Skip to main content

Why Study Resilience?

Abstract

The study of resilience traces its roots back a scant 50 years. Early on, the field of study was not extensive and the number of researchers devoting their careers to the examination of this phenomenon was fairly small. The field, as Michael Rutter noted in 1987, reflected not so much a search for factual phenomena but “for the developmental and situational mechanisms involved in protective processes” (p. 2). The interest was and is not just on what factors insulate and protect, but how they went about exerting their influence. Resilience studies were reserved for high-risk populations with a particular focus on those youth demonstrating resilience or the ability to overcome the emotional, developmental, economic, and environmental challenges they faced growing up (Rutter, 1987).

Keywords

  • Protective Factor
  • Resilience Research
  • Resilience Process
  • Clinical Realm
  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3661-4_1
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   219.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4614-3661-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   279.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anthony, E. J. (1987). Risk, vulnerability and resilience: An overview. In E. J. Anthony & B. Cohler (Eds.), The invulnerable child (pp. 3–48). New York, NY: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van Ijzendoor, M. H., Pijlman, F. T. A., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers’ externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 44, 293–300.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin, A. L., Baldwin, C. P., Kasser, T., Zax, M., Sameroff, A., & Seifer, R. (1993). Contextual risk and resiliency during late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 741–761.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beardslee, W. R. (1989). The role of self-understanding in resilient individuals. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 266–278.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beardslee, W. R., & Podorefsky, D. (1988). Resilient adolescents whose parents have serious affective and other psychiatric disorders: Importance of self-understanding and relationships. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 63–69.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beckett, C., Maughan, B., Rutter, M., Castle, J., Colvert, E., Groothues, C., et al. (2006). Do the effects of early severe deprivation on cognition persist into early adolescence? Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees study. Child Development, 77, 696–711.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Belsky, J., Woodworth, S., & Crnic, K. (1996). Trouble in the second year: Three questions about family interaction. Child Development, 67, 556–568.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Benard, B., Burgoa, C., & Whealdon, K. (1994). Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the school (training of trainers). San Francisco: Far West Laboratory.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brodsky, A. E. (1996). Resilient single mothers in risky neighborhoods: Negative psychological sense of community. Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 347–364.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bronfenbrenner, U., & Crouter, A. C. (1983). The evolution of environmental models in developmental research. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of Child Psychology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Raising resilient children: Fostering strength, hope and optimism in our children. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2003). Nurturing resilience in our children: Answers to the most important parenting questions. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O. (1989). Life events and illness. New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, S. B. (2002). Behavior problems in preschool children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Center for Disease Control. (2002). Youth risk behavior surveillance system. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.cdc.gov

  • Children’s Defense Fund. (2002). Health and safety trends in children. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.childrensdefensefund.org

