Antidepressant-Antianxiety Agents

  • Ross J. Baldessarini


The complex title of this chapter reflects several basic points about this important class of medicines. They are now the most widely used psychotropic drugs, and even more in general medicine than in psychiatry [171, 384, 576]. Their origins in the 1950s were aimed specifically at a relatively complex group of depressive disorders prior to consolidation and broad acceptance of the concept “major depressive disorder.” Over the past half-century, indications for the use of these nominally “antidepressant” drugs have broadened extraordinarily. Some agents in this category, old and new, could well have been developed primarily as antianxiety agents. Indeed some that are used internationally as antidepressants are approved by the US FDA only for anxiety disorders (e.g., fluvoxamine and milnacipran). The broad use of such drugs includes various types of clinical depression, anxiety-associated disorders, attention disorders, some pain syndromes, and even urinary incontinence.


  1. 1.
    Abdel-Hamid IA. Pharmacologic treatment of rapid ejaculation: levels of evidence-based review. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2006;1:243–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ables AZ, Nagubilli R. Prevention, recognition, and management of serotonin syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:1139–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abudy A, Juven-Wetzler A, Zohar J. Pharmacological management of treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:585–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Achab S, Khazaal Y. Psychopharmacological treatment in pathological gambling: critical review. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17:1389–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Acharya N, Rosen AS, Polzer JP, D’Souza DN, Perahia DG, Cavazzoni PA, et al. Duloxetine: meta-analyses of suicidal behaviors and ideation in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:587–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ahrens B, Müller-Oerlinghausen B. Does lithium exert an independent antisuicidal effect? Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001;34:132–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aiken CB. Pramipexole in psychiatry: systematic review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1230–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexopoulos GS, Kiosses DN, Heo M, Murphy CF, Shanmugham B, Gunning-Dixon F. Executive dysfunction and the course of geriatric depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:204–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allen C, Kalu U-G, Sexton CE, Ebmeier KP. Transcranial stimulation in depression. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;200:10–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H. Use of mental health services in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;(Suppl 420):47–54.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alwan S, Reefhuis J, Rasmussen SA, Olney RS, Friedman JM. Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2007;356: 2684–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III). 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ampuero E, Rubio FJ, Falcon R, Sandoval M, Diaz-Veliz G, Gonzalez RE, et al. Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces structural plasticity and selective changes in glutamate receptor subunits in the rat cerebral cortex. Neuroscience. 2010;169:98–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Amsterdam JD, Williams D, Michelson D, Adler LA, Dunner DL, Nierenberg AA, et al. Tachyphylaxis after repeated antidepressant drug exposure in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59:227–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anacker C, Zunszain PA, Cattaneo A, Carvalho LA, Garabedian MJ, Thuret S, et al. Antidepressants increase human hippocampal neurogenesis by activating the glucocorticoid receptor. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:738–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson IM. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors vs. tricyclic antidepressans: meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability. J Affect Disord. 2000;58:19–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson HD, Pace WD, Libby AM, West DR, Valuck RJ. Rates of five common antidepressant side effects among new adult and adolescent cases of depression: retrospective US claims study. Clin Ther. 2012;34:113–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andrade C, Rao NS. How antidepressant drugs act: primer on neuroplasticity as the eventual mediator of antidepressant efficacy. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52:378–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andrade C, Sandarsh S, Chethan KB, Nagesh KS. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: review for clinicians and reconsideration of mechanisms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1565–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Angell M. editor. The illusions of psychiatry: an exchange. 2011. NY Rev Books 58. p. 11
  21. 21.
    Angelucci F, Croce N, Spalletta G, Dinallo V, Gravina P, Bossù P, et al. Paroxetine rapidly modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein in a human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cell line. Pharmacology. 2011;87:5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ansseau M, Kupfer DJ, Reynolds III CF, Coble PA. “Paradoxical” shortening of REM latency on first recording night in major depressive disorder: clinical and polysomnographic correlates. Biol Psychiatry. 1985;20:135–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anthony J, Sexton T, Neumaier J. Antidepressant-induced regulation of 5-HT-1B mRNA in rat dorsal raphe nucleus reverses rapidly after drug discontinuation. J Neurosci Res. 2000;61:82–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arana GW, Baldessarini RJ, Ornsteen M. The dexamethasone suppression test for diagnosis and prognosis in psychiatry: commentary and review. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42: 1193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ash SR, Levy H, Akmal M, Mankus RA, Sutton JM, Emery DR, et al. Treatment of severe tricyclic antidepressant overdose with extracorporeal sorbent detoxification. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2002;9:31–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Attar-Herzberg D, Apel A, Gang N, Dvir D, Mayan H. Serotonin syndrome: initial misdiagnosis. Isr Med Assoc J. 2009;11:367–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Axelrod J, Whitby LG, Hertting G. Effect of psychotropic drugs on the uptake of 3  H-norepinephrine by tissues. Science. 1961;133:383–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aubert D, Berard E, Blanc JP, Lenoir G, Liard F, Lottmann H. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group (French)]. Prog Urol. 2010;20:343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bakker A, van Balkom AJ, Spinhoven P. SSRIs vs TCAs in the treatment of panic disorder: meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2002;106:163–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baldessarini RJ. Neuropharmacology of S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Am J Med. 1987;83(Suppl 5A):95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baldessarini RJ. Update on pharmacology and treatment with antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry. 1989;50:117–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baldessarini RJ. American biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology 1944–1994. Chapt 16. In: Menninger RW, Nemiah JC, editors. American Psychiatry after World War II (1944–1994). Washington DC: APA Press; 2000. p. 371–412.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baldessarini RJ. Drug therapy of depression and anxiety disorders. Chapt 17. In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005. p. 429–59.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baldessarini RJ, Henk HJ, Sklar AR, Chang J, Leahy LF. Psychotropic medications for bipolar disorder patients in the United States: polytherapy and adherence. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59:1175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baldessarini RJ, Leahy LF, Arcona S, Gause D, Zhang W, Hennen J. Prescribing patterns of psychotropic medicines in the United States for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorders. Psychiatr Serv. 2007;58:85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baldessarini RJ, Pompili M, Tondo L. Suicidal risk in antidepressant trials. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:246–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Baldessarini RJ, Pompili M, Tondo L, Tsapakis E, Soldani F, Faedda GL, et al. Antidepressants and suicidal behavior: are we hurting or helping? Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2005;2:73–5.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baldessarini RJ, Salvatore P, Khalsa HM, Gebre-Medhin P, Imaz H, González-Pinto A, et al. Morbidity in 303 first-episode bipolar I disorder patients. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12:264–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baldessarini RJ, Suppes T, Tondo L. Lithium withdrawal in bipolar disorder: implications for clinical practice and experimental therapeutics research. Am J Ther. 1996;3:492–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L. Psychopharmacology for suicide prevention. Chapt 9. In: Pompili M, editor. Suicide: a Global Perspective. Sarjah, UAE: Bentham Science Publishers; 2006. p. 114–27.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Faedda GL, Viguera AC, Baethge C, Bratti I, et al. Latency, discontinuation, and re-use of lithium treatment. Chapter 38. In: Bauer M, Grof P, Müller-Oerlinghausen B, editors. Lithium in Neuropsychiatry: the Comprehensive Guide. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006. p. 465–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Ghiani C, Lepri B. Illness risk following rapid versus gradual discontinuation of antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:934–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Hennen J. Reduced suicide risk during long-term treatment with lithium. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001;932:24–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Strombom I, Dominguez S, Fawcett J, Oquendo M, et al. Analysis of ecological studies of relationships between antidepressant utilization and suicidal risk. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2007;15:133–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Viguera AC. Discontinuing psychotropic agents. J Psychopharmacol. 1999;13:292–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baldessarini RJ, Vieta E, Calabrese JR, Tohen M, Bowden C. Bipolar depression: overview and commentary. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010;18:143–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baldwin DS, Ajel KI, Garner M. Pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:453–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bandelow B, Rüther E. Treatment-resistant panic disorder. CNS Spectr. 2004;9:725–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bannister SJ, Houser VP, Hulse JD, Kisicki JC, Rasmussen JG. Evaluation of the potential for interaction of paroxetine with diazepam, cimetidine, warfarin, and digoxin. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1989;350:102–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barbanti P, Aurilia C, Egeo G, Fofi L. Migraine prophylaxis: what is new and what we need? Neurol Sci. 2011;32 (Suppl 1):S111–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Barbui C, Esposito E, Cipriani A. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of suicide: systematic review of observational studies. Can Med Assoc J (CMAJ). 2009;180:291–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bares M, Novak T, Brunovsky M, Kopecek M, Stopkova P, Krajca V, et al. Change of QEEG prefrontal cordance as a response predictor to antidepressive intervention in bipolar depression: pilot study. J Psychiatr Res. 2012;46:219–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bares M, Novak T, Kopecek M, Stopkova P, Kozeny J, Höschl C. Early improvement of depressive symptoms as a potential predictor of response to antidepressants in depressive patients who failed to respond to previous antidepressant treatments. Analysis of naturalistic data. Eur Psychiatry. 2011 [Epub ahead of print, 28 Nov].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Barnes TR. Evidence-based guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:567–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bartova L, Berger A, Pezawas L. Is there a personalized medicine for mood disorders? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;260 (Suppl 2):S121–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Baskin SM, Smitherman TA. Comorbidity between migraine and depression: update on traditional and alternative treatments. Neurol Sci 2011;32 (Suppl 1):S9–13.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Basu M, Duckett JR. Update on duloxetine for the management of stress urinary incontinence. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Baudry A, Mouillet-Richard S, Schneider B, Launay JM, Kellermann O. MiR-16 targets the serotonin transporter: new facet for adaptive responses to antidepressants. Science. 2010;329:1537–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bauer M, Bschor T, Pfennig A, Whybrow PC, Angst J, Versiani M, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders in primary care. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2007;8:67–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baumann P, Nil R, Souche A, Montaldi S, Baettig D, Lambert S, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of citalopram with and without lithium in the treatment of therapy-resistant depressive patients: a clinical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacogenetic investigation. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996;16:307–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bech P. Is the antidepressive effect of second-generation antidepressants a myth? Psychol Med. 2010;40:181–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Beekwilder JP, Beems T. Overview of the clinical applications of vagus nerve stimulation. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;27:130–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Beerworth EE, Tiller JW. Liability in prescribing choice: the example of the antidepressants. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1998;32:560–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Benazzi F. Reviewing the diagnostic validity and utility of mixed depression (depressive mixed states). Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23:40–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Benmansour S, Altamirano AV, Jones DJ, Sanchez TA, Gould GG, Pardon MC, et al. Regulation of the norepinephrine transporter by chronic administration of antidepressants. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:313–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Berntson GG, Uchino BN, Cacioppo JT. Origins of baseline variance and the Law of Initial Values. Psychophysiology. 1994;31:204–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bespalov AY, van Gaalen MM, Gross G. Antidepressant treatment in anxiety disorders. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:361–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bhuvaneswar CG, Baldessarini RJ, Harsh VL, Alpert JE. Adverse endocrine and metabolic effects of psychotropic drugs: selective clinical review. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:1003–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bismuth-Evenzal Y, Gonopolsky Y, Gurwitz D, Iancu I, Weizman A, Rehavi M. Decreased serotonin content and reduced agonist-induced aggregation in platelets of patients chronically medicated with SSRI drugs. J Affect Disord. 2012;136:99–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Blaber MS, Khan JN, Brebner JA, McColm R. “Lipid rescue” for tricyclic antidepressant cardiotoxicity. J Emerg Med. 2012 [Epub ahead of print, 11 Jan].Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blier P. Pharmacology of rapid-onset antidepressant treatment strategies. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:12–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Blier P, de Montrigny C, Chaput Y. Modification of the serotonin system by antidepressants: implications for the therapeutic response in major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;7:24S–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Blier P, Tremblay P. Physiological mechanisms underlying the antidepressant discontinuation syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 (Suppl 4):8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Dombrowski P, Kelmendi B, Wegner R, Nudel J, et al. Systematic review: pharmacological and behavioral treatment for trichotillomania. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:839–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bloch MH, McGuire J, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Leckman JF, Pittenger C. Meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship of SSRI in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:850–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bobo WV, Chen H, Trivedi MH, Stewart JW, Nierenberg AA, Fava M, et al. Randomized comparison of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (escitalopram) monotherapy and antidepressant combination pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder with melancholic features. J Affect Disord. 2011;133:467–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bodkin JA, Zornberg GL, Lukas SE, Cole JO. Buprenorphine treatment of refractory depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995;15:49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baker DG, Nievergelt CM, Risbrough VB. Post-traumatic stress disorder: emerging concepts of pharmacotherapy. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009;14:251–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bolasco A, Carradori S, Fioravanti R. Focusing on new monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2010;20:909–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bollini P, Pampallona S, Tibaldi G, Kupelnick B, Munizza C. Effectiveness of antidepressants. Meta-analysis of dose-effect relationships in randomised clinical trials. Br J Psychiatry. 1999;174:297–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bonanno G, Giambelli R, Raiteri L, Tiraboschi E, Zappettini S, Musazzi L, et al. Chronic antidepressants reduce depolarization-evoked glutamate release and protein interactions favoring formation of SNARE complex in hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:3270–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bodmer M. [Poisoning with antidepressants (German)]. Ther Umsch. 2009;66:335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Booij L, Van der Does AJ, Riedel WJ. Monoamine depletion in psychiatric and healthy populations: review. Mol Psychiatry. 2003;8:951–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Borges R, Pereda D, Beltrá́n B, Prunell M, Rodríguez M, Machado JD. Intravesicular factors controlling exocytosis in chromaffin cells. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1359–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:1112–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bradley SR, Uslaner JM, Flick RB, Lee A, Groover KM, Hutson PH. The mGluR7 allosteric agonist AMN082 produces antidepressant-like effects by modulating glutamatergic signaling. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;10:35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Brandon AR, Freeman MP. When she says “no” to medication: psychotherapy for antepartum depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13:459–666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Brinkers M, Petz T, Hoffmeyer D. [General importance of antidepressants in treatment of patients with chronic pain (German)]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2010;45:712–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brooks WH, Guida WC, Daniel KG. Significance of chirality in drug design and development. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11:760–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Brown WA. Treatment response in melancholia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;116 (Suppl 433):125–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Burke WM, Gergel I, Bost A. Fixed-dose trial of the single-isomer SSRI escitalopram in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;63:331–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bymaster FP, Katner JS, Nelson DL, Hemrick-Luecke SK, Threlkeld PG, Heiligenstein JH, et al. Atomoxetine increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in prefrontal cortex of rat: a potential mechanism for efficacy in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002;27:699–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Byrne SE, Rothchild AJ. Loss of antidepressant efficacy during maintenance therapy: possible mechanisms and treatments. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59:279–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cape J, Whittington C, Buszewicz M, Wallace P, Underwood L. Brief psychological therapies for anxiety and depression in primary care: meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMC Med. 2010;8:38–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Carlsson A, Kehr W, Lindqvist M, Magnusson T, Atack CV. Regulation of monoamine metabolism in the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rev. 1972;24:371–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Carlsson A, Lindqvist M. Effects of antidepressant agents on the synthesis of brain monoamines. J Neural Transm. 1978;43:73–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Carpenter DJ. St. John’s wort and S-adenosyl methionine as “natural” alternatives to conventional antidepressants in the era of the suicidality boxed warning: what is the evidence for clinically relevant benefit? Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:17–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Carvajal A, Ortega S, Del Olmo L, Vidal X, Aguirre C, Ruiz B, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: case-control study. PLoS One. 2011;6:e19819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Carvalho AF, Cavalcante JL, Castelo MS, Lima MC. Augmentation strategies for treatment-resistant depression: literature review. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2007;32:415–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Catterson ML, Preskorn SH. Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: clinical relevance. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1996;78:203–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Cave G, Harvey M, Graudins A. Intravenous lipid emulsion as antidote: summary of published human experience. Emerg Med Australas. 2011;23:123–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Centorrino F, Albert MJ, Berry JM, Kelleher JP, Fellman V, Line G, et al. Oxcarbazepine: clinical experience with hospitalized psychiatric patients. Bipolar Disord. 2003;5:370–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Centorrino F, Baldessarini RJ, Frankenburg FR, Kando J, Volpicelli SA, Flood JG. Serum levels of clozapine and norclozapine in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:820–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cerletti U. Old and new information about electroshock. Am J Psychiatry. 1950;107:87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Chakos M, Patel JK, Rosenheck R, Glick ID, Hammer MB, Tapp A, et al. Concomitant psychotropic medication use during treatment of schizophrenia patients: longitudinal results from the CATIE study. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2011;5:124–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chan AN, Gunja N, Ryan CJ. Comparison of venlafaxine and SSRIs in deliberate self-poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:116–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chang T, Fava M. The future of psychopharmacology of depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:971–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chaput Y, de Montigny C, Blier P. Presynaptic and postsynaptic modification of the serotonin system by long-term administration of antidepressant treatments. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1991;5:219–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Charney DS. Monoamine dysfunction and the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 (Suppl 14):11–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chen F, Lawrence AJ. Effects of antidepressant treatment on serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in Fawn-Hooded rats: a quantitative autoradiography study. Brain Res. 2003;976:22–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Geddes JR, Higgins JP, Churchill R, et al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373:746–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Clausius N, Born C, Grunze H. [Relevance of dopamine agonists in the treatment of depression (German)]. Neuropsychiatr. 2009;23:15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Coenen VA, Schlaepfer TE, Maedler B, Panksepp J. Cross-species affective functions of the medial forebrain bundle-implications for the treatment of affective pain and depression in humans. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1971–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Cohen LS, Altshuler LL, Harlow BL, Nonacs R, Newport DJ, Viguera AC, et al. Relapse of major depression during pregnancy in women who maintain or discontinue antidepressant treatment. JAMA. 2006;295:499–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cole JO. Therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drugs: review. JAMA. 1964;190:448–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Connolly KR, Thase ME. If at first you don’t succeed: review of the evidence for antidepressant augmentation, combination and switching strategies. Drugs. 2011;71:43–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cooper TB, Simpson GM. Prediction of individual dosage of nortriptyline. Am J Psychiatry. 1978;135:333–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Correas-Gómez MA, Portillo Martín JA, Martín García B, Hernández Rodríguez R, Gutiérrez Baños JL, del Valle Schaan JI, et al. [Trazodone-induced priapism (Spanish)]. Actas Urol Esp. 2000;24:840–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Correll CU, Kratochvil CJ, March JS. Developments in pediatric psychopharmacology: focus on stimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:655–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Courtet P. Suicidality: risk factors and the effects of antidepressants: parallel reduction of suicidality and other depressive symptoms during treatment with the SNRI, milnacipran. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2010;6:3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Covington III HE, Vialou V, Nestler EJ. From synapse to nucleus: novel targets for treating depression. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:683–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Crane GE. The psychiatric side effects of iproniazid. Am J Psychiatry. 1956;112:494–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Cremers TI, Spoelstra EN, de Boer O, Bosker FJ, Mørk A, den Boer JA, et al. Desensitization of 5-HT autoreceptors upon pharmacokinetically monitored chronic treatment with citalopram. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;397:351–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Crews FT, Scott JA, Shorsetin NH. Rapid down-regulation of serotonin2 receptor binding during combined administration of tricyclic antidepressant drugs and alpha-2 antagonists. Neuropharmacology. 1983;22:1203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Crossley NA, Bauer M. Acceleration and augmentation of antidepressants with lithium for depressive disorders: two meta-analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:935–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Croxtall JD, Scott LJ. Olanzapine-fluoxetine: review of its use in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. CNS Drugs. 2010;24:245–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Cuijpers P, Geraedts AS, van Oppen P, Andersson G, Markowitz JC, van Straten A. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression: meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:581–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Daly JM, Wilens T. Use of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45:1123–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Damis M, Patel Y, Simpson GM. Sildenafil in the treatment of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: pilot study. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;1:184–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Damluji NF, Fergusson JM. Paradoxical worsening of depressive symptomatology caused by antidepressants. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988;8:347–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Davanzo R, Copertino M, De Cunto A, Minen F, Amaddeo A. Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding: review of the literature. Breastfeed Med. 2011;6:89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Davids E, Zhang K, Baldessarini RJ. Stereoselective effects of methylphenidate on hyperactivity in juvenile rats induced by neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Psychopharmacology. 2002;160:92–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Davis JM, Giakas WJ, Qu J, Prasad P, Leucht S (2011). Should we treat depression with drugs or psychological interventions? Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2011;10:8–21.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Davis JM, Glassman AH. Antidepressant drugs. In: Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ, editors. Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1989. p. 1627–55.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    de Abajo FJ. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on platelet function: mechanisms, clinical outcomes and implications for use in elderly patients. Drugs Aging. 2011;28:345–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Delay J, Laine R, Bouisson J-F. Note concernant l’action de l’isonicotinyl-hydrazide dans le traitment des états dépressifs. Ann Méd-Psychol (Paris). 1952;110:689–92.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Delgado PL, Miller HL, Salomon RM, Licinio J, Heninger GR, Gelenberg AJ, et al. Monoamines and the mechanism of antidepressant action: effects of catecholamine depletion on mood of patients treated with antidepressants. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1993;29:389–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    de Leon J, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL. Clinical guidelines for psychiatrists for the use of pharmacogenetic testing for CYP450 2D6 and CYP450 2 C19. Psychosomatics. 2006;47:75–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Demyttenaere K. Agomelatine: narrative review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21 (Suppl 4):S703–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Demyttenaere K, Bonnewyn A, Bruffaerts R, De Girolamo G, Gasquet I, Kovess V, et al. Clinical factors influencing the prescription of antidepressants and benzodiazepines: results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD). J Affect Disord. 2008;110:84–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    DeVane CL, Gill HS. Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluvoxamine: applications to dosage regimen design. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58 (Suppl 5):7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    DeVane CL, Pollock BG. Pharmacokinetic considerations of antidepressant use in the elderly. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60 (Suppl 20):38–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Diav-Citrin O, Ornoy A. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in human pregnancy: to treat or not to treat? Obstet Gynecol Int. 2011. [Epub before print, 10 Dec].Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Díaz RA, Sancho J, Serratosa J. Antiepileptic drug interactions. Neurologist. 2008;14 (Suppl 6):S55–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Dimidjian S, Goodman S. Nonpharmacologic intervention and prevention strategies for depression during pregnancy and the postpartum. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;52:498–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Diniz JB, Shavitt RG, Pereira CA, Hounie AG, Pimentel I, Koran LM, et al. Quetiapine versus clomipramine in the augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: randomized, open-label trial. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:297–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dorfman W. Treatment of depression. Psychosomatics. 1964;5:7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Dowson JH. MAO inhibitors in mental disease: current status. J Neural Transm (Suppl. 1987;23):121–38.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Doze VA, Handel EM, Jensen KA, Darsie B, Luger EJ, Haselton JR, et al. Alpha(1A)- and alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors differentially modulate antidepressant-like behavior in the mouse. Brain Res. 2009;1285:148–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Druss BG, Hoff RA, Rosenheck RA. Underuse of antidepressants in major depression: prevalence and correlates in a national sample of young adults. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61:234–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dudek D, Rybakowski JK, Siwek M, Pawlowski T, Lojko D, Roczen R, et al. Risk factors of treatment-resistance in major depression: association with bipolarity. J Affect Disord. 2010;126:268–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Dumlu K, Orhon Z, Özerdem A, Tural Ü, Ulas H, Tunca Z. Treatment-induced manic switch in the course of unipolar depression can predict bipolarity: cluster analysis based evidence. J Affect Disord. 2011;134:91–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Dunner DL, Amsterdam JD, Shelton RC. Loebel, Romano SJ. Efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive ziprasidone in treatment-resistant depression: randomized, open-label pilot study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1071–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Dupuy JM, Ostacher MJ, Huffman J, Perlis RH, Nierenberg AA. Critical review of pharmacotherapy for major depressie disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:1417–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Dwyer AV, Whitten DL, Hawrelak JA. Herbal medicines, other than St. John’s Wort, in the treatment of depression: systematic review. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:40–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Eddy DM. Evidence-based medicine: unified approach. Health Aff. 2005;24:9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Edeleanu L. Über einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure. Berichte Deutsch Chem Ges. 1887;20:616–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Einarson A, Pistelli A, DeSantis M, Malm H, Paulus WD, Panchaud A, et al. Evaluation of the risk of congenital cardiovascular defects associated with use of paroxetine during pregnancy. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:749–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ellfolk M, Malm H. Risks associated with in utero and lactation exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Reprod Toxicol. 2010;30:249–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    El-Mallakh RD, Briscoe B. Studies of long-term use of antidepressants. CNS Drugs. 2012;26: 97–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    El-Mallakh RS, Gao Y, Jeannie-Roberts R. Tardive dysphoria: the role of long term antidepressant use in-inducing chronic depression. Med Hypotheses. 2011;6:769–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Erbe S, Gutwinski S, Bschor T. [Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics in non-delusional unipolar depressed patients with non-response to antidepressant-monotherapy (German)]. Psychiatr Prax. 2012;39:57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Extein I, Pottash ALC, Gold MS. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone test in the diagnosis of unipolar depression. Psychiatry Res. 1981;5:311–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Fairchild CJ, Rush AJ, Vasavada N, Giles DE, Khatami M. Which depressions respond to placebo? Psychiatry Res. 1986;18:217–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Fava M, Davidson KG. Definition and epidemiology of treatment-resistant depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1996;19:179–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Fava M, Rosenbaum JF, McGrath PJ, Stewart JW, Amsterdam JD, Quitkin FM. Lithium and tricyclic augmentation of fluoxetine treatment for resistant major depression: a double-blind, controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151:1372–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Fawcett J, Barkin RL. Efficacy issues with antidepressants. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58 (Suppl 6):32–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Feighner JP, Boyer WF, Merideth CH, Hendrickson GG. Double-blind comparison of fluoxetine, imipramine and placebo in outpatients with major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1989;4:127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Fekadu A, Wooderson SC, Markopoulo K, Donaldson C, Papadopoulos A, Cleare AJ. What happens to patients with treatment-resistant depression? Systematic review of medium to long term outcome studies. J Affect Disord. 2009;116:4–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Fergusson D, Doucette S, Glass JC, Shapiro S, Healy D, Hebert P, et al. Association between suicide attempts and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2005;330:396–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ferrand Y, Kelton CM, Guo JJ, Levy MS, Yu Y. Using time-series intervention analysis to understand U.S. Medicaid expenditures on antidepressant agents. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2011;7:64–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-Reif M. Prenatal depression effects and interventions: review. Infant Behav Dev. 2010;33:409–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Fink M. Meduna and the origins of convulsive therapy. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141: 1034–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fink KB, Göthert M. 5-HT receptor regulation of neurotransmitter release. Pharmacol Rev. 2007;59:360–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Fishell A. Depression and anxiety in pregnancy. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol. 2010;17:e363–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Flanagan RJ. Fatal toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23 (Suppl 1):43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Foley KF, DeSanty KP, Kast RE. Bupropion: pharmacology and therapeutic applications. Expert Rev Neurother. 2006;6:1249–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Fox HH, Gibas JT. Synthetic tuberculostats: monoaklyl derivatives of isonicotinylhydrazine. J Org Chem. 1953;18:994–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States (2009). Public health advisory: suicidality in adults being treated with antidepressant medications.
  180. 180.
    Fournier JC, DeRubeis RJ, Hollon SD, Dimidjian S, Amsterdam JD, Shelton RC, et al. Antidepressant drug effects and depression severity: patient-level meta-analysis. JAMA. 2010;303:47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Fox AW. Subcutaneous sumatriptan pharmacokinetics: delimiting the monoamine oxidase inhibitor effect. Headache. 2010;50:249–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Franklin ME, Foa EB. Treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2011;7:229–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Frascogna N. Physostigmine: is there a role for this antidote in pediatric poisonings? Curr Opin Pediatr. 2007;19:201–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Freeman EW. Therapeutic management of premenstrual syndrome. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11:2879–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Freeman MP, Nolan Jr PE, Davis MF, Anthony M, Fried K, Fankhauser M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of sertraline across pregnancy and postpartum. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:646–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Freire RC, Hallak JE, Crippa JA, Nardi AE. New treatment options for panic disorder: clinical trials from 2000 to 2010. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:1419–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Furukawa TA, Cipriani A, Barbui C, Geddes JR. Long-term treatment of depression with antidepressants: systematic narrative review. Can J Psychiatry. 2007;52:545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Galbaud du Fort G. [Hematologic toxicity of antidepressive agents (French)]. Encéphale. 1988;14:307–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Galton F. Regression towards mediocrity in hereditary stature. J Anthropol Inst Gr Brit Ireland. 1886;15:246–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Ganasen KA, Stein DJ. Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:487–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Garattini S, Bonaccorsi A, Jori A, Samanin R. [Monoamines and the pharmacological effects of tricyclic antidepressive agents (French)]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 1972;127:265–92.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Gardner DM. Serotonin Syndrome. Halifax, MS: Dalhousie University Medical Center; 2011.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Gardner DM, Shulman KI, Walker SE, Tailor SA. Making of a user-friendly MAOI diet. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57:99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Garver DL, Davis JM. Biogenic amine hypotheses of affective disorders. Life Sci. 1979;24: 383–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Gaynes BN, Dusetzina SB, Ellis AR, Hansen RA, Farley JF, Miller WC, et al. Treating depression after initial treatment failure: directly comparing switch and augmenting strategies in STAR*D. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32:114–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Gaynes BN, Warden D, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, Rush AJ. What did STAR*D teach us? Results from a large-scale, practical, clinical trial for patients with depression. Psychiatr Serv. 2009;60:1439–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gelenberg AJ. Review of the current guidelines for depression treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;71:e15–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Gentile S. Efficacy of antidepressant medications in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: systematic appraisal. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:625–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    George MS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of depression. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10:1761–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    George MS, Lisanby SH, Avery D, McDonald WM, Durkalski V, Pavlicova M, et al. Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder: sham-controlled randomized trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67:507–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    George MS, Ward Jr HE, Ninan PT, Pollack M, Nahas Z, Anderson B, et al. Pilot study of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Brain Stimul. 2008;1:112–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Geschwind N, Nicolson NA, Peeters F, van Os J, Barge-Schaapveld D, Wichers M. Early improvement in positive rather than negative emotion predicts remission from depression after pharmacotherapy. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ghaemi SN, Ostacher MM, El-Mallakh RS, Borrelli D, Baldassano CF, Kelley ME, et al. Antidepressant discontinuation in bipolar depression: randomized clinical trial of long-term effectiveness and safety. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:372–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ghaemi SN, Wingo AP, Filkowski MA, Goodwin FK, Baldessarini RJ. Effectiveness of long-term antidepressant treatment in bipolar disorder: meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;118:347–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ghanbari R, El Mansari M, Blier P. Enhancement of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in the rat hippocampus by sustained administration of bupropion. Psychopharmacology. 2011;217:61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Gibbons RD, Mann JJ. Strategies for quantifying the relationship between medications and suicidal behavior: what has been learned? Drug Saf. 2011;34:375–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Gijsman HJ, Geddes JR, Rendell JM, Nolen WA, Goodwin GM. Antidepressants for bipolar depression: systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161: 1537–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Gillman PK. Tripans: serotonin agonists and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): review. Headache. 2010;50:264–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Gillman PK. Advances pertaining to the pharmacology and interactions of irreversible, nonselective monoamine oxidase imhibitors. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:66–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Glassman AH, O’Connor CM, Califf RM, Swedberg K, Schwartz P, Bigger Jr JT, et al. Sertraline treatment of major depression in patients with acute MI or unstable angina. JAMA. 2002;288:701–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Glowinski J, Baldessarini RJ. Metabolism of norepinephrine in the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rev. 1966;18:1201–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Glue P, Donovan MR, Kolluri S, Emir B. Meta-analysis of relapse prevention antidepressant trials in depressive disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010;44:697–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Goodwin GM, Green AR, Johnson P. 5-HT2 receptor characteristics in frontal cortex and 5-HT2 receptor-mediated head-twitch behaviour following antidepressant treatment to mice. Br J Pharmacol. 1984;83:225–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Gourion D. [Antidepressants and their onset of action: a major clinical, methodological and prognostical issue (French)]. Encéphale. 2008;34:73–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Gram LF. Dose-effect relationships for tricyclic antidepressants: basis for rational clinical testing of new antidepressants. Psychopharmacol Ser. 1993;10:163–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Granacher RP, Baldessarini RJ. Physostigmine: use in acute anticholinergic syndrome with antidepressant and antiparkinson drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1975;32:375–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Güloglu C, Orak M, Ustündag M, Altunci YA. Analysis of amitriptyline overdose in emergency medicine. Emerg Med J. 2011;28:296–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Gunnell D, Saperia J, Ashby D. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials submitted to the MHRA’s safety review. BMJ. 2005;330:385–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Gurley BJ, Swain A, Williams DK, Barone G, Battu SK. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: comparative effects of St. John’s wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52:772–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Haddad PM. Antidepressant discontinuation syndromes. Drug Saf. 2001;24:183–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Haddjeri N, Blier P, de Montigny C. Acute and long-term actions of the antidepressant drug mirtazapine on central 5-HT neurotransmission. J Affect Disord. 1998;51:255–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Hadley SK, Gaarder SM. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:2501–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Hajos-Korcsok E, McTavish SF, Sharp T. Effect of selective 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitors on brain extracellular noradrenaline: microdialysis studies using paroxetine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;407:101–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Hammad TA, Laughren TP, Racoosin JA. Suicide rates in short-term, randomized controlled trials of newer antidepressants. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:203–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Hammad TA, Laughren TP, Racoosin JA. Suicidality in pediatric patients treated with antidepressant drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:332–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Hamoda HM, Osser DN. Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program: update on psychotic depression. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2008;16:235–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Hansen RA, Gartlehner G, Lohr KN, Gaynes BN, Carey TS. Efficacy and safety of second-generation antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143:415–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Hansen RA, Gaynes BN, Thieda P, Gartlehner G, Deveaugh-Geiss A, Krebs E, et al. Meta-analysis of major depressive disorder relapse and recurrence with second-generation antidepressants. Psychiatr Serv. 2008;59:1121–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Hardeland R, Poeggeler B, Srinivasan V, Trakht I, Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP. Melatonergic drugs in clinical pracitice. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Hardy SE. Methylphenidate for the treatment of depressive symptoms, including fatigue and apathy, in medically ill older adults and terminally ill adults. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2009;7:34–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Harris EC, Barraclough B. Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 1997;170:205–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Härter M, Klesse C, Berger M, Bermejo I, Bschor T, Gensichen J, et al. [Evidence-based treatment of depression (German)]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2010;56:334–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Harvard Medical School. Cytochrome P450 enzymes and psychiatric drugs. In: Harvard Mental Health Letter. 2009.,M0209b. Accessed 15 Dec 2011.
  234. 234.
    Häuser W, Bernardy K, Uçeyler N, Sommer C. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with antidepressants: meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;301:198–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Hausmann A, Hörtnagl C, Walpoth M, Fuchs M, Conca A. [Are there substantial reasons for contraindicating antidepressants in bipolar disorder: facts or artifacts? (German)]. Neuropsychiatr. 2007;21:131–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Hayes E Nonpsychiatric prescribing fuels rise in antidepressant use. 2011. The Pink Sheet, August 9.
  237. 237.
