of self-expanding metallic stents: effectiveness before surgery and in palliation. Radiology. 2000;216: 492–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Song HY, Kim JH, Shin JH, et al. A dual-design expandable colorectal stent for malignant colorectal obstruction: results of a multicenter study. Endoscopy. 2007;39:448–54.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Mauro MA, Koehler RE, Baron TH. Advances in gastrointestinal intervention: the treatment of gastroduodenal and colorectal obstructions with metallic stents. Radiology. 2000;215:659–69.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Kim JH, Song HY, Li YD, et al. Dual-design expandable colorectal stent for malignant colorectal obstruction: comparison of flared ends and bent ends. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193:248–54.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Keswani RN, Azar RR, Edmundowicz SA, et al. Stenting for malignant colonic obstruction: a comparison of efficacy and complications in colonic versus extracolonic malignancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2009;69:675–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Saida Y, Sumiyama Y, Nagao J, Takase M. Stent endoprosthesis for obstructing colorectal cancers. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39:552–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. Itabashi M, Hamano K, Kameoka S, Asahina K. Self-expanding stainless steel stent application in rectosigmoid stricture. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36:508–11.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Spinelli P, Dal Fante M, Mancini A. Self-expanding mesh stent for endoscopic palliation of rectal obstructing tumors: a preliminary report. Surg Endosc. 1992;6:72–4.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Spinelli P, Dal Fante M, Mancini A. Rectal metal stents for palliation of colorectal malignant stenosis. Bildgebung. 1993;60(Suppl):48–50.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Tejero E, Fernandez-Lobato R, Mainar A, et al. Initial results of a new procedure for treatment of malignant obstruction of the left colon. Dis Colon Rectum. 1997;40:432–6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Wallis F, Campbell KL, Eremin O, Hussey JK. Self-expanding metal stents in the management of colorectal carcinoma – a preliminary report. Clin Radiol. 1998;53:251–4.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. Tack J, Gevers AM, Rutgeerts P. Self-expandable metallic stents in the palliation of rectosigmoidal carcinoma: a follow-up study. Gastrointest Endosc. 1998;48:267–71.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  72. Canon CL, Baron TH, Morgan DE, et al. Treatment of colonic obstruction with expandable metal stents: radiologic features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;168:199–205.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  73. Rey JF, Romanczyk T, Greff M. Metal stents for palliation of rectal carcinoma: a preliminary report on 12 patients. Endoscopy. 1995;27:501–4.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Choo IW, Do YS, Suh SW, et al. Malignant colorectal obstruction: treatment with a flexible covered stent. Radiology. 1998;206:415–21.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Kang SG, Jung GS, Cho SG, et al. The efficacy of metallic stent placement in the treatment of colorectal obstruction. Korean J Radiol. 2002;3:79–86.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Repici A, Reggio D, De Angelis C, et al. Covered metal stents for management of inoperable malignant colorectal strictures. Gastrointest Endosc. 2000;52:735–40.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  77. Repici A, Fregonese D, Costamagna G, et al. Ultraflex precision colonic stent placement for palliation of malignant colonic obstruction: a prospective multicenter study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66: 920–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Repici A, De Caro G, Luigiano C, et al. WallFlex colonic stent placement for management of malignant colonic obstruction: a prospective study at two centers. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:77–84.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Park S, Cheon JH, Park JJ, et al. Comparison of efficacies between stents for malignant colorectal obstruction: a randomized, prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:304–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Burcharth F. A new endoprosthesis for nonoperative intubation of the biliary tract in malignant obstructive jaundice. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978;146:76–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  81. Pereiras Jr RV, Rheingold OJ, Huston D, et al. Relief of malignant obstructive jaundice by percutaneous insertion of a permanent prosthesis in the biliary tree. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:589–3.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Lammer J, Stoffler G, Petek WW, Hofler H. In vitro long-term perfusion of different materials for biliary endoprostheses. Invest Radiol. 1986;21:329–31.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Sung JY, Leung JW, Shaffer EA, et al. Bacterial biofilm, brown pigment stone and blockage of biliary stents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1993;8:28–34.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Wright KC, Wallace S, Charnsangavej C, Carrasco CH, Gianturco C. Percutaneous endovascular stents: an experimental evaluation. Radiology. 1985;156: 69–72.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Rosch J, Uchida BT, Hall LD, et al. Gianturco-Rosch expandable Z-stents in the treatment of superior vena cava syndrome. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1992;15:319–27.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Uchida BT, Putnam JS, Rosch J. Modifications of Gianturco expandable wire stents. