Advertisement

Other Methods of Tumor Dissemination

  • Abelardo A. Rodríguez-Reyes
Chapter

Abstract

Methods of cancer dissemination other than lymphatic and hematogenous spread are direct seeding of body cavities or surfaces and perineural spread (Robbins et al., Pathologic basis of disease, 1994; Laerum, Diagnostic Cytopathology, 33:292–293, 2005). Seeding of body cavities and surfaces may occur whenever a malignant tumor penetrates into a natural “open field”. The peritoneum is the most often involved cavity, but other cavities such as pleura, pericardium, subarachnoid space and the eye globe may be affected.

Keywords

Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Metastatic Carcinoma Malignant Pleural Effusion Vitreous Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adenle AD, Edwards JE (1982) Clinical and pathologic features of metastatic neoplasms of the pericardium. Chest 81:166–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Broughton WL, Zimmerman LE (1978) A clinicopathologic study of 56 cases of intraocular medulloepitheliomas. Am J Ophthalmol 85:407–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cariker M, Dockerty M (1954) Mucinous cystadenomas and mucinous cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary; a clinical and pathological study of 355 cases. Cancer 7:302–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cardozo PL (1966) A critical evaluation of 3000 cytologic analyses of pleural fluid ascitic fluid and pericardial fluid. Acta Cytologica 10:455Google Scholar
  5. Chernow B, Sahn SA (1977) Carcinomatous involvement of the pleura: An analysis of 96 patients. Am J Med 63:695–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chu DZ, Lang NP, Thompson C, Osteen PK, Westbrook KC (1989) Peritoneal carcinomatosis in nongynecologic malignancy. A prospective study of prognostic factors. Cancer 63:364–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dadmanesh F, Miller DM, Swenerton KD, Clement PB (1997) Gliomatosis peritonei with malignant transformation. Mod Pathol 10:597–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Deraco M et al (1999) Peritoneal carcinomatosis: feature of dissemination. A review. Tumori 85:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Du Plessis DG, Louw JA, Wranz PA (1999) Mucinous epithelial cysts of the spleen associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei. Histopathology 35:551–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fortt RW, Mathie IK (1969) Gliomatosis peritonei caused by ovarian teratoma. J Clin Pathol 22:348–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gifford H (1966) A cystic diktyoma. Surv Ophthalmol 11:557–561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Glockzin G, Schlitt HJ, Piso P (2009) Peritoneal carcinomatosis: patients selection, perioperative complications and quality of life related to cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. World J Surg Oncol 7:5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grossniklaus HE, Dhaliwal RS, Martin DF (1998) Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma. Retina 18:238–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harms D, Janig U, Gobel U (1989) Gliomatosis peritonei in childhood and adolescence. Clinicopathological study of 13 cases including immunohistochemical findings. Pathol Res Pract 184:422–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Higa E, Rosai J, Pizzimbono CA, Wise L (1973) Mucosal hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix. A re-evaluation of appendiceal “mucocele”. Cancer 32:1525–1541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson SL, Fleming RA, Loggie BW, Geisinger KR (2001) Gelatinous ascites: A cytohistologic study of pseudomyxoma peritonei in 67 patients. Mod Pathol 14:664–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaworski RC, Boadle R, Greg J, Cocks P (2001) Peritoneal “melanosis” associated with a ruptured ovarian dermoid cyst: Report of a case with electron-probe energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Int J Gynecol Pathol 20:386–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kahn MA, Demopoulos RI (1992) Mucinous ovarian tumors with pseudomyxoma peritonei: A clinicopathological study. Int J Gynecol Pathol 11:15–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kokkoris CP (1983) Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. How does cancer reach the pia-arachnoid? Cancer 51:154–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Laerum OD (2005) Tumour spread in serosal cavities: What have we learned? Montebello Conference–PSC, Lillehammer, Norway, June 18–22 2004. Diagn Cytopathol 33:292–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee KR, Scully RE (2000) Mucinous tumors of the ovary: A clinicopathologic study of 196 borderline tumors (of intestinal type) and carcinomas, including an evaluation of 11 cases with ‘pseudomyxoma peritonei’. Am J Surg Pathol 24:1447–1464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mambo NC (1981) Diseases of the pericardium: Morphologic study of surgical specimens from 35 patients. Hum Pathol 12:978–987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mansour AM, Greenwald MJ, O’Grady R (1989) Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 26:152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Maroldi R, Farina D, Borghesi A, Marconi A, Gatti E (2008) Perineural tumor spread. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 18:413–429 (xi)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McLean IW, Burnier MN, Zimmerman LE, Jakobiec FA (1994) In tumors of the eye and ocular adnexa. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC pp 97–151Google Scholar