    Hayes DJ, Greenshaw AJ. 5-HT receptors and reward-related behavior: review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35:1419–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Healy D. The Antidepressant Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Heijnen WT, Birkenhäger TK, Wierdsma AI, van den Broek WW. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy failure and response to subsequent electroconvulsive therapy: meta-analysis. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:616–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Hellstrom WJ. Update on treatments for premature ejaculation. Int J Clin Pract. 2011;65: 16–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Heninger GR, Charney DS, Sternberg DE. Lithium carbonate augmentation of antidepressant treatment: effective prescription for treatment-refractory depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1983;40:1335–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Henkel V, Mergl R, Allgaier AK, Kohnen R, Möller HJ, Hegerl U. Treatment of depression with atypical features: meta-analytic approach. Psychiatry Res. 2006;141:89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Henkel V, Seemüller F, Obermeier M, Adli M, Bauer M, Mundt C, et al. Does early improvement triggered by antidepressants predict response/remission? Analysis of data from a naturalistic study on a large sample of inpatients with major depression. J Affect Disord. 2009;115:439–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Hennen J, Baldessarini RJ. Reduced suicidal risk during treatment with clozapine: meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2005;73:139–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Hennings JM, Owashi T, Binder EB, Horstmann S, Menke A, Kloiber S, et al. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in a representative sample of depressed inpatients. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:215–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Henry JA, Martin AJ. Risk-benefit assessment of antidepressant drugs. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1987;2:445–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Henry G, Williamson D, Tampi RR. Efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants in the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: literature review of evidence. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Dement. 2011;26:169–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Hermann EK, Munsch S, Biedert E, Lang W. [Psychotherapy for depression (German)]. Ther Umsch. 2010;67:581–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hickie IB, Rogers NL. Novel melatonin-based therapies: potential advances in the treatment of major depression. Lancet. 2011;378:621–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Hjorth S, Bengtsson HJ, Kullberg A, Carlzon D, Peilot H. Serotonin autoreceptor function and antidepressant drug action. J Psychopharmacol. 2000;14:177–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Hollon SD, Ponniah K. Review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults. Depress Anxiety. 2010;27:891–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Holsboer F, Ising M. Central CRH system in depression and anxiety–evidence from clinical studies with CRH1 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;583:350–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Holzheimer PE, Kelley ME, Gross RE, Filkowski MM, Garlow SJ, Barrocas A, et al. Subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimuation for treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:150–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Hordern A. The antidepressant drugs. N Engl J Med. 1965;272:1159–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Hornykiewicz O. Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) and brain function. Pharmacol Rev. 1966;18:925–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Howell C, Wilson AD, Waring WS. Cardiovascular toxicity due to venlafaxine poisoning in adults: review of 235 consecutive cases. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;64:192–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Howland RH, Shutt LS, Berman SR, Spotts CR, Denko T. Emerging use of technology for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011;23:48–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Howland RH, Wilson MG, Kornstein SG, Clayton AH, Trivedi MH, Wohlreich MM, et al. Factors predicting reduced antidepressant response: experience with the SNRI duloxetine in patients with major depression. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2008;20:209–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Huang YS, Tsai MH. Long-term outcomes with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: current status of knowledge. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:539–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Hughes S, Cohen D. Systematic review of long-term studies of drug treated and non-drug treated depression. J Affect Disord. 2009;118:9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Hunter DG. Do we need evidence for everything? Am Orthopt J. 2010;60:59–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Ioannidis JPA. Effectiveness of antidepressants: an evidence myth constructed from a thousand randomized trials? Philos Ethics Humanit Med. 2008;3:14–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Iosifescu DV, Bankier B, Fava M. Impact of medical comorbid disease on antidepressant treatment of major depressive disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2004;6:193–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Iovieno N, Tedeschini E, Bentley KH, Evins AE, Papakostas GI. Antidepressants for major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder in patients with comorbid alcohol use disorders: meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomized trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:1144–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ipser JC, Sander C, Stein DJ. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;1:CD005332.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Invernizzi RW, Garattini S. Role of presynaptic alpha2-adrenoreceptors in antidepressant action: recent findings from microdialysis studies. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:819–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Isacsson G, Rich CL, Jureidini J, Raven M. Increased use of antidepressants has contributed to the worldwide reduction in suicide rates. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;196:429–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Isbister GK, Bowe SJ, Dawson A, Whyte IM. Relative toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004;42:277–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Isbister GK, Buckley NA, Whyte IM. Serotonin toxicity: a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment. Med J Aust. 2007;187:361–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Iversen LL. Speed, Ecstacy, Ritalin: the Science of Amphetamines. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Bloom FE, Roth RH. Introduction to Neuropsychopharmacology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Jakobsen JC, Hansen JL, Simonsen S, Simonsen E, Gluud C. Effects of cognitive therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy in patients with major depressive disorder: systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. Psychol Med. 2011. [Epub ahead of print 3 Nov].Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Jackson CW, Cates M, Lorenz R. Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25:143–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Jakobsen JC, Hansen JL, Simonsen E, Gluud C. Effect of adding psychodynamic therapy to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder: systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. J Affect Disord. 2012;137:4–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Jankovic SM, Dostic M. Choice of antiepileptic drugs for the elderly: possible drug interactions and adverse effects. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012;8:81–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Jefferson JW. Review of the cardiovascular effects and toxicity of tricyclic antidepressants. Psychosom Med. 1975;37:160–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Jick H, Kaye JA, Jick SS. Antidepressants and the risk of suicidal behaviors. JAMA. 2004;292:338–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Joffe RT, Singer W, Levitt AJ, MacDonald C. A placebo-controlled comparison of lithium and triiodothyronine augmentation of tricyclic antidepressants in unipolar refractory depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:387–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Joyce PR, Mulder RT, Luty SE, Sullivan PF, McKenzie JM, Abbott RM, et al. Patterns and predictors of remission, response and recovery in major depression treated with fluoxetine or nortriptyline. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36:384–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Kalinowsky LB. History of convulsive therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1986;462:1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Kane JM, Quitkin FM, Rifkin A, Ramos-Lorenzi JR, Nayak DD, Howard A. Lithium carbonate and imipramine in the prophylaxis of unipolar and bipolar II illness: prospective, placebo-controlled comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39:1065–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Kantor D, McNevin S, Leichner P, Harper D, Krenn M. The benefit of lithium carbonate adjunct in refractory depression–fact or fiction? Can J Psychiatry. 1986;31:416–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Kashner MT, Rush JA, Altshuler KZ. Measuring costs of guideline-driven mental health care: the Texas Medication Algorithm Project. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 1999;2:111–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Katona CL. Refractory depression: a review with particular reference to the use of lithium augmentation. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1995;5:109–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Katz G. Tachyphylaxis/tolerance to antidepressants in treatment of dysthymia: results of a retrospective naturalistic chart review study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;65:499–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Katz G. Tachyphylaxis/tolerance to antidepressive medications: review. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2011;48:129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Keers R, Aitchison KJ. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011;11:101–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Keller-Ashton A, Hamer R, Rosen RC. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction and its treatment: a large-scale retrospective study of 596 psychiatric outpatients. J Sex Marital Ther. 1997;23:165–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kemp DE, Ganocy SJ, Brecher M, Carlson BX, Edwards S, Eudicone JM, et al. Clinical value of early partial symptomatic improvement in the prediction of response and remission during short-term treatment trials in 3369 subjects with bipolar I or II depression. J Affect Disord. 2011;130:171–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Kennedy SH, Giacobbe P, Tizvi SJ, Placenza FM, Nishikawa Y, Mayberg HS, et al. Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistnat depression: follow-up after 3–6 years. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:502–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Kennedy SH, Lam RW, Cohen NL, Ravindran AV. Clinical guidelines for the treatment of depressive disorders: Medications and other biological treatments. Can J Psychiatry. 2001;46 (Suppl 1):38S–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Kennedy GJ, Marcus P. Use of antidepressants in older patients with co-morbid medical conditions: guidance from studies of depression in somatic illness. Drugs Aging. 2005;22:273–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Borges G, Nock M, Wang PS. Trends in suicide ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States, 1990–1992 to 2001–2003. JAMA. 2005;293: 2487–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Ketter TA, Citrome L, Wang PW, Culver JL, Srivastava S. Treatments for bipolar disorder: can number needed to treat ⁄ harm help inform clinical decisions? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123:175–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Khan A, Bhat A, Kolts R, Thase ME, Brown W. Why has the antidepressant–placebo difference in antidepressant clinical trials diminished over the past three decades? CNS Neurosci Ther. 2010;16:217–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Khan A, Khan S, Brown WA. Suicide rates in clinical trials of SSRIs, other antidepressants, and placebo: analysis of FDA reports. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:790–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Khan A, Leventhal RM, Khan SR, Brown WA. Severity of depression and response to antidepressants and placebo: analysis of the Food and Drug Adinistration database. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2002;22:40–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Kim Y, Kim SH, Kim YS, Lee YH, Ha K, Shin SY. Imipramine activates glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor via early growth response gene 1 in astrocytes. Prog Neuro-psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1026–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Kim DR, Sockol L, Barber JP, Moseley M, Lamprou L, Rickels K, et al. Survey of patient acceptability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during pregnancy. J Affect Disord. 2011;129:385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, Johnson BT. Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e45–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Kittler K, Lau T, Schloss P. Antagonists and substrates differentially regulate serotonin transporter cell surface expression in serotonergic neurons. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;629:63–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Klerman GL, Cole JO. Clinical pharmacology of imipramine and related antdepressant compounds. Pharmacol Rev. 1965;17:101–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Kline NS. Depression: diagnosis and treatment. Med Clin North Am. 1961;35:1041–53.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Kocsis JH, Croughan JL, Katz MM, Butler TP, Secunda S, Bowden CL, et al. Response to treatment with antidepressants of patients with severe or moderate nonpsychotic depression and of patients with psychotic depression. Am J Psychiatry. 1990;147:621–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Koda K, Ago Y, Cong Y, Kita Y, Takuma K, Matsuda T. Effects of acute and chronic administration of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on extracellular levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. J Neurochem. 2010;114: 259–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Kok RM, Heeren TJ, Nolen WA. Continuing treatment of depression in the elderly: systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blinded randomized controlled trials with antidepressants. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;19:249–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Komossa K, Depping AM, Gaudchau A, Kissling W, Leucht S. Second-generation antipsychotics for major depressive disorder and dysthymia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:CD008121.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Kordon A, Zurowski B, Wahl K, Hohagen F. [Evidence-based pharmacotherapy and other somatic treatment approaches for obsessive-compulsive disorder: state of the art (German)]. Nervenarzt. 2011;82:319–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Kornstein SG. Maintenance therapy to prevent recurrence of depression: summary and implications of the PREVENT study. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8:737–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Kranz GS, Kasper S, Lanzenberger R. Reward and the serotonergic system. Neuroscience. 2010;166:1023–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Kravitz HM, Edwards JH, Fawcett J, Fogg L. Challenging the amphetamine challenge test: report of an antidepressant treatment study. J Affect Disord. 1990;20:121–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Krishel S, Jackimczyk K. Cyclic antidepressants, lithium, and neuroleptic agents. Pharmacology and toxicology. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1991;9:53–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Krishnan KR. Comorbidity and depression treatment. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:701–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Kuba T, Yakushi T, Fukuhara H, Nakamoto Y, Singeo Jr ST, Tanaka O, et al. Suicide-related events among child and adolescent patients during short-term antidepressant therapy. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;65:239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Kuhn R. Über die behandlung de depressiver zusstände mit einem iminodibenzyl derivative (G22355). Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1957;87:1135–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Kuhn R. Treatment of depressive states with G22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). Am J Psychiatry. 1958;115:459–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Kuhn R. The discovery of imipramine. In: Ayd F, Blackwell B, editors. Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1970.Google Scholar
  318. 318.
    Kuk AY, Li J, Rush AJ. Recursive subsetting to identify patients in the STAR*D: method to enhance the accuracy of early prediction of treatment outcome and to inform personalized care. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1502–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Kupfer DJ. Pharmacological management of depression. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2005;7: 191–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Lam RW, Chan P, Wilkins-Ho M, Yatham LN. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Can J Psychiatry. 2008;53:621–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Lapin IP, Oxenkrug GF. Intensification of the central serotoninergic processes as a possible determinant of the thymoleptic effect. Lancet. 1969;1:132–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Lasser RA, Baldessarini RJ. Thyroid hormones in depressive disorders: reappraisal of clinical utility. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1997;4:291–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Laughren TP. Overview of a meeting of the psychopharmacology drug advisory committee (PDAC) concerning suicidal risk in trials of antidepressant drugs in juvenile and adult patients (p. 27ff). 2006.
  324. 324.
    Lauerma H. Successful treatment of citalopram-induced anorgasmia by cyproheptadine. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1996;93:69–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Lavretsky H, Kim MD, Kumar A, Reynolds III CF. Combined treatment with methylphenidate and citalopram for accelerated response in the elderly: open trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:1410–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Le HN, Perry DF, Stuart EA. Randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention for perinatal depression in high-risk Latinas. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:135–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Lejoyeux M, Adès J. Antidepressant discontinuation: review of the literature. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58 (Suppl 7):11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Leon AC, Solomon DA, Li C, Fiedorowicz JG, Coryell WH, Endicott J, et al. Antidepressants and risks of suicide and suicide attempts: 27-year observational study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:580–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Hunter AM, Korb AS. A new paradigm for the prediction of antidepressant treatment response. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2009;11:435–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Li X, Frye MA, Shelton RC. Review of pharmacological treatment in mood disorders and future directions for drug development. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:77–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Limosin F, Mekaoui L, Hautecouverture S. [Prophylactic treatment for recurrent major depression (French)]. Presse Med. 2007;36:1627–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Ljung R, Lu Y, Lagergren J. High concomitant use of interacting drugs and low use of gastroprotective drugs among NSAID users in an unselected elderly population: a nationwide register-based study. Drugs Aging. 2011;28:469–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Long TD, Kathol RG. Critical review of data supporting affective disorder caused by nonpsychotropic medication. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1993;5:259–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Lotufo-Neto F, Trivedi M, Thase ME. Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monomaine oxidase type A, moclobemide and brofaromine, for the treatment of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999;20:226–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Lund N, Pedersen LH, Henriksen TB. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure in utero and pregnancy outcomes. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163:949–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Macaluso M, Zackula R, D’Empaire I, Baker B, Liow K, Preskorn SH. Twenty percent of a representative sample of patients taking bupropion have abnormal, asymptomatic electroencephalographic findings. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:312–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    MacGillivray A, Hatcher S, Ogston S, Reid I, Sullivan F, Williams B, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with tricyclic antidepressants in depression treated in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003;326: 1014–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Marangell LB, Martinez M, Jurdi RA, Zboyan H. Neurostimulation therapies in depression: review of new modalities. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;116:174–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Marazziti D, Carlini M, Dell’osso L. Treatment strategies of obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder/agoraphobia. Curr Top Med Chem. 2012;12:238–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Marcus S, Lopez JF, McDonough S, Mackenzie MJ, Flynn H, Neal Jr CR, et al. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy: impact on neuroendocrine and neonatal outcomes. Infant Behav Dev. 2011;34:26–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Masi G, Brovedani P. The hippocampus, neurotrophic factors and depression: possible implications for the pharmacotherapy of depression. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:913–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Mathew SJ, Manji HK, Charney DS. Novel drugs and therapeutic targets for severe mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:2080–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Mavissakalian MR. Imipramine vs. sertraline in panic disorder: 24-week treatment completers. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2003;15:171–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Mavissakalian MR, Perel JM. Imipramine dose-response relationship in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1989;46:127–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Mayberg HS. Targeted electrode-based modulation of neural circuits for depression. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:717–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Marek GJ. Cortical 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A-receptor mediated excitatory synaptic currents in the rat following repeated daily fluoxetine administration. Neurosci Lett. 2008;438:312–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Mayes R, Horwitz AV. DSM-III and the revolution in the classification of mental illness. J Hist Behav Sci. 2005;41:249–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    McGonigle P. Peptide therapeutics for CNS indications. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83: 559–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    McIntyre RS, Park KY, Law CW, Sultan F, Adams A, Lourenco MT, et al. Association between conventional antidepressants and the metabolic syndrome: review of the evidence and clinical implications. CNS Drugs. 2010;24:741–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Meltzer HY, Alphs L, Green AI, Altamura AC, Anand R, Bertoldi A, et al. Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia: International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:82–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Mendels J. Role of lithium as an antidepressant. Mod Probl Pharmacopsychiatry. 1982;18:138–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Meyer RE, Salzman C, Youngstrom EA, Clayton PJ, Goodwin FK, Mann JJ, et al. Suicidality and risk of suicide: definition, drug safety concerns, and a necessary target for drug development: consensus statement. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:e1–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Meyer RE, Salzman C, Youngstrom EA, Clayton PJ, Goodwin FK, Mann JJ, et al. Suicidality and risk of suicide—definition, drug safety concerns, and a necessary target for drug development. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1040–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Micallef J, Fakra E, Blin O. [Use of antidepressant drugs in schizophrenic patients with depression (French)]. Encéphale. 2006;32:263–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Millan MJ, Gobert A, Rivet JM, Adhumeau-Auclair A, Cussac D, Newman-Tancredi A, et al. Mirtazapine enhances frontocortical dopaminergic and corticolimbic adrenergic, but not serotonergic transmission by blockade of alpha-2-adrenergic and serotonin-2C receptors: comparison with citalopram. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:1079–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Miller HL, Delgado PL, Salomon RM, Berman R, Krystal JH, Heninge GR, Charney DS. Clinical and biochemical effects of catecholamine depletion on antidepressant-induced remission of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1996;53:117–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Mirin SM, Schatzberg AF, Creasey DE. Hypomania and mania after withdrawal of tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 1981;138:87–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Mischoulon D, Best-Popescu C, Laposata M, Merens W, Murakami JL, Wu SL, et al. Double-blind dose-finding pilot study of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for major depressive disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;18:639–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Mitchell PB. Therapeutic drug monitoring of non-tricylcic antidepressant drugs. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42:1212–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Mitchell PB, Frankland A, Hadzi-Pavlovic D, Roberts G, Corry J, Wright A, et al. Comparison of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and in major depressive disorder within bipolar disorder pedigrees. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:303–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Mochcovitch MD, Nardi AE. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of panic disorder: systematic review of placebo-controlled studies. Expert Rev Neurother. 2010;10: 1285–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Moeller O, Norra C, Gründer G. [Monoaminergic function in major depression: possibly helpful tool for choosing treatment strategy (German)]. Nervenarzt. 2006;77:800–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Mohr P, Rodriguez M, Slavíčková A, Hanka J. Application of vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation in depression. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64:170–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Mojtabai R. Does depression screening have an effect on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in general medical settings: instrumental variable analysis of the national ambulatory medical care survey? Med Care Res Rev. 2011;68:462–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Moncrieff J, Wessely S, Hardy R. Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;CD003012.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Montejo-González AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Ledesma A, Bousoño M, Calcedo A, et al. SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine in a prospective, multicenter, and descriptive clinical study of 344 patients. J Sex Marital Ther. 1997;23:176–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Montgomery SA. Tolerability of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. CNS Spectr. 2008;13(7 Suppl 11):27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Mooney JJ, Schatzberg AF, Cole JO, Samson JA, Waternaux C, Gerson B, et al. Urinary 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and the depression-type score as predictors of differential responses to antidepressants. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;11:339–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Moret C, Isaac M, Briley M. Problems associated with long-term treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhnibitors. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:967974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Morishita S, Kinoshita T. Predictors of response to sertraline in patients with major depression. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23:647–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Morita M, Nakayama K. Mirtazapine in combination with perospirone synergistically enhances dopamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex via 5-HT1A receptor activation. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;65:246–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Mouchabac S. [Severe depression: pharmacological treatments (French)]. Encéphale. 2009;35 (Suppl 7):S319–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Mucci A, Volpe U, Merlotti E, Bucci P, Galderisi S. Pharmaco-EEG in psychiatry. Clin EEG Neurosci. 2006;37:81–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Mueller A, de Zwaan M. [Treatment of compulsive buying (German)]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2008;76:478–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Muzyk AJ, Jakel RJ, Preud’homme X. Serotonin syndrome after a massive overdose of controlled-release paroxetine. Psychosomatics. 2010;51:437–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Narayan V, Haddad PM. Antidepressant discontinuation manic states: a critical review of the literature and suggested diagnostic criteria. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25:306–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Health, United States, 2007. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2007.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States. Drug trials. 2011.
  379. 379.
    Naudet F, Maria AS, Falissard B. Antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: meta-regression comparison of randomized controlled trials and observational studies. PLoS One. 2011;6:e20811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Nelson LS, Erdman AR, Booze LL, Cobaugh DJ, Chyka PA, Woolf AD, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor poisoning: evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol. 2007;45:315–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Nemeroff CB, DeVane CL, Pollock BG. Newer antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system. Am J Psychiatry. 1996;153:311–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Newport DJ, Wilcox MM, Stowe ZN. Antidepressants during pregnancy and lactation: defining exposure and treatment issues. Semin Perinatol. 2001;25:177–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Nibuya M, Nestler EJ, Duman RS. Chronic antidepressant administration increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1996;16:2365–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Nielsen M, Gøtzsche P. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2011;23:125–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Nielsen M, Hansen EH, Gøtzsche PC. What is the difference between dependence and withdrawal reactions? Comparison of benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Addiction. 2012;107:900–8.Google Scholar
  386. 386.
    Nierenberg AA. Predictors of response to antidepressants: general principles and clinical implications. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2003;26:345–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Nierenberg AA, Dougherty D, Rosenbaum JF. Dopaminergic agents and stimulants as antidepressant augmentation strategies. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 (Suppl 5):60–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Nierenberg AA, Leon AC, Price LH, Shelton RC, Trivedi MH. Crisis of confidence: antidepressant risk vs. benefit. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:e11–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Nunes EV, Levin FR. Treatment of depression in patients with alcohol or other drug dependence: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;291:1887–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Nurnberg HG, Hensley PL, Lauriello J, Parker LM, Keith SJ. Sildenafil for women patients with antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:1076–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Nutt DJ. Highlights of the international consensus statement on major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:e21–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Nyhuis PW, Gastpar M, Scherbaum N. Opiate treatment in depression refractory to antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;28:593–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Oberlander TF, Papsdorf M, Brain UM, Misri S, Ross C, Grunau RE. Prenatal effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4), and maternal mood on child behavior at 3 years of age. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010;164:444–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    O’Donnell JM, Zhang HT. Antidepressant effects of inhibitors of cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDE4). Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2004;25:158–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    O’Brien L, Baumer C, Thieme D, Sachs H, Koren G. Changes in antidepressant metabolism in pregnancy evidenced by metabolic ratios in hair: novel approach. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;196:93–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Olds J, Milner P. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1954;47:419–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Olfson M, Marcus SC, Druss BG. Effects of Food and Drug Administration warnings on antidepressant use in a national sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:94–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Olsen LR, Mortensen EL, Bech P. Prevalence of major depression and stress indicators in the Danish general population. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2004;109:96–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Ösby U, Brandt L, Correia N, Ekbom A, Sparén P. Excess mortality in bipolar and unipolar disorder in Sweden. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:844–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Owens MJ, Morgan WN, Plott SJ, Nemeroff CB. Neurotransmitter receptor and transporter binding profile of antidepressants and their metabolites. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;283: 1305–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Pae CU, Marks DM, Patkar AA, Masand PS, Luyten P, Serretti A. Pharmacological treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: focusing on the role of antidepressants. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:1561–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Pae CU, Tharwani H, Marks DM, Masand PS, Patkar AA. Atypical depression: comprehensive review. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:1023–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Paez-Pereda M, Hausch F, Holsboer F. Corticotropin releasing factor receptor antagonists for major depressive disorder. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2011;20:519–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Papakostas GI, Charles D, Fava M. Are typical starting doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors sub-optimal? Meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding studies in major depressive disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2010;11:300–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Papakostas GI, Mischoulon D, Shyu I, Alpert JE, Fava M. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) augmentation of serotonin reuptake inhibitors for antidepressant nonresponders with major depressive disorder: double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:942–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Papakostas GI, Perlis RH, Seifert C, Fava M. Antidepressant dose reduction and the risk of relapse in major depressive disorder. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76:266–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Parikh SV, Segal ZV, Grigoriadis S, Ravindran AV, Kennedy SH, Lam RW, et al. CANMAT clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults: psychotherapy alone or in combination with antidepressant medication. J Affect Disord. 2009;117 (Suppl 1):S15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Park J, Aragona BJ, Kile BM, Carelli RM, Wightman RM. In vivo voltammetric monitoring of catecholamine release in subterritories of the nucleus accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2010;169:132–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Parker G, Fink M, Shorter E, Taylor MA, Akiskal H, Berrios G, et al. Issues for DSM-5: whither melancholia? The case for its classification as a distinct mood disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:745–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Parker G, Roy K, Wilhelm K, Mitchell P. Assessing the comparative effectiveness of antidepressant therapies: prospective clinical practice study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:117–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Payne JL. Antidepressant use in the postpartum period: practical considerations. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1329–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Pearce JMS. Leopold Auenbrugger: camphor-induced epilepsy: remedy for manic psychosis. Eur Neurol. 2008;59:105–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Pedrelli P, Iovieno N, Vitali M, Tedeschini E, Bentley KH, Papakostas GI. Treatment of major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder with antidepressants in patients with comorbid opiate use disorders enrolled in methadone maintenance therapy: meta-analysis. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:582–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Peretti S, Judge R, Hindmarch I. Safety and tolerability considerations: tricyclic antidepressants vs. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2000;403:17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Pérez V, Soler J, Puigdemont D, Alvarez E, Artigas F. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pindolol augmentation of depressive patients resistant to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56:375–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Perlis RH, Alpert J, Nierenberg AA, Mischoulon D, Yeung A, Rosenbaum JF, et al. Clinical and sociodemographic predictors of response to augmentation, or dose increase among depressed outpatients resistant to fluoxetine 20 mg/day. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003;108: 432–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Peroutka SJ, Snyder SH. Regulation of serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors labeled with [3  H]spiroperidol by chronic treatment with the antidepressant amitriptyline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980;215:582–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Perry PJ, Zeilmann C, Arndt S. Tricyclic antidepressant concentrations in plasma: an estimate of their sensitivity and specificity as a predictor of response. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994;14:230–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Perugi G, Fornaro M, Akiskal HS. Are atypical depression, borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder overlapping manifestations of a common cyclothymic diathesis? World Psychiatry. 2011;10:45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Peselow ED, Sanfilipo MP, Difiglia C, Fieve RR. Melancholic/endogenous depression and response to somatic treatment and placebo. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:1324–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Petit M, Dollfus S. [Biochemical factors of resistance to antidepressants (French)]. Encéphale. 1986;12(Suppl):207–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Petrides G, Tobias KG, Kellner CH, Rudorfer MV. Continuation and maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for mood disorders: review of the literature. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64:129–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Pfeiffer PN, Ganoczy D, Zivin K, Valenstein M. Benzodiazepines and adequacy of initial antidepressant treatment for depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:360–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Pfeiffer PN, Szymanski BR, Valenstein M, McCarthy JF, Zivin K. Trends in antidepressant prescribing for new episodes of depression and implications for health system quality measures. Med Care. 2012;50:86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Piek E, van der Meer K, Nolen WA. Guideline recommendations for long-term treatment of depression with antidepressants in primary care: critical review. Eur J Gen Pract. 2010;16: 106–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Pierog JE, Kane KE, Kane BG, Donovan JW, Helmick T. Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity treated with massive sodium bicarbonate. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:e3–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Piet J, Hougaard E. Effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev. 2011;31:1032–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Pigott HE, Leventhal AM, Alter GS, Boren JJ. Efficacy and effectiveness of antidepressants: current status of research. Psychother Psychosom. 2010;79:267–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Pompili M, Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ. Suicidal risk emerging during antidepressant treatment: recognition and intervention. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2005;2:66–72.Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Porcelli S, Drago A, Fabbri C, Gibiino S, Calati R, Serretti A. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011;36:87–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Porcelli S, Fabbri C, Spina E, Serretti A, De Ronchi D. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 enzymes and antidepressant metabolism. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2011;7: 1101–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Preskorn SH. Dose-effect and concentration-effect relationships with new antidepressants. Psychopharmacol Ser. 1993;10:174–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Preskorn SH, Shah R, Neff M, Golbeck AL, Choi J. Potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions involving the CTP-2D6 system: effects with fluoxetine and paroxetine vs. sertraline. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007;13:5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Pringsheim T, Steeves T. Pharmacological treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with comorbid tic disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011; CD007990.Google Scholar
  435. 435.
    Rakovsky JJ, Holtzheimer PE, Nemeroff CB. Emerging targets for antidepressant therapeies. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009;13:291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Ramakrishna D, Subhash MN. Differential modulation of α-1 adrenoceptor subtypes by antidepressants in the rat brain. J Neural Transm. 2010;117:1423–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Ramirez OA, Wang RY. Electrophysiological evidence for locus coeruleus norepinephrine autoreceptor subsensitivity following subchronic administration of d-amphetamine. Brain Res. 1986;385:415–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Rao S, Zisook S. Anxious depression: clinical features and treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2009;11:429–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Rapaport MH. Distary restrictions and drug interactions with monoamine oxidase inhibitors: the state of the art. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 (Suppl 8):42–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Rasmussen KG. Considerations in choosing electroconvulsive therapy versus transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression. J ECT. 2011;27:51–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Ramasubbu R. Therapy for prevention of post-stroke depression. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:2177–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Ravindran LN, Stein MB. Pharmacotherapy of post-traumatic stress disorder. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2010;2:505–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Rea K, Folgering J, Westerink BH, Cremers TI. Alpha1-adrenoceptors modulate citalopram-induced serotonin release. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:962–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Reeves RR, Ladner ME. Antidepressant-induced suicidality: an update. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2010;16:227–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Ried LD, Jia H, Feng H, Cameon R, Wang X, Tueth M, et al. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment and depression are associated with poststroke mortality. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45:888–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Riedel M, Möller HJ, Obermeier M, Adli M, Bauer M, Kronmüller K, et al. Clinical predictors of response and remission in inpatients with depressive syndromes. J Affect Disord. 2011;133:137–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Richelson E. Pharmacology of antidepressants. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:511–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Richelson E. Interactions of antidepressants with neurotransmitter transporters and receptors and their clinical relevance. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64 (Suppl 13):5–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Döme P, Erdős P, Ormos M, Pani L. Novel approaches to drug-placebo difference calculation: evidence from short-term antidepressant drug-trials. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011. [Epub ahead of print, 14 July].Google Scholar
  450. 450.
    Robinson D, Cardozo L. New drug treatments for urinary incontinence. Maturitas. 2010;65:340–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Rogers SC, Clay PM. Statistical review of controlled trials of imipramine and placebo in the treatment of depressive illnesses. Br J Psychiatry. 1975;127:599–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Rosen S, Baldessarini RJ. Acquisition costs of psychopharmacological agents (internal report). Belmont, MA: McLean Hospital Pharmacy Department; 2011.Google Scholar
  453. 453.
    Rosenthal LJ, Goldner WS, O’Reardon JP. T3 augmentation in major depressive isorder: safety considerations. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:1035–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Rothschild AJ, Dunlop BW, Dunner DL, Friedman ES, Gelenberg A, Holland P, et al. Assessing rates and predictors of tachyphylaxis during the prevention of recurrent episodes of depression with venlafaxine-ER for two years (PREVENT) study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2009;42:5–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    Rouhi M. Chirality at work: drug developers can learn much from recent successful and failed chiral switches. Chem Eng News. 2003;81:56–61.Google Scholar
  456. 456.
    Rucci P, Frank E, Scocco P, Calugi S, Miniatri M, Fagiolini A, et al. Treatment-emergent suicidal ideation during 4 months of acute management of unipolar major depression with SSRI pharmacotherapy or interpersonal psychotherapy in a randomized clinical trial. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28:303–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Rudorfer MV, Potter WZ. Combined fluoxetine and tricyclic antidepressants. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146:562–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Rudorfer MV, Potter WZ. Metabolism of tricyclic antidepressants. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1999;19:373–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Ruhé HG, Mason NS, Schene AH. Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:331–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Rush AJ, Siefert SE. Clinical issues in considering vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Exp Neurol. 2009;219:36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Rush AJ, Warden D, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Gaynes BN, et al. STAR*D: revising conventional wisdom. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:627–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Rybakowski JK. Bipolarity and inadequate response to antidepressant drugs: clinical and psychopharmacological perspective. J Affect Disord. 2012;136:e13–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Saatcioglu O, Tomruk NB. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in pregnancy: review. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2011;48:6–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    Salomon RM, Miller HL, Delgado PL, Charney D. Use of tryptophan depletion to evaluate central serotonin function in depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;8 (Suppl 2):41–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    Salzer HM, Lurie ML. Anxiety and depressive states treated with isonicotinyl hydrazide (Isoniazid). Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1953;70:317–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Sandler M. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in depression: history and mythology. J Psychopharmacol. 1990;4:136–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Sanford M. Quetiapine extended release: adjunctive treatment in major depressive disorder. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:803–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    Sansone RA, Sansone LA. Agomelatine: novel antidepressant. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2011;8:10–4.Google Scholar
  469. 469.
    Santosh PJ, Sattar S, Canagaratnam M. Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:737–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Sanyal C, Asbridge M, Kisely S, Sketris I, Andreou P. Utilization of antidepressants and benzodiazepines among people with major depression in Canada. Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56:667–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Sarko J. Antidepressants, old and new: review of their adverse effects and toxicity in overdose. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2000;18:637–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    Schatzberg AF. Mirtazapine. Chapt 21. In: Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB, editors. Textbook of Psychopharmacology. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc; 2009. p. 429–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Schatzberg AF, Blier P, Delgado PL, Fava M, Haddad PM, Shelton RC. Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome: consensus panel recommendations for clinical management and additional research. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 (Suppl 4):27–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    Schatzberg AF, Haddad P, Kaplan EM, Lejoyeux M, Rosenbaum JF, Young AH, et al. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: hypothetical definition. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58 (Suppl 7):5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 475.
    Schatzberg AF, Lindley S. Glucocorticoid antagonists in neuropsychiatric disorders. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;583:358–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    Schellander R, Donnerer J. Antidepressants: clinically relevant drug interactions. Pharmacology. 2010;86:203–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    Schläpfer TE, Kayser S. [Development of deep brain stimulation as a putative treatment for resistant psychiatric disorders (German)]. Nervenärzt. 2010;81:696–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    Schildkraut JJ. Neuropsychopharmacology and the affective disorders. N Engl J Med. 1969;281:302–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. 479.
    Schindler W, Haefliger F. Derivatives of iminodibenzyl. Helv Chim Acta. 1954;37:4–5.Google Scholar
  480. 480.
    Schmidt HD, Duman RS. Role of neurotrophic factors in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, antidepressant treatments, and animal models of depressive-like behavior. Behav Pharmacol. 2007;18:391–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    Schneier FR. Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:615–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. 482.
    Schultes RE, editor. Ethnobotany: The Evolution of a Discipline. Portland, OR: Timber Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  483. 483.
    Schwaninger M, Schöfl C, Blume R, Rössig L, Knepel W. Inhibition by antidepressant drugs of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein/cyclic AMP response element-directed gene transcription. Mol Pharmacol. 1995;47:1112–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. 484.
