Antipsychotic Agents

  • Ross J. Baldessarini


The start of the era of modern psychopharmacology can be dated from 1949, with the introduction of lithium carbonate in Melbourne, Australia, as a selective and effective antimanic agent. However, the earliest antipsychotic drugs appeared soon after that, and exerted immediate and truly revolutionary changes in the care of the severely mentally ill. The first modern antipsychotics were the phenothiazines, starting with the discovery of antimanic and antipsychotic properties of chlorpromazine in Paris in 1952.


Dopamine Receptor Antipsychotic Drug Psychotic Disorder Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Antipsychotic Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Agid O, Kapur S, Remington G. Emerging drugs for schizophrenia. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008;13:479–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams CE, Fenton MK, Quraishi S, David AS. Systematic meta-review of depot antipsychotic drugs for people with schizophrenia. Br J Psychiary. 2001;179:290–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander GC, Gallagher SA, Mascola A, Moloney RM, Stafford RS. Increasing off-label use of antipsychotic medications in the United States. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety. 2011;20:177–84.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alvarez PA, Pahissa J. QT alterations in psychopharmacology: proven candidates and suspects. Curr Drug Safety. 2010;5:97–104.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alvir JM, Lieberman JA, Safferman AZ, Schwimmer JL, Schaaf JA. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: incidence and risk factors in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:162–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual. 4th ed., text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ananth J, Parameswaran S, Gunatilake S, Burgoyne K, Sidhom T. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and atypical antipsychotic drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:464–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arinami T, Inada T. [Genome-wide association analyses for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia (Japanese)]. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2011;31:155–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avital A, Gross-Isseroff R, Stryjer R, Hermesh H, Weizman A, Shiloh R. Zolmitriptan compared to propranolol in the treatment of acute neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a comparative double-blind study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:476–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azoulay L, Yin H, Renoux C, Suissa S. The use of atypical antipsychotics and the risk of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;129:541–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baldessarini RJ. Chemotherapy in psychiatry. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1985.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baldessarini RJ. Dopamine receptors and clinical medicine. In: Neve KA, Neve RL, editors. The dopamine receptors. Totowa, NJ: Humana; 1997. p. 457–98.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Baldessarini RJ, Cohen BM, Teicher MH. Significance of neuroleptic dose and plasma level in the pharmacological treatment of psychoses. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baldessarini RJ, Huston-Lyons D, Campbell A, Marsh E, Cohen BM. Do antiadrenergic actions contribute to the atypical properties of clozapine? Br J. Psychiatry. 1992;160:12–6.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baldessarini RJ, Frankenburg FR. Clozapine: a novel antipsychotic agent. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:746–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baldessarini RJ, Suppes T, Tondo L. Lithium withdrawal in bipolar disorder: implications for clinical practice and experimental therapeutics research. Am J Ther. 1996;3:492–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Brain dopamine receptors: a primer on their current status, basic and clinical. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 1996;3:301–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Pharmacotherapy of mood disorders, anxiety, psychosis and mania (Chaps. 17 and 18). In: Brunton LL, Lazo JS, Parker KL, editors. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2005. p. 429–500.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tarsy D. Pathophysiologic basis of neurologic side-effects of antipsychotic drugs. Ann Rev Neurobiol. 1980;3:23–41.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baldessarini RJ, Tondo L, Ghiani C, Lepri B. Discontinuation rate vs. recurrence risk following long-term antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:934–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ban TA. Clinical pharmacology of the phenothiazines. Appl Ther. 1966;8:423–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beaulieu JM, Gainetdinov RR. Physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2011;63:182–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berinder K, Akre O, Granath F, Hulting AL. Cancer risk in hyperprolactinemia patients: a population-based cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165:209–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhuvaneswar C, Alpert J, Harsh V, Baldessarini RJ. Adverse endocrine and metabolic effects of psychotropic drugs. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:1003–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bleuler M, Stoll WA. Clinical use of reserpine in psychiatry: comparison with chlorpromazine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1955;61:167–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Blom MT, Bardai A, van Munster BC, Nieuwland MI, de Jong H, van Hoeijen DA, et al. Differential changes in QTc duration during in-hospital haloperidol use. PLoS One. 2011;6:e23728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bloomfield K, Macdonald L, Finucane G, Snow B, Roxburgh R. The use of antipsychotic medications in patients with Parkinson’s Disease at Auckland City Hospital. Intern Med J. [Epub ahead of print: 6 April 2011].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bostwick JR, Guthrie SK, Ellingrod VL. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Pharmacotherapy. 2009;29:64–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buchholz S, Morrow AF, Coleman PL. Atypical antipsychotic-induced diabetes mellitus: update on epidemiology and postulated mechanisms. Intern Med J. 2008;38:602–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bushe CJ, Bradley A, Pendlebury J. Review of hyperprolactinaemia and severe mental illness. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010;47:292–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caligiuri MR, Jeste DV, Lacro JP. Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders in the elderly: epidemiology and treatment recommendations. Drugs Aging. 2000;17:363–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carlsson A, Waters N, Carlsson ML. Neurotransmitter interactions in schizophrenia—therapeutic implications. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:1388–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Catafau AM, Tolosa E. Impact of dopamine transporter SPECT using 123I-Ioflupane on diagnosis and management of patients with clinically uncertain Parkinsonian syndromes. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1175–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cavazzoni PA, Berg PH, Kryzhanovskaya LA, Briggs SD, Roddy TE, Tohen M, et al. Comparison of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with bipolar mania or schizophrenia during olanzapine clinical trials. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:107–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Centorrino F, Cincotta SL, Talamo A, Fogarty KV, Guzzetta F, Saadeh MG, et al. Hospital use of antipsychotic drugs: polytherapy. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49:65–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Centorrino F, Price BH, Tuttle M, Bahk WM, Hennen J, Albert MJ, Baldessarini RJ. EEG abnormalities during treatment with typical and atypical antipsychotics. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:109–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Centorrino F, Ventriglio A, Vincenti A, Talamo A, Baldessarini RJ. Changes in medication practices for hospitalized psychiatric patients: 2009 versus 2004. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:179–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Centorrino F, Wurtman JJ, Duca KA, Fellman VH, Fogarty KV, Berry JM, et al. Weight loss in overweight patients maintained on atypical antipsychotic agents. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1011–6.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chahine LM, Acar D, Chemali Z. The elderly safety imperative and antipsychotic usage. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010;18:158–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chiang YL, Klainin-Yobas P, Ignacio J, Chng CM. Impact of antipsychotic side effects on attitudes towards medication in people with schizophrenia and related disorders. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20:2172–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Christodoulou C, Kalaitzi C. Antipsychotic drug-induced acute laryngeal dystonia: two case reports and a mini review. J Psychopharmacol. 2005;19:307–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Citrome L. Adjunctive lithium and anticonvulsants for the treatment of schizophrenia: what is the evidence? Expert Rev Neurother. 2009;9:55–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clement-Cormier YC, Kebabian JW, Petzold GL, Greengard P. Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in mammalian brain: a possible site of action of antipsychotic drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1974;71:1113–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cohen BM, Tsuneizumi T, Baldessarini RJ, Campbell A, Babb SM. Differences between antipsychotic drugs in persistence of brain levels and behavioral effects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1988;108:338–44.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cooper HM, Hedges LV, Valentine J, editors. Handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage; 2009.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Correll CU, Leucht S, Kane JM. Lower risk for tardive dyskinesia associated with second-generation antipsychotics: systematic review of one-year studies. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:414–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Csernansky JG, Mahmoud R, Brenner R. A comparison of risperidone and haloperidol for the prevention of relapse in patients with schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:16–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cure S, Rathbone J, Carpenter S. Droperidol for acute psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;4:CD002830.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Curtin F, Schulz P. Clonazepam and lorazepam in acute mania: a Bayesian meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2004;78:201–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cuyun-Carter GB, Milton DR, Ascher-Svanum H, Faries DE. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: 3-year prospective observational study. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dando S, Tohen M. Olanzapine: relapse prevention following mania. J Psychopharmacol. 2006;20 (Suppl 2):31–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Davies LM, Lewis S, Jones PB, Barnes TR, Gaughran F, Hayhurst K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of first- vs. second-generation antipsychotic drugs: results from a randomized controlled trial in schizophrenia responding poorly to previous therapy. Br J Psychiatry. 2007;191:14–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Daya RP, Tan ML, Sookram CD, Skoblenick K, Mishra RK. Alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone prevents oxidative stress in a haloperidol-induced animal model of tardive dyskinesia: investigating the behavioral and biochemical changes. Brain Res. 2011;1412:28–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    De Fruyt J, Deschepper E, Audenaert K, Constant E, Floris M, Pitchot W, Sienaert P, Souery D, Claes S. Second generation antipsychotics in the treatment of bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychopharmacol. 2012;26:603–17.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    de Haan L, van Bruggen M, Lavalaye J, Booij J, Dingemans PM, Linszen D. Subjective experience and D2 receptor occupancy in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia treated with low-dose olanzapine or haloperidol: a randomized, double-blind study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:303–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ducomb L, Baldessarini RJ. Timing and risk of bone marrow depression by psychotropic drugs. Am J Psychiatry. 1977;134:1294–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Duncan EJ, Adler LA, Stephanides M, Sanfilipo M, Angrist B. Akathisia and exacerbation of psychopathology: preliminary report. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000;23:169–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eapen V, John G. Weight-gain and metabolic syndrome among young patients on antipsychotic medication: what do we know and where do we go? Australas Psychiatry. 2011;19:232–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Erhart SM, Marder SR, Carpenter WT. Treatment of schizophrenia negative symptoms: future prospects. Schizophr Bull. 2006;32:234–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Essock SM, Schooler NR, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Rojas I, Jackson C, et al. Effectiveness of switching from antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:702–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Falissard B, Mauri M, Shaw K, Wetterling T, Doble A, Giudicelli A, et al. METEOR study: frequency of metabolic disorders in patients with schizophrenia: focus on first and second generation and level of risk of antipsychotic drugs. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;26:291–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    FDA (US Food and Drug Administration). Guidance for industry: E14 clinical evaluation of QT/QTc interval prolongation and pro-arrhythmic potential for non-antiarrhythmic drugs; 2005.