  26. Melamed MR (1963) The cytological presentation of malignant lymphomas and related diseases in effusions. Cancer 16:413–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nance KV, Shermer RW, Askin FB (1991) Diagnostic efficacy of pleural biopsy as compared with that of pleural fluid examination. Mod Pathol 4:320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Nemec SF, Herneth AM, Czerny C (2007) Perineural tumor spread in malignant head and neck tumors. Top Magn Reson Imaging 18:467–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nicholson DH, Norton EW (1980) Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 78:265–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Nielsen SN, Scheithauer BW, Gaffey TA (1985) Gliomatosis peritonei. Cancer 56:2499–2503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ojiri H (2006) Perineural spread in head and neck malignancies. Radiat Med 24:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Prayson RA, Hart WR, Petras RE (1994) Pseudomyxoma peritonei. A clinicopathologic study of 19 cases with emphasis on site of origin and nature of associated ovarian tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 18:591–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ramakrishnamurthy TV, Murty AV, Purohit AK, Sundaram C (2002) Benign meningioma metastasizing through CSF pathways: A case report and review of literature. Neurol India 50:326–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Robbins SL, Cotran RS, Kumar V (eds) (1994) Pathologic basis of disease. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Ronnett BM et al (1995) Pseudomyxoma peritonei in women: a clinicopathologic analysis of 30 cases with emphasis on site of origin, prognosis, and relationship to ovarian mucinous tumors of low malignant potential. Hum Pathol 26:509–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ronnett BM et al (2001) Patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei associated with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis have a significantly more favorable prognosis than patients with peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis. Cancer 92:85–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sadeghi B et al (2000) Peritoneal carcinomatosis from non-gynecologic malignancies: Results of the EVOCAPE 1 multicentric prospective study. Cancer 88:358–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shah IA, Salvatore JR, Kummet T, Gani OS, Wheeler LA (1999) Pseudomesotheliomatous carcinoma involving pleura and peritoneum: A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of three cases. Ann Diagn Pathol 3:148–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shields JA, Shields CL, Eagle RC, Blair CJ (1988) Spontaneous pseudohypopyon secondary to diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. Arch Ophthalmol 106:1301–1302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shin HJ, Sneige N (2000) Epithelial cells and other cytologic features of pseudomyxoma peritonei in patients with ovarian and/or appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: A study of 12 patients including 5 men. Cancer 90:17–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smith JW et al (1992) Pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin. The memorial sloan-kettering cancer center experience. Cancer 70:396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Soslow RA, Pirog E, Isacson C (2000) Endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma with associated peritoneal carcinomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 24:726–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sugarbaker PH (2002) Cytoreduction including total gastrectomy for pseudomyxoma peritonei. Br J Surg 89:208–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sugarbaker PH, Chang D (1999) Results of treatment of 385 patients with peritoneal surface spread of appendiceal malignancy. Ann Surg Oncol 6:727–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sugarbaker PH, Yan H, Shmookler B (2001) Pedunculated peritoneal surface polyps in pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. Histopathology 39:525–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tarin D et al (1984) Mechanisms of human tumor metastasis studied in patients with peritoneovenous shunts. Cancer Res 44:3584–3592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Tran TA, Jennings TA, Ross JS, Nazeer T (1998) Pseudomyxoma ovariilike posttherapeutic alteration in prostatic adenocarcinoma: A distinctive pattern in patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen ablation therapy. Am J Surg Pathol 22:347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Truong LD, Jurco S 3rd, McGavran MH (1982) Gliomatosis peritonei. Report of two cases and review of literature. Am J Surg Pathol 6:443–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Young RH, Gilks CB, Scully RE (1991) Mucinous tumors of the appendix associated with mucinous tumors of the ovary and pseudomyxoma peritonei. A clinicopathological analysis of 22 cases supporting an origin in the appendix. Am J Surg Pathol 15:415–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zimmerman LE (1971) Verhoeff’s “terato-neuroma”. A critical reappraisal in light of new observations and current concepts of embryonic tumors. The fourth Frederick H. Verhoeff lecture. Am J Ophthalmol 72:1039–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en México, Hospital “Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes„, Faculty of MedicineUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico (UNAM)Ciudad de MéxicoMéxico

Personalised recommendations