    Schweitzer I, Maguire K, Ng C. Sexual side-effects of contemporary antidepressants: review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43:795–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. 485.
    Sedky K, Nazir R, Joshi A, Kaur G, Lippmann S. Which psychotropic medications induce heptotoxicity? Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2012;34:53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. 486.
    Selikoff IJ, Robitzek EH, Ornstein GG. Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis with hydrazide derivatives of isonicotinic acid. JAMA. 1952;150:973–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. 487.
    Sen S, Duman RS, Sanacora G. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: meta-analyses and implications. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;64: 527–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. 488.
    Sepede G, De Berardis D, Gambi F, Campanella D, La Rovere R, D’Amico M, et al. Olanzapine augmentation in treatment-resistant panic disorder: 12-week, fixed-dose, open-label trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:45–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 489.
    Serretti A, Chiesa A, Calati R, Perna G, Bellodi L, De Ronchi D. Novel antidepressants and panic disorder. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;63:1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. 490.
    Serretti A, Mandelli L. Antidepressants and body weight: comprehensive review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1259–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  491. 491.
    Sharp T, Umbers V, Gartside SE. Effect of a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor in combination with 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonists on extracellular 5-HT in rat frontal cortex in vivo. Br J Pharmacol. 1997;121:941–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. 492.
    Sharpley CF, Bitsika V. Four potential criteria for deciding when to use antidepressants or psychotherapy for unipolar depression: literature review. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2011;15:2–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. 493.
    Shaskan EG, Snyder SH. Kinetics of serotonin accumulation into slices from rat brain: relationship to catecholamine uptake. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1970;175:404–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. 494.
    Shelton RC. Nature of the discontinuation syndrome associated with antidepressant drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 (Suppl 4):3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. 495.
    Shelton RC, Trivedi MH. Moderators of antidepressant response in major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:e32–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 496.
    Shen WW, Hsu JH. Female sexual side effects associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: descriptive clinical study of 33 patients. Int J Psychiatry Med. 1995;25:239–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  497. 497.
    Shopsin B, Friedman E, Gershon S. Parachlorophenylalanine reversal of tranylcypromine effects in depressed patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1976;33:811–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    Shopsin B, Gershon S, Goldstein M, Friedman E, Wilk S. Use of synthesis inhibitors in defining a role for biogenic amines during imipramine treatment in depressed patients. Psychopharmacol Commun. 1975;1:239–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. 499.
    Shorter E, Fink M. Endocrine Psychiatry: the Dexamethasone Suppression Test and Electroconvulsive Therapy. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  500. 500.
    Shorter E, Healy D. Shock Therapy: A History of Electroconvulsive Treatment in Mental Illness. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  501. 501.
    Sidor MM, MacQueen GM. Antidepressants for the acute treatment of bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:156–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  502. 502.
    Simon RI, Hales RE, editors. Textbook of Suicide Assessment and Management. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing Co.; 2012.Google Scholar
  503. 503.
    Simon GE, Perlis RH. Personalized medicine for depression: can we match patients with treatments? Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1445–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    Simon GE, Savarino J. Suicide attempts among patients starting depression treatment with medications or psychotherapy. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1029–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. 505.
    Simon GE, Savarino J, Operkalski B, Wang PS. Suicide risk during antidepressant treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:41–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  506. 506.
    Sinclair LI, Christmas DM, Hood SD, Potokar JP, Robertson A, Isaac A. Antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:483–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 507.
    Sit DK, Perel JM, Helsel JC, Wisner KL. Changes in antidepressant metabolism and dosing across pregnancy and early postpartum. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:652–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. 508.
    Slotema CW, Blom JD, Hoek HW, Sommer IE. Should we expand the toolbox of psychiatric treatment methods to include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of rTMS in psychiatric disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:873–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. 509.
    Smith JA. The use of the isopropyl derivative of isonicotinyl hydrazide (Marsalid) in the treatment of mental disease: preliminary report. Am Pract. 1953;4:519–20.Google Scholar
  510. 510.
    Smith HS, Argoff CE. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain. Drugs. 2011;71:557–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. 511.
    Soares CN, Arsenio H, Joffe H, Bankier B, Cassano P, Petrillo LF, et al. Escitalopram vs. ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone acetate for symptomatic peri- and postmenopausal women: impact on depression, vasomotor symptoms, sleep, and quality of life. Menopause. 2006;13:780–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 512.
    Sokoro AA, Zivot J, Ariano RE. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome versus serotonin syndrome: search for a diagnostic tool. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45:e50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    Somberg TC, Arora RR. Depression and heart disease: therapeutic implications. Cardiology. 2008;111:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    Souery D, Oswald P, Massat I, Bailer U, Bollen J, Demyttenaere K, et al. Clinical factors associated with treatment resistance in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68: 1062–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Souery D, Papakostas GI, Trivedi MH. Treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67 (Suppl 6):16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    Soufia M, Aoun J, Gorsane MA, Krebs MO. [SSRIs and pregnancy: review of the literature (French)]. Encéphale. 2010;36:513–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  517. 517.
    Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T, Steingard R, Geist D. Nortriptyline treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder or Tourette’s syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1993;32:205–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. 518.
    Spina E, Trifirò G, Caraci F. Clinically significant drug interactions with newer antidepressants. CNS Drugs. 2012;26:39–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. 519.
    Spoelhof GD, Davis GL, Licari A. Clinical vignettes in geriatric depression. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:1149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. 520.
    Sproule BA, Hazra M, Pollock BG. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder. Drugs Today (Barc). 2008;44:475–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. 521.
    Stage KB, Bech P, Gram LF, Kragh-Sørensen P, Rosenberg C, Ohrberg S. Are in-patient depressives more often of the melancholic subtype? Danish University Antidepressant Group. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;98:432–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. 522.
    Stahl SM. Placebo-controlled comparison of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram and sertraline. Biol Psychiatry. 2000;48:894–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. 523.
    Starr P, Klein-Schwartz W, Spiller H, Kern P, Ekleberry SE, Kunkel S. Incidence and onset of delayed seizures after overdoses of extended-release bupropion. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:911–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. 524.
    Steffens DC, Krishnan KR, Helms MJ. Are SSRIs better than TCAs? Comparison of SSRIs and TCAs: meta-analysis. Depress Anxiety. 1997;6:10–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    Stein G, Bernadt M. Lithium augmentation therapy in tricyclic-resistant depression: controlled trial using lithium in low and normal doses. Br J Psychiatry. 1993;162:634–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    Stettin GD, Yao J, Verbrugge RR, Aubert RE. Frequency of follow-up care for adult and pediatric patients during initiation of antidepressant therapy. Am J Manag Care. 2006;12: 453–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. 527.
    Stewart JW, Tricamo E, McGrath PJ, Quitkin FM. Prophylactic efficacy of phenelzine and imipramine in chronic atypical depression: likelihood of recurrence on discontinuation after 6 months’ remission. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:31–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  528. 528.
    Stigler SM. Regression toward the mean, historically considered. Stat Methods Med Res. 1997;6:103–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  529. 529.
    Stoll AL, Mayer PV, Kolbrener M, Goldstein E, Suplit B, Lucier J, et al. Antidepressant-associated mania: controlled comparison with spontaneous mania. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151: 1642–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. 530.
    Stone M, Laughren TP, Jones ML, Levenson M, Holland PC, Hughes A, et al. Risk of suicidality in clinical trials of antidepressants in adults: analysis of proprietary data submitted to US Food and Drug Administration. BMJ. 2009;339:b2880–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  531. 531.
    Straus SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, Haynes RB. Evidence-Based Medicine. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone; 2005.Google Scholar
  532. 532.
    Stübner S, Grohmann R, von Straendorff I, Rüther E, Möller HJ, Müller-Oerlinghausen B, et al. Suicidality as rare adverse event of antidepressant medication: report from the AMSP multicenter drug safety surveillance project. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1293–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. 533.
    Sturdee DW. Menopausal hot flush–anything new? Maturitas. 2008;60:42–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 534.
    Sulser F, Vetulani J, Mobley PL. Mode of action of antidepressant drugs. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978;27:257–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 535.
    Sun-Edelstein C, Tepper SJ, Shapiro RE. Drug-induced serotonin syndrome: review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008;7:587–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 536.
    Svensson TH. Brain noradrenaline and the mechanisms of action of antidepressant drugs. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2000;402:18–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. 537.
    Szegedi A, Jansen WT, van Willigenburg AP, van der Meulen E, Stassen HH, Thase ME. Early improvement in the first 2 weeks as a predictor of treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis including 6562 patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:344–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. 538.
    Tajalizadekhoob Y, Sharifi F, Fakhrzadeh H, Mirarefin M, Ghaderpanahi M, Badamchizade Z, et al. Effect of low-dose omega 3 fatty acids on the treatment of mild to moderate depression in the elderly: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;261:539–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 539.
    Talarico G, Tosto G, Pietracupa S, Piacentini E, Canevelli M, Lenzi GL, et al. Serotonin toxicity; short review. Neurol Sci. 2011;32:507–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 540.
    Tamam L, Ozpoyraz N. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: review. Adv Ther. 2002;19:17–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. 541.
    Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E. Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997;340: 249–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. 542.
    Tepper SJ. Serotonin syndrome: SSRIs, SNRIs, triptans, and current clinical practice. Headache. 2012;52:195–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. 543.
    Terevnikov V, Stenberg JH, Tiihonen J, Joffe M, Burkin M, Tchoukhine E, et al. Add-on mirtazapine improves depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study with an open-label extension phase. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26:188–93.Google Scholar
  544. 544.
    Ter Horst PG, Jansman FG, van Lingen RA, Smit JP, de Jong-van den Berg LT, Brouwers JR. Pharmacological aspects of neonatal antidepressant withdrawal. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008;63:267–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. 545.
    Thanacoody HK, Thomas SH. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning: cardiovascular toxicity. Toxicol Rev. 2005;24:205–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 546.
    Thase ME. Preventing relapse and recurrence of depression: abrief review of therapeutic options. CNS Spectr. 2006;11(12 Suppl 15):12–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. 547.
    Thase ME. New directions in the treatment of atypical depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68 (Suppl 3):4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. 548.
    Thase ME. Treating major depression: antidepressant algorithms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:e46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  549. 549.
    Thase ME. Antidepressant combinations: widely used, but far from empirically validated. Can J Psychiatry. 2011;56:317–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. 550.
    Thase ME, Larsen KG, Kennedy SH. Assessing the ‘true’ effect of active antidepressant therapy vs. placebo in major depressive disorder: use of a mixture model. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:501–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 551.
    Thiele J, Holzinger O. Über O-diaminodibenzyl. Ann Chem Liebigs. 1899;305:96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 552.
    Thompson Jr JW, Ware MR, Blashfield RK. Psychotropic medication and priapism: comprehensive review. J Clin Psychiatry. 1990;51:430–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. 553.
    Thuile J, Even C, Roullon F. Long-term outcome in anxiety disorders: review of double-blind studies. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22:84–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. 554.
    Tiihonen J, Lonnqvist J, Wahlbeck K, Klaukka T, Tanskanen A, Haukka J. Antidepressants and the risk of suicide, attempted suicide, and overall mortality in a nationwide cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:1358–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. 555.
    Tondo L, Albert M, Baldessarini RJ. Suicide rates In relation to health-care access in the United States. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:517–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  556. 556.
    Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ, Vázquez G, Lepri B, Visioli C. Clinical responses to treatment in acutely depressed patients with bipolar versus unipolar major affective disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012; in press.Google Scholar
  557. 557.
    Tondo L, Hennen J, Baldessarini RJ. Reduced suicide risk with long-term lithium treatment in major affective Illness: A meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2001;104:163–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  558. 558.
    Tondo L, Lepri B, Baldessarini RJ. Risks of suicidal ideation, attempts and suicides among 2826 men and women with types I and II bipolar, and recurrent major depressive disorders. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007;116:419–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. 559.
    Tondo L, Lepri B, Baldessarini RJ. Suicidal status during antidepressant treatment in 789 Sardinian patients with major affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;118:106–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  560. 560.