  63. 63.
    Fitzgerald PB, Kapur S, Remington G, Roy P, Zipursky RB. Predicting haloperidol occupancy of central dopamine D2 receptors from plasma levels. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;149:1–5.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Flanagan RJ, Ball RY. Gastrointestinal hypomotility: an under-recognized life-threatening adverse effect of clozapine. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;206:e31–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Frankenburg F, Baldessarini RJ. Neurosyphilis, malaria, and discovery of antipsychotic agents. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2008;16:299–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Froimowitz M, Cody V. Incorporation of butyrophenones and related compounds into a pharmacophore for dopamine D2 antagonists. Drug Des Discov. 1997;15:63–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Frye MA, Ketter TA, Leverich GS, Huggins T, Lantz C, Denicoff KD, Post RM. Increasing use of polypharmacotherapy for refractory mood disorders: 22 years of study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;1:9–13.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gaebel W, Riesbeck M, Wölwer W, Klimke A, Eickhoff M, von Wilmsdorff M, et al. Relapse prevention in first-episode schizophrenia: maintenance vs. intermittent drug treatment with prodrome-based early intervention: results of a randomized controlled trial within the German Research Network on Schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:205–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ganguli R, Brar JS, Garbut R, Chang CC, Basu R. Changes in weight and other metabolic indicators in persons with schizophrenia following a switch to aripiprazole. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2011;5:75–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gardner DM, Baldessarini RJ, Waraich P. Modern antipsychotic agents: a critical overview. Can Med Assoc J. 2005;172:1703–11.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gardner DM, Murphy AL, O’Donnell H, Centorrino F, Baldessarini RJ. International consensus study of antipsychotic dosing. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:686–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gerson SL, Meltzer H. Mechanisms of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Drug Saf. 1992;7 (Suppl 1):17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gill SS, Bronskill SE, Normand SL, Anderson GM, Sykora K, Lam K, et al. Antipsychotic drug use and mortality in older adults with dementia. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:775–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gillman PK. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: mechanisms, interactions, and causality. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1780–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gilmer TP, Dolder CR, Lacro JP, Folsom DP, Lindamer L, Garcia P, et al. Adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health care costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:692–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Glass GV. Meta-analysis at 25. 2000.
  77. 77.
    Glass GV, McGaw B, Smith ML. Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage; 1981.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Goff DC, Hill M, Freudenreich O. Treatment adherence in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:e13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goldberg TE, Gomar JJ. Targeting cognition in schizophrenia research: from etiology to treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:631–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Goldman JG, Vaughan CL, Goetz CG. Update expert opinion on management and research strategies in Parkinson’s disease psychosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2011;12:2009–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grande I, Pons A, Baeza I, Torras A, Bernardo M. QTc prolongation: is clozapine safe? Study of 82 cases before and after clozapine treatment. Hum Psychopharmacol. [Epub ahead of print, 9 Aug 2011].Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gunes A, Melkersson KI, Scordo MG, Dahl ML. Association between HTR2C and HTR2A polymorphisms and metabolic abnormalities in patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:65–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gurrera RJ, Caroff SN, Cohen A, Carroll BT, Deroos F, Francis A, et al. International consensus study of neuroleptic malignant syndrome diagnostic criteria using the Delphi method. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:1222–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Haas SJ, Hill R, Krum H, Liew D, Tonkin A, Demos L, et al. Clozapine-associated myocarditis: a review of 116 cases of suspected myocarditis associated with the use of clozapine in Australia during 19932003. Drug Saf. 2007;30:47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Haddad PM, Dursun SM. Neurological complications of psychiatric drugs: clinical features and management. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2008;23:15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hegarty JD, Baldessarini RJ, Tohen M, Waternaux CM, Oepen G. One hundred years of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of the outcome literature. Am J Psychiatry. 1994;151: 1409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Herceg M, Muzinić L, Jukić V. Can we prevent blood dyscrasia (leucopenia, thrombocytopenia) and epileptic seizures induced by clozapine. Psychiatr Danub. 2010;22:85–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hollister LE. Clinical use of psychotherapeutic drugs: current status. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1969;10:170–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gatyas G. IMS Health Reports U.S. prescription sales. Norwalk, CT: IMS Health; 2010.
