Advertisement

Positive Adaptation, Resilience and the Developmental Assets Framework

  • Arturo SesmaJr.Email author
  • Marc Mannes
  • Peter C. Scales
Chapter

Abstract

Advances in our understanding of adaptation are rooted in the seminal work of Garmezy, Rutter, Werner, and others who “discovered” a not inconsiderable proportion of children who, thought to be at risk for current and future maladaptation, showed few or no signs of pathology and often exhibited high levels of competence (Garmezy, 1974; Rutter, 1979; Werner & Smith, 1982). Investigating what made a difference in this group of children’s lives led at first to descriptions of correlates of positive development among children living in high-risk contexts and has progressed to complex process models allowing for multiple causal effects across multiple ecologies (Masten, 1999a). Two of the great contributions from this line of work have focused on elucidating the mechanisms thought to underlie both adaptive and maladaptive developmental trajectories under conditions of adversity, as well as advancing the position that studies of positive adaptation and competence should be studied alongside the more dominant models of risk, pathology, and treatment (Garmezy, 1974; Rutter, 1979; Masten, 2001). These advancements in turn have been instrumental in current intervention and prevention practices (Rolf & Johnson, 1999).

Keywords

Young People Grade Point Average Youth Development Positive Development Positive Youth Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, G. R. (2001). Positive aspects of adolescence—Part II. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16, 427–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, B. K., & Olsen, J. A. (1997). Socialization in context: Connection, regulation, and autonomy in the family, school, and neighborhood, and with peers. Journal of Adolescent Research, 72, 287–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belsky, J., & Fearon, R. M. P. (2002). Infant-mother attachment security, contextual risk, and early development: A moderational analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 293–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson, P. L. (2006). All kids are our kids: What communities must do to raise caring and responsible children and adolescents (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, P. L. (2003). Developmental assets and asset-building community: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In R. M. Lerner & P. L. Benson (Eds.), Developmental assets and asset-building communities (pp. 19–43). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, P. L., Leffert, N., Scales, P. C., & Blyth, D. A. (1998). Beyond the “village” rhetoric: Creating healthy communities for children and adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 138–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benson, P. L., & Pittman, K. J. (2001). Trends in youth development: Visions, realities and challenges. Boston, MA: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson, P. L., & Saito, R. N. (2001). The scientific foundations of youth development. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. 135–154). Norwell, MA: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benson, P. L., & Scales, P. C. (2010). Thriving and sparks: Development and emergence of new core concepts in youth development. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Benson, P. L., & Scales, P. C. (2009a). The definition and preliminary measurement of thriving in adolescence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benson, P. L., & Scales, P. C. (2009b). Positive youth development and the prevention of youth aggression and violence. European Journal of Developmental Science, 3, 218–234.Google Scholar
  12. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hamilton, S. F., & Sesma, A., Jr. (2006). Positive youth development: Theory, research, and applications. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Theoretical models of human development 6th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 894–941). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Leffert, N., & Roehlkepartain, E. R. (1999). A fragile foundation: The state of developmental assets among American youth. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  14. Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., & Mannes, M. (2003). Developmental strengths and their sources: Implications for the study and practice of community building. In R. M. Lerner, F. Jacobs, & D. Wertlieb (Eds.), Handbook of applied developmental science (Applying developmental science for youth and families: Historical and theoretical foundations, Vol. 1, pp. 369–406). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & R. M. Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. L. Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 993–1028). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, B. V. (Ed.). (2008). Key indicators of child and youth well-being. New York, NY: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Catalano, R. F, Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2002). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention and Treatment, 5(15).Google Scholar
  19. Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., Berglund, M. L., Pollard, J. A., & Arthur, M. W. (2002). Prevention science and positive youth development: Competitive or cooperative frameworks? Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 230–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Connell, J. P., Gambone, M. A., & Smith, T. J. (2001). Youth development in community settings: Challenges to our field and our approach. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. 291–307). Boston: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  21. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  22. Garmezy, N. (1974). The study of competence in children at risk for severe psychopathology. In E. J. Anthony & C. Koupernik (Eds.), The child in his family (Children as psychiatric risk, Vol. 3, pp. 77–97). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Hamilton, S. F., Hamilton, M. A., & Pittman, K. J. (2003). Principles for youth development. In S. F. Hamilton & M. A. Hamilton (Eds.), The youth development handbook: Coming of age in American Communities (pp. 3–22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  24. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 772, 64–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jessor, R. (1993). Successful adolescent development among youth in high-risk settings. American Psychological Bulletin, 48, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keating, D., & Hertzman, C. (Eds.). (1999). Develop­mental health and the wealth of nations: Social, biological, and educational dynamics. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  27. Leffert, N., Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Sharma, A. R., Drake, D. R., & Blyth, D. A. (1998). Developmental assets: Measurement and prediction of risk behaviors among adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lerner, R. M. (2003). Developmental assets and asset-building communities: A view of the issues. In R. M. Lerner & P. L. Benson (Eds.), Developmental assets and asset-building communities (pp. 3–18). New York, NY: Kluwer/Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lerner, R. M., Brentano, C., Dowling, E. M., & Anderson, P. M. (2002). Positive youth development: Thriving as the basis of personhood and civil society. In R. M. Lerner, C. S. Taylor, & A. von Eye (Eds.), New directions for youth development (Pathways to positive development among diverse youth, Vol. 95, pp. 5–33). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  30. Lopez, S. J., & McKnight, C. G. (2002). Moving in a positive direction: Toward increasing the utility of positive youth development efforts. Prevention & Treatment, 5.Google Scholar