    Tondo L, Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ. Mania associated with antidepressant-treatment: comprehensive meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010;121:404–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. 561.
    Traynor LM, Thiessen CN, Traynor AP. Pharmacotherapy of fibromyalgia. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68:1307–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  562. 562.
    Tremblay B, Blier P. Catecholaminergic strategies for the treatment of major depression. Curr Drug Targets. 2006;7:149–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. 563.
    Trivedi MH, Fava M, Wisniewski SR, Thase ME, Quitkin F, Warden D, et al. Medication augmentation after the failure of SSRIs for depression. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1243–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  564. 564.
    Trivedi RB, Nieuwsma JA, Williams Jr JW. Examination of the utility of psychotherapy for patients with treatment resistant depression: systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2011;26:643–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. 565.
    Tsapakis E, Soldani F, Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ. Efficacy of antidepressants in depressed children and adolescents: meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;193:10–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. 566.
    Tuccori M, Montagnani S, Testi A, Ruggiero E, Mantarro S, Scollo C, et al. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of major and cardiovascular malformations: update. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:49–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  567. 567.
    Tuccori M, Testi A, Antonioli L, Fornai M, Montagnani S, Ghisu N, et al. Safety concerns associated with use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants during pregnancy: review. Clin Ther. 2009;31:1426–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  568. 568.
    Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358: 252–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  569. 569.
    Uher R, Perlis RH, Henigsberg N, Zobel A, Rietschel M, Mors O, et al. Depression symptom dimensions as predictors of antidepressant treatment outcome: replicable evidence for interest-activity symptoms. Psychol Med. 2012;42:967–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  570. 570.
    Undurraga J, Baldessarini RJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for acute major depression: thirty-year meta-analytic review. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:851–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  571. 571.
    Uzan A, Kabouche M, Rataud J, Le Fur G. Pharmacological evidence of a possible tryptaminergic regulation of opiate receptors by using indalpine, a selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor. Neuropharmacology. 1980;19:1075–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. 572.
    Valenstein M, Eisenberg D, McCarthy JF, Austin KL, Ganoczy D, Kim HM, et al. Service implications of providing intensive monitoring during high-risk periods for suicide among VA patients with depression. Psychiatr Serv. 2009;60:439–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  573. 573.
    Valuck RJ, Libby AM, Orton HD, Morrato EH, Allen R, Baldessarini RJ. Spillover effects on treatment of adult depression in primary care after FDA advisory on risk of pediatric suicidality with SSRIs. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1198–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  574. 574.
    Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ, Yildiz A, Tamayo J, Tondo L, Salvatore P. Multi-site international collaborative clinical trials in mania. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:1013–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  575. 575.
    Vázquez G, Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ. Comparison of antidepressant responses in patients with bipolar vs. unipolar depression: meta-analytic review. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2011;44:21–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. 576.
    Ventimiglia J, Kalali AH. Generic penetration in the retail antidepressant market. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2010;7:9–11.Google Scholar
  577. 577.
    Vermeiden M, van den Broek WW, Mulder PG, Birkenhäger TK. Influence of gender and menopausal status on antidepressant treatment response in depressed inpatients. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:497–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  578. 578.
    Ververs TF, van Wensen K, Freund MW, van der Heide M, Visser GH, Schobben AF, et al. Association between antidepressant drug use during pregnancy and child healthcare utilization. BJOG. 2009;116:1568–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  579. 579.
    Vieta E, Colom F. Therapeutic options in treatment-resistant depression. Ann Med. 2011;43:512–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  580. 580.
    Viguera AC, Baldessarini RJ, Friedberg J. Discontinuing antidepressant treatment in major depression. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1998;5:293–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. 581.
    Viguera AC, Tondo L, Koukopoulos AE, Reginaldi D, Lepri B, Baldessarini RJ. Episodes of mood disorders in 2,252 pregnancies and postpartum periods. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168: 1179–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. 582.
    Vöhringer PA, Ghaemi SN. Solving the antidepressant efficacy question: effect sizes in major depressive disorder. Clin Ther. 2011;33:B49–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  583. 583.
    Wagner KD, Jonas J, Findling RL, Ventura D, Saikali K. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in the treatment of pediatric depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45:280–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  584. 584.
    Wagstaff AJ, Cheer SM, Matheson AJ, Ormrod D, Goa KL. Paroxetine: an update of its use in psychiatric disorders in adults. Drugs. 2002;62:655–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  585. 585.
    Walker PW, Cole JO, Gardner EA, Hughes AR, Johnston JA, Batey SR, et al. Improvement in fluoxetine-associated sexual dysfunction in patients switched to bupropion. J Clin Psychiatry. 1993;54:459–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  586. 586.
    Waring WS, Good AM, Bateman DN. Lack of significant toxicity after mirtazapine overdose: five-year review of cases admitted to a regional toxicology unit. Clin Toxicol. 2007;45:45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. 587.
    Watson WA, Litovitz TL, Klein-Schwartz W, Rodgers Jr GC, Youniss J, Reid N, et al. Annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am J Emerg Med. 2004;22:335–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. 588.
    Weihs K, Wert JM. Primary care focus on the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Am J Med Sci. 2011;342:324–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  589. 589.
    Weil-Malherbe H, Whitby LG, Axelrod J. Uptake of circulating [3H]norepinephrine by the pituitary gland and various areas of the brain. J Neurochem. 1961;8:55–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. 590.
    Weissman MM, Pilowsky DJ, Wickramaratne PJ, Talati A, Wisniewski SR, Fava M, et al. Remissions in maternal depression and child psychopathology. JAMA. 2006;295:1389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  591. 591.
    Wenk M, Liliane Todesco L, Krähenbühl S. Effect of St John’s wort on activities of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, N-acetyltransferase 2, and xanthine oxidase in healthy males and females. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;57:495–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. 592.
    White N, Litovitz T, Clancy C. Suicidal antidepressant overdoses: comparative analysis by antidepressant type. J Med Toxicol. 2008;4:238–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  593. 593.
    Wijeratne C, Sachdev P. Treatment-resistant depression: critique of current approaches. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:751–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  594. 594.
    Wijkstra J, Lijmer J, Balk FJ, Geddes JR, Nolen WA. Pharmacological treatment for unipolar psychotic depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:410–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  595. 595.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J, Baldessarini RJ, Puopolo P, Flood JG. Developmental changes in serum concentrations of desipramine and 2-hydroxydesipramine during treatment with desipramine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992;31:691–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  596. 596.
    Wilder J. Basimetric approach (law of initial value) to biological rhythms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1962;98:1211–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  597. 597.
    Wilson DL, Ried LD. Identifying iatrogenic depression using confirmatory factor analysis of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in patients prescribed a verapamil-sustained-release-led or atenolol-led hypertension treatment strategy. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2011. [Epub ahead of print, 29 Nov].Google Scholar
  598. 598.
    Wimbiscus M, Kostenko O, Malone D. MAO inhibitors: risks, benefits, and lore. Cleve Clin J Med. 2010;77:859–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. 599.
    Witkin JM, Marek GJ, Johnson BG, Schoepp DD. Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the control of mood disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2007;6:87–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  600. 600.
    Wittchen HU, Jacobi F, Rehm J, Gustavsson A, Svensson M, Jönsson B, et al. Size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:655–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  601. 601.
    Wogelius P, Nørgaard M, Gislum M, Pedersen L, Munk E, Mortensen PB, et al. Maternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of congenital malformations. Epidemiology. 2006;17:701–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  602. 602.
    Wolfe RM. Antidepressant withdrawal reactions. Am Fam Physician. 1997;56:455–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  603. 603.
    Wong D, Horng J, Bymaster F, Hauser K, Molloy B. A selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake: Lilly-110150, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine. Life Sci. 1974;15: 471–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  604. 604.
    Woolf AD, Erdman AR, Nelson LS, Caravati EM, Cobaugh DJ, Booze LL, et al. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning: evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol. 2007;45:203–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  605. 605.
    World Health Organization [WHO]. International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1979.Google Scholar
  606. 606.
    Wozniak G, Toska A, Saridi M, Mouzas O. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) against atherosclerosis. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:205–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  607. 607.
    Wu C-S, Wang S-C, Cheng Y-C, Gau SS-F. Association of cerebrovascular events with antidepressant use: case-crossover study. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:511–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  608. 608.
    Yamamura S, Abe M, Nakagawa M, Ochi S, Ueno S, Okada M. Different actions for acute and chronic administration of mirtazapine on serotonergic transmission associated with raphe nuclei and their innervation cortical regions. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:550–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  609. 609.
    Yang SJ, Kim SY, Stewart R, Kim JM, Shin IS, Jung SW, et al. Gender differences in 12-week antidepressant treatment outcomes for a naturalistic secondary care cohort. Psychiatry Res. 2011;189:82–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  610. 610.
    Yeung AS, Ameral VE, Chuzi SE, Fava M, Mischoulon D. Pilot study of acupuncture augmentation therapy in antidepressant partial and non-responders with major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011;130:285–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  611. 611.
    Yildiz A, Vieta E, Leucht S, Baldessarini RJ. Efficacy of antimanic treatments; meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:375–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  612. 612.
    Yildiz A, Vieta E, Tohen M, Baldessarini RJ. Factors modifying drug and placebo responses in randomized trials for bipolar mania. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:863–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  613. 613.
    Yohannes AM, Hann M, Sibbald B. Management of depressive symptoms in patients with COPD: a postal survey of general practitioners. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2011;12: 237–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  614. 614.
    Yonkers KA. Management strategies for PMS/PMDD. J Fam Pract. 2004;53 (Suppl 9):S15–20.Google Scholar
  615. 615.
    Young EA, Kornstein SG, Marcus SM, Harvey AT, Warden D, Wisniewski SR, et al. Sex differences in response to citalopram. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:503–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  616. 616.
    Zaffanello M, Giacomello L, Brugnara M, Fanos V. Therapeutic options in childhood nocturnal enuresis. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2007;59:199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  617. 617.
    Zajecka J, Fawcett J, Amsterdam J, Quitkin F, Reimherr F, Rosenbaum J, et al. Safety of abrupt discontinuation of fluoxetine: randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998;18:193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  618. 618.
    Zajecka J, Tracy KA, Mitchell S. Discontinuation symptoms after treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors: literature review. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58:291–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  619. 619.
    Zarate Jr C, Machado-Vieira R, Henter I, Ibrahim L, Diazgranados N, Salvadore G. Glutamatergic modulators: the future of treating mood disorders? Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010;18:293–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  620. 620.
    Zeller EA, Barsky J, Berman ER, Fouls JR. Actions of isonicotinic acid hydrazide and related compounds on enzymes of brain and other tissues. J Lab Clin Med. 1952;14:965–6.Google Scholar
  621. 621.
    Zhang HT, Whisler LR, Huang Y, Xiang Y, O’Donnell JM. Postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenergic receptors are critical for the antidepressant-like effects of desipramine on behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1067–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  622. 622.
    Zhao Z, Zhang HT, Bootzin E, Millan MJ, O’Donnell JM. Association of changes in norepinephrine and serotonin transporter expression with the long-term behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1467–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  623. 623.
    Zhou D, Guo J, Linnenbach AJ, Booth-Genthe CL, Grimm SW. Role of human UGT2B10 in N-glucuronidation of tricyclic antidepressants, amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and trimipramine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:863–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  624. 624.
    Zhu MY, Kim CH, Hwang DY, Baldessarini RJ, Kim KS. Effects of desipramine treatment on norepinephrine transporter gene expression in the cultured SK-N-BE(2)M17 cells and rat brain tissue. J Neurochem. 2002;82:146–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  625. 625.
    Zimmerman M, Thongy T. How often do SSRIs and other new-generation antidepressants lose their effect during continuation treatment? Evidence suggesting the rate of true tachyphylaxis during continuation treatment is low. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1271–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross J. Baldessarini
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolMcLean Hospital Psychopharmacology ProgramBelmontUSA

Personalised recommendations