  90. 90.
    Gitlin MJ, Midha KK, Fogelson D, Nuechterlein K. Persistence of fluphenazine in plasma after decanoate withdrawal. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1988;8:53–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Heres S, Davis J, Maino K, Jetzinger E, Kissling W, Leucht S. Why olanzapine beats risperidone, risperidone beats quetiapine, and quetiapine beats olanzapine: an exploratory analysis of head-to-head comparison studies of second-generation antipsychotics. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:185–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hieber R, Dellenbaugh T, Nelson LA. Role of mirtazapine in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. Ann Pharmacother. 2008;42:841–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Howland RH. Drug therapies for tardive dyskinesia. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2011;49:13–20.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Inder WJ, Castle D. Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinaemia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011;45:830–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Janssen PA. Evolution of the butyrophenones, haloperidol and trifluperidol, from meperidine-like 4-phenylpiperidines. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1965;8:221–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jeste DV, Rockwell E, Harris MJ, Lohr JB, Lacro J. Conventional vs. newer antipsychotics in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999;7:70–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Jin H, Meyer J, Mudaliar S, Henry R, Khandrika S, Glorioso DK, et al. Use of clinical markers to identify metabolic syndrome in antipsychotic-treated patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:1273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jones PB, Barnes TR, Davies L, Dunn G, Lloyd H, Hayhurst KP, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect on Quality of Life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63:1079–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Joukamaa M, Heliövaara M, Knekt P, Aromaa A, Raitasalo R, Lehtinen V. Schizophrenia, neuroleptic medication and mortality. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:122–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kamphuis H, Arends J, Timmerman L, van Marle J, Kappert J. [Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy: underestimated complications resulting from clozapine therapy (Dutch)]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2010;52:223–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kane JM. Antipsychotic drug side effects: relationship to dose. J Clin Psychiatry. 1985;46:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kane JM, Fleischhacker WW, Hansen L, Perlis R, Pikalov III A, Assunção-Talbott S. Akathisia: updated review focusing on second-generation antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:627–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kane JM, Honigfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer HY. Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45:789–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kane JM, Stroup TS, Marder SR. Schizophrenia: pharmacological treatment (Chap. 12.12). In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P, editors. Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. p. 1546–55.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Karagianis J, Rosenbluth M, Tohen M, Ascher-Svanum H, Treuer T, de Lima MS, et al. Reviewing CATIE for clinicians: balancing benefit and risk using evidence-based medicine tools. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:2551–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Karlsson P, Smith L, Farde L, Härnryd C, Sedvall G, Wiesel FA. Lack of apparent antipsychotic effect of the D1-dopamine receptor antagonist SCH39166 in acutely ill schizophrenic patients. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995;121:309–16.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kebabian JW, Calne DB. Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature. 1979;277:93–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kelleher JP, Centorrino F, Baldessarini RJ. New formulations and new atypical antipsychotics: potential therapeutic advantages. CNS Drugs. 2002;16:249–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kern RS, Glynn SM, Horan WP, Marder SR. Psychosocial treatments to promote functional recovery in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 2009;35:347–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ketter TA, Citrome L, Wang PW, Culver JL, Srivastava S. Treatments for bipolar disorder: can number needed to treat ⁄ harm help inform clinical decisions? Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2011;123:175–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kim HM, Chiang C, Kales HC. After the black box warning: predictors of psychotropic treatment choices for older patients with dementia. Psychiatr Serv. 2011;62:1207–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kishimoto T, Agarwal V, Kishi T, Leucht S, Kane JM, Correll CU. Relapse prevention in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of second-generation antipsychotics versus first-generation antipsychotics. Mol Psychiatry. [Epub ahead of print 29 Nov 2011].Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kline NS. Uses of reserpine, the newer phenothiazines, and iproniazid. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis. 1959;37:218–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Knegtering H, Oolders H, Ruijsink MA, van der Moolen AE. [Depot antipsychotics in the year 2011 (Dutch)]. Tijdschr Psychiatr. 2011;53:95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Komossa K, Depping AM, Gaudchau A, Kissling W, Leucht S. Second-generation antipsychotics for major depressive disorder and dysthymia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;8:CD008121.