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150:1185–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Carrasco CH, Wallace S, Charnsangavej C, et al. Expandable biliary endoprosthesis: an experimental study. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;145:1279–81.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. Coons HG. Self-expanding stainless steel biliary stents. Radiology. 1989;170:979–83.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Irving JD, Adam A, Dick R, et al. Gianturco expandable metallic biliary stents: results of a European clinical trial. Radiology. 1989;172:321–6.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Rossi P, Bezzi M, Rossi M, et al. Metallic stents in malignant biliary obstruction: results of a multicenter European study of 240 patients. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1994;5:279–85.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. LaBerge JM, Doherty M, Gordon RL, Ring EJ. Hilar malignancy: treatment with an expandable metallic transhepatic biliary stent. Radiology. 1990;177:793–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Yoshioka T, Sakaguchi H, Yoshimura H, et al. Expandable metallic biliary endoprostheses: preliminary clinical evaluation. Radiology. 1990;177: 253–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  93. Kubota Y, Nakatani S, Nakahashi Y, et al. Bilateral internal biliary drainage of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with modified Gianturco Z stents inserted via a single percutaneous tract. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1993;4:605–10.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. Rossi P, Bezzi M, Salvatori FM, et al. Recurrent benign biliary strictures: management with self-expanding metallic stents. Radiology. 1990;175: 661–5.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. Zollikofer CL, Antonucci F, Stuckmann G, et al. Historical overview on the development and characteristics of stents and future outlooks. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1992;15:272–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Huibregtse K, Cheng J, Coene PP, et al. Endoscopic placement of expandable metal stents for biliary strictures – a preliminary report on experience with 33 patients. Endoscopy. 1989;21:280–2.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. Lammer J, Klein GE, Kleinert R, et al. Obstructive jaundice: use of expandable metal endoprosthesis for biliary drainage. Work in progress. Radiology. 1990;177:789–92.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. Davids PH, Groen AK, Rauws EA, et al. Randomised trial of self-expanding metal stents versus polyethylene stents for distal malignant biliary obstruction. Lancet. 1992;340:1488–92.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. Stoeckel D, Pelton A, Duerig T. Self-expanding nitinol stents: material and design considerations. Eur Radiol. 2004;14:292–301.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  100. Goldin E, Beyar M, Safra T, et al. A new self-expandable and removable metal stent for biliary obstruction–a preliminary report. Endoscopy. 1993;25:597–9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. Varadarajulu S, Tutuian R, Gostout C, et al. Efficacy of the Za self-expandable metal stent for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2004;38:77–80.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  102. Kim CW, Park AW, Won JW, et al. T-configured dual stent placement in malignant biliary hilar duct obstructions with a newly designed stent. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:713–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  103. Lee JH, Kang DH, Kim JY, et al. Endoscopic bilateral metal stent placement for advanced hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a pilot study of a newly designed Y stent. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66:364–9.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  104. Friedrich JM, Vogel J, Gorich J, et al. First clinical experience with a new nitinol stent in the biliary system. Rofo. 1995;162:429–35.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  105. Chennat J, Waxman I. Initial performance profile of a new 6F self-expanding metal stent for palliation of malignant hilar biliary obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010;72:632–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  106. Saleem A, Leggett CL, Murad MH, Baron TH. Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the patency of covered and uncovered self-expandable metal stents for palliation of distal malignant bile duct obstruction. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;74(2):321–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  107. Kuo MD, Lopresti DC, Gover DD, et al. Intentional retrieval of viabil stent-grafts from the biliary system. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2006;17:389–97.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  108. Baron TH. Covered self-expandable metal stents for benign biliary tract diseases. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011;27:262–7.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. Suk KT, Kim JW, Kim HS, et al. Human application of a metallic stent covered with a paclitaxel-incorporated membrane for malignant biliary obstruction: multicenter pilot study. Gastrointest Endosc. 2007;66: 798–803.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ho-Young Song M.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Song, HY., Kim, J.H., Yoon, C.J. (2013). History of Self-Expandable Metal and Self-Expandable Plastic Stent Development. In: Kozarek, R., Baron, T., Song, HY. (eds) Self-Expandable Stents in the Gastrointestinal Tract. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3746-8_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3746-8_3

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4614-3745-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4614-3746-8

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics