Other Methods of Tumor Dissemination
Methods of cancer dissemination other than lymphatic and hematogenous spread are direct seeding of body cavities or surfaces and perineural spread (Robbins et al., Pathologic basis of disease, 1994; Laerum, Diagnostic Cytopathology, 33:292–293, 2005). Seeding of body cavities and surfaces may occur whenever a malignant tumor penetrates into a natural “open field”. The peritoneum is the most often involved cavity, but other cavities such as pleura, pericardium, subarachnoid space and the eye globe may be affected.
KeywordsPeritoneal Carcinomatosis Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Metastatic Carcinoma Malignant Pleural Effusion Vitreous Body
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