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kopelowicz A, Zarate R, Tripodis K, Gonzalez V, Mintz J. Differential efficacy of olanzapine for deficit and nondeficit negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157:987–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Krebs MO. [Development of antipsychotic drug: new directions (French)]. Therapie. 2008;63:257–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kulkarni SK, Ninan I. Dopamine D4 receptors and development of newer antipsychotic drugs. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2000;14:529–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kumar R, Sachdev PS. Akathisia and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2009;22:293–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kurzban S, Davis L, Brekke JS. Vocational, social, and cognitive rehabilitation for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia: a review of recent research and trends. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010;12:345–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lako IM, Taxis K, Bruggeman R, Knegtering H, Burger H, Wiersma D, Slooff CJ. The course of depressive symptoms and prescribing patterns of antidepressants in schizophrenia in a one-year follow-up study. Eur Psychiatry. 2012;27:240–4.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lee HJ, Kang SG. Genetics of tardive dyskinesia. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;98:231–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lehmann HE, Hanrahan GE. Chlorpromazine, a new inhibiting agent for psychomotor excitement and manic states. AMA Arch Neurol Psychiatry. 1954;71:227–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leong GB, Silva JA. Neuroleptic-induced akathisia and violence: a review. J Forensic Sci. 2003;48:187–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lerner Y, Lwow E, Levitin A, Belmaker RH. Acute high-dose parenteral haloperidol treatment of psychosis. Am J Psychiatry. 1979;136:1061–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Leslie DL, Rosenheck RA. From conventional to atypical antipsychotics and back: dynamic processes in the diffusion of new medications. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1534–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lett TA, Wallace TJ, Chowdhury NI, Tiwari AK, Kennedy JL, Müller DJ. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: review and clinical implications. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:242–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Leucht S, Arbter D, Engel RR, Kissling W, Davis JM. How effective are second-generation antipsychotic drugs? Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:429–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Leucht S, Corves C, Arbter D, Engel RR, Li C, Davis JM. Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373:31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Leucht C, Heres S, Kane JM, Kissling W, Davis JM, Leucht S. Oral versus depot antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia—critical systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized long-term trials. Schizophr Res. 2011;127:83–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Leucht S, Kissling W, Davis JM. Second-generation antipsychotics for schizophrenia: can we resolve the conflict? Psychol Med. 2009;39:1591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Leucht S, Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Corves C, Hunger H, Schmid F, et al. Meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons of second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166:152–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Leung JG, Breden EL. Tetrabenazine for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45:525–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Rosenheck RA, Perkins DO, et al. Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE): effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:1209–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lin CH, Lin SH, Jang FL. Adjunctive low-dose aripiprazole with standard-dose sertraline in treating fresh major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:563–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lingjaerde O. Tetrabenazine in the treatment of psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1963;39 (Suppl 17):1–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Lipinski Jr JF, Zubenko GS, Cohen BM, Barreira PJ. Propranolol in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:412–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Maddalena AS, Fox M, Hofmann M, Hock C. Esophageal dysfunction on psychotropic medication. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2004;37:134–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Maheux J, Vuillier L, Mahfouz M, Rouillard C, Lévesque D. Modulation of haloperidol-induced patterns of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nor-1 expression by serotonergic and adrenergic drugs in the mouse brain. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;15:509–21.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Manu P, Kane JM, Correll CU. Sudden deaths in psychiatric patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72:936–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Margetić B, Aukst-Margetić B. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and its controversies. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety. 2010;19:429–35.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mateos JJ, Lomeña F, Parellada E, Mireia F, Fernandez-Egea E, Pavia J, et al. Lower striatal dopamine transporter binding in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients is not related to antipsychotic treatment but it suggests an illness trait. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;191:805–11.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    McEvoy JP, Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, Davis SM, Meltzer HY, Rosenheck RA, et al. Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:600–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    McIntyre RS, Yoon J, Jerrell JM, Liauw SS. Aripiprazole for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: review of available evidence. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2011;7:319–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Meltzer HY, Alphs L, Green AI, Altamura AC, Anand R, Bertoldi A, et al. Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia: International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:82–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Meltzer HY, Massey BW. Role of serotonin receptors in the action of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2011;11:59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Merro DB, Dec GW, Goff DC. Adverse cardiac effects associated with clozapine. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25:32–41.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Mishara AL, Goldberg TE. Meta-analysis and critical review of the effects of conventional neuroleptic treatment on cognition in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:1013–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Mittal V, Kurup L, Williamson D, Muralee S, Tampi RR. Risk of cerebrovascular adverse events and death in elderly patients with dementia when treated with antipsychotic medications: literature review of evidence. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2011;26:10–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Mizuno T, Schmauss C, Rayport S. Distinct roles of presynaptic dopamine receptors in the differential modulation of the intrinsic synapses of medium-spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens. BMC Neurosci. 2007;8:8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Moghaddam B, Bunney BS. Depolarization inactivation of dopamine neurons: terminal release characteristics. Synapse. 1993;14:195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Murray M. Role of CYP pharmacogenetics and drug-drug interactions in the efficacy and safety of atypical and other antipsychotic agents. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:871–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Murru A, Pacchiarotti I, Nivoli AM, Grande I, Colom F, Vieta E. What we know and what we don’t know about the treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:680–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Musicco M, Palmer K, Russo A, Caltagirone C, Adorni F, Pettenati C, et al. Association between prescription of conventional or atypical antipsychotic drugs and mortality in older persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2011;31:218–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Naber D, Lambert M. The CATIE and CUtLASS studies in schizophrenia: results and implications for clinicians. CNS Drugs. 2009;23:649–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Nielsen J, Graff C, Kanters JK, Toft E, Taylor D, Meyer JM. Assessing QT interval prolongation and its associated risks with antipsychotics. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:473–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Nooijen PM, Carvalho F, Flanagan RJ. Haematological toxicity of clozapine and some other drugs used in psychiatry. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26:112–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Novick D, Haro JM, Bertsch J, Haddad PM. Incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: thirty-six-month results from the European schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes study. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30:531–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Nunn R. Mere anecdote: evidence and stories in medicine. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17:920–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Nyberg S, Farde L, Halldin C. Test-retest reliability of central [11C]raclopride binding at high D2 receptor occupancy: PET study in haloperidol-treated patients. Psychiatry Res. 1996;67:163–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Ohaeri JU, Akanji AO. Metabolic syndrome in severe mental disorders. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9:91–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Parkinson CN. Parkinson’s law. The Economist, 19 November 1955.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Parsons B, Allison DB, Loebel A, Williams K, Giller E, Romano S, et al. Weight effects associated with antipsychotics: comprehensive database analysis. Schizophr Res. 2009;110:103–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Perenyi A, Gardos G, Samu I, Kallos M, Cole JO. Changes in extrapyramidal symptoms following anticholinergic drug withdrawal. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1983;6:55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Pharoah F, Mari J, Rathbone J, Wong W. Family intervention for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;12:CD000088.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Pierre JM. Extrapyramidal symptoms with atypical antipsychotics: incidence, prevention and management. Drug Saf. 2005;28:191–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Praharaj SK, Jana AK, Goyal N, Sinha VK. Metformin for olanzapine-induced weight gain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;71:377–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Rabinowitz T, Frankenburg FR, Centorrino F, Kando J. The effect of clozapine on saliva flow rate: pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40:1132–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Racoosin JA, Katz R. Overview of the effect of the WBC monitoring schedule on the rate of clozxapine-associated agranulocytosis: FDA memorandum 3950B1_02_A of May 19. 2003.
  170. 170.