  31. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 77, 543–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Masten, A. S. (1999a). The promise and perils of resilience research as a guide to preventive interventions. In M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 251–257). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  33. Masten, A. S. (1999b). Resilience comes of age: Reflections on the past and outlook for the next generation of research. In M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 282–296). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  34. Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Masten, A. S., & Curtis, W. J. (2000). Integrating competence and psychopathology: Pathways toward a comprehensive science of adaptation in development. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 529–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Masten, A. S., & Reed, M. G. J. (2002). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 74–88). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Moore, K. A., & Lippman, L. H. (Eds.). (2005). What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development. New York. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Pittman, K., Diversi, M., & Ferber, T. (2002). Social policy supports for adolescence in the twenty-first century: Framing questions. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pittman, K. J., Irby, M., & Ferber, T. (2001). Unfinished business: Further reflections on a decade of promoting youth development. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities, and challenges (pp. 3–50). Boston, MA: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Resnick, M. D. (2000). Protective factors, resiliency, and healthy youth development. Adolescent Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 77(1), 157–164.Google Scholar
  41. Rolf, J. E., & Johnson, J. L. (1999). Opening doors to resilience intervention for prevention research. In M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 229–249). New York, NY: Plenum.Google Scholar
  42. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology (Social competence in children, Vol. 3, pp. 49–74). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  43. Rutter, M. (2000). Resilience reconsidered: Conceptual considerations, empirical findings, and policy implications. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed., pp. 651–682). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sameroff, A. J. (1999). Ecological perspectives on developmental risk. In J. D. Osofsky & H. E. Fitzgerald (Eds.), WAIMH handbook of infant mental health (Infant mental health groups at risk, Vol. 4, pp. 223–248). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  45. Sameroff, A. J., Bartko, W. T., Baldwin, A., Baldwin, C., & Seifer, R. (1999). Family and social influences on the development of child competence. In M. Lewis & C. Feiring (Eds.), Families, risk, and competence (pp. 161–186). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Sameroff, A. J., & Fiese, B. H. (2000). Transactional regulation: The developmental ecology of early intervention. In J. P. Shonkoff & S. J. Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (2nd ed., pp. 135–159). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., & Bartko, W. T. (1997). Environmental perspectives on adaptation during childhood and adolescence. In S. S. Luthar, J. A. Burack, D. Ciccetti, & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder (pp. 507–526). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Scales, P. C. (2001). The public image of adolescents. Society, 38, 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scales, P. C., & Benson, P. L. (2005). Adolescence and thriving. In C. B. Fisher & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of applied developmental science (pp. 15–19). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  50. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Leffert, N., & Blyth, D. A. (2000). Contribution of developmental assets to the prediction of thriving among adolescents. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Mannes, M., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Hintz, N. R., & Sullivan, T. K. (2003). Other people’s kids: Social expectations and American adults’ involvement with children and adolescents. New York, NY: Kluwer/Plenum (Search Institute Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society).Google Scholar
  52. Scales, P. C., Benson, P. L., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Sesma, A., & van Dulmen, M. (2006). The role of developmental assets in predicting academic achievement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 691–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (2004). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  54. Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (1999). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  55. Scales, P. C., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2003). Boosting student achievement: New research on the power of developmental assets. Search Institute Insights & Evidence, 7(1), 1–10. www.search-institute.org/research/Insights.
  56. Scales, P. C., Roehlkepartain, E. C., & Benson, P. L. (2009). Teen voice 2009: Tapping the hidden strengths of 15-year-olds. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute and Best Buy Children’s Foundation.Google Scholar
  57. Scales, P. C., Sesma, A., Jr., & Bolstrom, B. (2004). Coming into their own: How developmental assets promote positive growth in middle childhood. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  58. Search Institute. (2001). Developmental assets: A profile of your youth. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.Google Scholar
  59. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14 (special issue on Happiness, Excellence, and Optimal Human Functioning).Google Scholar
  60. Sesma, A., Jr., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (2003). Unique strengths, shared strengths: Developmental assets among youth of color. Search Institute Insights & Evidence, 1(2), 1–13. www.search-institute.org/research/Insights.
  61. Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Farrington, D. P., Zhang, Q., van Kammen, W., & Maguin, E. (1993). The double edge of protective and risk factors for delinquency: Interrelations and developmental ­patterns. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 683–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Takanishi, R., Mortimer, A. M., & McGourthy, T. J. (1997). Positive indicators of adolescent development: Redressing the negative image of American adolescents. In R. M. Hauser, B. V. Brown, & W. R. Prosser (Eds.), Indicators of children’s well-being (pp. 428–441). New York, NY: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  63. Taylor, C. S., Lerner, R. M., von Eye, A., Balsano, A. B., Dowling, E. M., Anderson, P. M., et al. (2002). Individual and ecological assets and positive developmental trajectories among gang and community-based organization youth. In R. M. Lerner, C. S. Taylor, & A. von Eye (Eds.), New directions for youth development (Pathways to positive development among diverse youth, Vol. 95, pp. 57–72). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  64. VanderVen, K. (2008). Promoting positive development in early childhood: Building blocks for a successful start. New York, NY.: Springer.Google Scholar
  65. Villaruel, F. A., Perkins, D. E., Borden, L. M., & Keith, J. G. (2003). Community youth development: Programs, policies, and practices. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  66. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  67. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1993). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. New York, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Weissberg, R. P., & Greenberg, M. T. (1998). School and community competence enhancement and prevention programs. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & I. E. Siegel & K. A. Renninger (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., Vol. 5, pp. 877–954). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  69. Whitlock, J. L., & Hamilton, S. F. (2003). The role of youth surveys in community youth. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arturo SesmaJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marc Mannes
    • 2
  • Peter C. Scales
    • 3
  1. 1.St. Catherine UniversitySt. PaulUSA
  2. 2.Booz Allen HamiltonMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Search InstituteMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations