Cell Cycle Control and Growth Factor Systems in Metastasis

  • Jonathan Cools-LartigueEmail author
  • Jonathan Spicer


Cancer remains a leading cause of death in industrialized countries despite advances in the detection and treatment of this disease (Heron et al., Natl Vital Stat Rep 57:1–134, 2009). Traditional models of cancer posit that neoplastic cells arise through the sequential accumulation of genetic mutations leading to independent and uninhibited replication, the evasion of apoptosis, sustained angiogenesis, and ultimately, invasion and metastasis. The latter is of particular clinical significance as metastasis is the leading cause of cancer related death (Pantel and Brakenhoff 2004; Colotta et al. 2009; Wu and Zhou 2009; Sica et al. 2008).


Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Foxo Protein Tumor Genesis Phosphorylated Tyrosine Residue Promote Cancer Cell Proliferation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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