    Rado JT. Review of trials of mirtazapine for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Ann. 2011;41:265–70.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Hall K, Stein CM. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:225–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ray WA, Meredith S, Thapa PB, Meador KG, Hall K, Murray KT. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:1161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Reiter S, Adler L, Angrist B, Corwin J, Rotrosen J. Atenolol and propranolol in neuroleptic-induced akathisia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1987;7:279–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Reulbach U, Dütsch C, Biermann T, Sperling W, Thuerauf N, Kornhuber J, et al. Managing an effective treatment for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Crit Care. 2007;11:R4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Rosen SL, Baldessarini RJ. Costs of psychotropic drugs. 2011 (unpublished MS).Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Rusyniak DE, Sprague JE. Toxin-induced hyperthermic syndromes. Med Clin North Am. 2005;89:1277–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn’t. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2007;455:3–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Sanford M. Quetiapine extended release: adjunctive treatment in major depressive disorder. CNS Drugs. 2011;25:803–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Schatzberg AF, Nemeroff CB, editors. The American psychiatric press textbook of psychopharmacology, 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2009.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Schlittler E, MacPhillamy HB, Dorfman L, Furlenmeier A, Huebner CF, Lucas R, et al. Chemistry of Rauwolfia alkaloids, including reserpine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1954;59:1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Schneider SD, Jelinek L, Lincoln TM, Moritz S. What happened to the voices? A fine-grained analysis of how hallucinations and delusions change under psychiatric treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2011;188:13–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Seeman P. Dopamine D2 receptors as treatment targets in schizophrenia. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses. 2010;4:56–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Segnitz N, Ferbert T, Schmitt A, Gass P, Gebicke-Haerter PJ, Zink M. Effects of chronic oral treatment with aripiprazole on the expression of NMDA receptor subunits and binding sites in rat brain. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;217:127–42.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Sen G, Bose KC. Rauwolfia serpentina, a new Indian drug for insanity and high blood pressure. Ind Med World. 1931;2:194–201.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Simoni-Wastila L, Ryder PT, Qian J, Zuckerman IH, Shaffer T, Zhao L. Association of antipsychotic use with hospital events and mortality among Medicare beneficiaries residing in long-term care facilities. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;17:417–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Simpson GM, Yadalam KG, Levinson DF, Stephanos MJ, Lo ES, Cooper TB. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of fluphenazine after fluphenazine decanoate administration. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990;10:417–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Singer HS. Treatment of tics and Tourette syndrome. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2010;12:539–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Smith JM, Baldessarini RJ. Changes in prevalence, severity, and recovery in tardive dyskinesia with age. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1980;37:1368–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Soares-Weiser K, Maayan N, McGrath J. Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;16:CD000209.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Sokoloff P, Diaz J, Le Foll B, Guillin O, Leriche L, Bezard E, et al. The dopamine D3 receptor: a therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2006;5:25–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Straus SE, Richardson WS, Glasziou P, Haynes RB. Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill-Livingstone; 2005.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Stroup TS, Lieberman JA, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Davis SM, Rosenheck RA, et al. Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following discontinuation of a previous atypical antipsychotic. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:611–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Susman VL. Clinical management of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Psychiatr Q. 2001;72:325–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Swazey JP. Chlorpromazine in psychiatry: a study in therapeutic innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT; 1974.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Sylte I, Dahl SG. Molecular structure and dynamics of cis (Z)-and trans (E)-flupenthixol and clopenthixol. Pharm Res. 1991;8:462–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Brain dopamine D4 receptors: basic and clinical status. Intl J Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999;2:41–58.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. The dopamine D4 receptor: significance for molecular psychiatry at the millennium. Mol Psychiatry. 2000;4:529–38.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Tarazi FI, Baldessarini RJ. Comparative postnatal development of dopamine D1, D2 and D4 receptors in rat forebrain. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000;18:29–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tarsy D, Baldessarini RJ. Behavioral supersensitivity to apomorphine following chronic treatment with drugs which interfere with the synaptic function of catecholamines. Neuropharmacology. 1974;13:927–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Tarsy D, Baldessarini RJ. Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia: is risk declining with modern antipsychotics? Mov Disord. 2006;21:589–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Tarsy D, Baldessarini RJ, Tarazi FI. Atypical antipsychotic agents: effects on extrapyramidal functions. CNS Drugs. 2002;16:23–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Tarsy D, Lungu C, Baldessarini RJ. Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia before and during the era of modern antipsychotic drugs. Handb Clin Neurol. 2010;100:601–16.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Terevnikov V, Stenberg JH, Tiihonen J, Joffe M, Burkin M, Tchoukhine E, et al. Add-on mirtazapine improves depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study with an open-label extension phase. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2011;26:188–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Thuillier J. The Ten Years that Changed the Face of Mental Illness (Healy D, transl.). London: Martin Dunitz; 1999.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Tiihonen J, Haukka J, Taylor M, Haddad PM, Patel MX, Korhonen P. Nationwide cohort study of oral and depot antipsychotics after first hospitalization for schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2011;168:603–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Tiihonen J, Lönnqvist J, Wahlbeck K, Klaukka T, Niskanen L, Tanskanen A, et al. 11-Year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study (FIN11 study). Lancet. 2009;374:620–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Tiihonen J, Wahlbeck K, Kiviniemi V. Efficacy of lamotrigine in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophr Res. 2009;109:10–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tohen M, Zarate Jr CA, Hennen J, Khalsa HMK, Strakowski SM, Gebre-Medhin P, et al. McLean-Harvard First-Episode Mania Study: prediction of recovery and first recurrence. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:2099–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tonda ME, Guthrie SK. Treatment of acute neuroleptic-induced movement disorders. Pharmacotherapy. 1994;14:543–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tural U, Onder E. Clinical and pharmacologic risk factors for neuroleptic malignant syndrome and their association with death. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64:79–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell RA, Rosenthal R. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:252–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Uchida H, Takeuchi H, Graff-Guerrero A, Suzuki T, Watanabe K, Mamo DC. Predicting dopamine D2 receptor occupancy from plasma levels of antipsychotic drugs: systematic review and pooled analysis. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;31:318–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Undurraga J, Baldessarini RJ. A 30-year meta-analytic review of antidepressant efficacy in acute major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:851–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Usui C, Hatta K, Doi N, Kubo S, Kamigaichi R, Nakanishi A, et al. Improvements in both psychosis and motor signs in Parkinson’s disease, and changes in regional cerebral blood flow after electroconvulsive therapy. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2011;35:1704–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ, Yildiz A, Tamayo J, Tondo L, Salvatore P. Multi-site international collaborative clinical trials in mania: commentary. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:1013–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Velligan DI, Alphs LD. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: importance of identification and treatment. Psychiatr Times. 2008;25:1–2.
  217. 217.
    Velligan DI, Gonzalez JM. Rehabilitation and recovery in schizophrenia. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007;30:535–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Venkateshappa C, Harish G, Mythri RB, Mahadevan A, Srinivas Bharath MM, Shankar SK. Increased oxidative damage and decreased antioxidant function in aging human substantia nigra compared to striatum: implications for Parkinson’s disease. Neurochem Res. 2012;37:358–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Ventriglio A, Vincenti A, Centorrino F, Talamo A, Fitzmaurice G, Baldessarini RJ. Use of mood-stabilizers for hospitalized adult psychotic and bipolar disorder patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2011;26:88–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Vetti HH, Molven A, Eliassen AK, Steen VM. Is pharmacogenetic CYP2D6 testing useful? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2010;130:2224–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Viguera AC, Baldessarini RJ, Hegarty JM, Van Kammen D, Tohen M. Risk of discontinuing maintenance medication in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54:49–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Wahlbeck K, Cheine M, Essali A, Adams C. Evidence of clozapine’s effectiveness in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:990–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Waldorf S. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Am Assoc Nurse Anesth J. 2003;71:389–94.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wang PS, Schneeweiss S, Avorn J, Fischer MA, Mogun H, Solomon DH, et al. Risk of death in elderly users of conventional vs. atypical antipsychotic medications. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2335–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Wang PS, Walker AM, Tsuang MT, Orav EJ, Glynn RJ, Levin R, et al. Dopamine antagonists and the development of breast cancer. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:1147–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Weintraub D, Chen P, Ignacio RV, Mamikonyan E, Kales HC. Patterns and trends in antipsychotic prescribing for Parkinson disease psychosis. Arch Neurol. 2011;68:899–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Whiskey E, Taylor D. Restarting clozapine after neutropenia: evaluating the possibilities and practicalities. CNS Drugs. 2007;21:25–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Wiesel FA, Farde L, Nordström AL, Sedvall G. Central D1- and D2-receptor occupancy during antipsychotic drug treatment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1990;14: 759–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Winkleman Jr NW. Chlorpromazine in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. JAMA. 1954;155:18–21.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Williams JM, Galli A. The dopamine transporter: a vigilant border control for psychostimulant action. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2006;175:215–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Wirshing WC. Movement disorders associated with neuroleptic treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 (Suppl 21):15–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Woerner MG, Correll CU, Alvir JM, Greenwald B, Delman H, Kane JM. Incidence of tardive dyskinesia with risperidone or olanzapine in the elderly: results from a 2-year, prospective study in antipsychotic-naïve patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1738–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Wong DF. In vivo imaging of D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia: the ups and downs of neuroimaging research. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:31–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Xia J, Merinder LB, Belgamwar MR. Psychoeducation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;6:CD002831.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Yildiz A, Vieta E, Leucht S, Baldessarini RJ. Efficacy of antimanic treatments: meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:375–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Yildiz A, Vieta E, Tohen M, Baldessarini RJ. Factors modifying drug and placebo responses in randomized trials for bipolar mania. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:863–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Zervas IM, Theleritis C, Soldatos CR. Using ECT in schizophrenia: review from a clinical perspective. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2012;13:96–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Zink M, Englisch S, Meyer-Lindenberg A. [Polypharmacy in schizophrenia]. Nervenarzt. 2011;82:853–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Zyss T, Banach M, Zieba A. [Akathisia—diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapy (Polish)]. Psychiatr Pol. 2009;43:387–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross J. Baldessarini
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolMcLean Hospital Psychopharmacology ProgramBelmontUSA

Personalised recommendations