  • Cicchetti, D., & Garmezy, N. (1993). Prospects and promises in the study of resilience. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 497–502.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. (1996). Equifinality and multifinality in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 597–600.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S. G., Hawkins, J. D., Asaranow, J. R., Markman, H. J., Ramey, S. L., Shure, M. B., & Long, M. B. (1993). The science of prevention: A conceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, 1013–1022.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Conrad, M., & Hammen, C. (1993). Protective and resource factors in high- and low-risk children: A comparison of children with unipolar, bipolar, medically ill, and normal mothers. Developmental and Psychopathology, 5, 593–607.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cowen, E. L. (1991). In pursuit of wellness. American Psychologist, 46, 404–408.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cowen, E. L. (1994). The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 149–179.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dennett, D. C. (2003). Freedom evolves. New York, NY: Viking.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donnellan, M. B., Coner, K. J., McAdams, K. K., & Neppl, T. K. (2009). Personal characteristics and resilience to economic hardship and its consequences: Conceptual issues and empirical illustrations. Journal of Personality, 77, 1645–1676.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dubow, E. F., Edwards, S., & Ippolito, M. F. (1997). Life stressors, neighborhood disadvantage, and resources: A focus on inner-city children’s adjustment. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 130–144.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, H. (1979). Children of the holocaust. New York, NY: Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fava, G. A., & Tomba, E. (2009). Increasing psychological well-being and resilience by psychotherapeutic methods. Journal of Personality, 77, I1903–I1934.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flach, F. F. (1988). Resilience: Discovering new strength at times of stress. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N., Masten, A. S., & Tellegen, A. (1984). The study of stress and competence in children: A building block for developmental psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 97–111.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N., & Nuechterlein, K. (1972). Invulnerable children: The fact and fiction of competence and disadvantage. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 42, 328–329.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping, and development in children. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenbaum, C. W., & Auerbach, J. G. (1992). The conceptualization of risk, vulnerability, and resilience in psychological development. In C. W. Greenbaum & J. G. Auerbach (Eds.), Longitudinal studies of children at psychological risk: Cross-national perspectives (pp. 9–28). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg, M. T., Lengua, L. J., Coie, J. D., & Pinderhughes, E. E. (1999). Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple risk model: Four American communities. Developmental Psychology, 35, 403–417.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hallowell, E. M. (2001). Connect: 12 Vital ties that open your heart, lengthen your life and deepen your soul. New York, NY: Pocket Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammen, C. (1997). Children of depressed parents: The stress context. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 131–159). New York, NY: Plenum.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hauser, S., Allen, J., & Golden, E. (2006). Out of the woods: Tales of resilient teens. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hernstein, R. J., & Murray, C. (1995). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kim-Cohen, J., & Gold, A. L. (2009). Measured gene-environment interactions and mechanisms promoting resilient development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 138–142.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kreppner, J. M., Rutter, M., Beckett, C., Castle, J., Colvert, E., Groothues, C., et al. (2007). Normality and impairment following profound early institutional deprivation: A longitudinal follow-up into early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 43, 931–946.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lorion, R. P. (2000). Theoretical and evaluation issues in the promotion of wellness and the protection of “well enough”. In D. Cicchetti, J. Rappaport, I. Sandler, & R. Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents. Washington, DC: CWLA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lösel, F., Bliesener, T., & Köferl, P. (1989). On the concept of invulnerability: Evaluation and first results of the Bielefeld project. In M. Brambring, F. Losel, & H. Skowronek (Eds.), Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention (pp. 186–219). New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents. Child Development, 62, 600–616.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Luthar, S. S., & Brown, P. J. (2007). Maximizing resilience through diverse levels of inquiry: Prevailing paradigms, possibilities, and priorities for the future. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 931–955.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lutzke, J. R., Ayers, T. S., Sandler, I. N., & Barr, A. (1999). Risks and interventions for the parentally bereaved child. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 215–245). New York, NY: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S. (1999). Resilience comes of age: Reflections on the past and outlook for the next generation of research. In M. D. Glantz, J. Johnson, & L. Huffman (Eds.), Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations (pp. 282–296). New York, NY: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes and development. American Psychologist, 56, 227–238.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Masten, A. S., Hubbard, J. J., Gest, S. D., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N., & Ramirez, M. (1999). Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 143–169.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Adminis­tration. (2002). Drug abuse statistics. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.drugabusestatistics.samsha.gov

  • National Center for Children of Poverty. (2002). Poverty statistics. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.nccp.org

  • Pavenstedt, E. (1965). A comparison of the childrearing environment of upper-lower and very low-lower class families. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 89–98.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pines, M. (1984). Resilient children: Interview with Michael Rutter. Psychology Today, 18, 56–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polakow, V. (1993). Lives on the edge: Single mothers and their children in the other America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Radke-Yarrow, M., & Brown, E. (1993). Resilience and vulnerability in children of multiple risk families. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 518–592.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richardson, G. E., Neiger, B. L., Jensen, S., & Kumpfer, K. (1990). The resiliency model. Health Education, 21(6), 33–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. New York, NY: Irvington.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (Vol. 9, pp. 181–214). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1994). Beyond longitudinal data: Causes, consequences, changes and continuity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 928–940.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (2006). Implications of resilience concepts for scientific understanding. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1–12.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M., Cox, A., Tupling, C., Berger, M., & Yule, W. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas: I. He prevalence of psychiatric disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 493–509.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M., & the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study Team. (1998). Developmental catch-up and deficit, following adoption after severe global early privation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 465–476.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M., & Quinton, D. (1984). Long-term follow-up of women institutionalized in childhood: Factors promoting good functioning in adult life. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 18, 225–234.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sameroff, A. J. (1995). General systems theories and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohens (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (Theory and methods, Vol. 1, pp. 659–695). New York, NY: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sameroff, A. J. (2000). Dialectical processes in developmental psychopathology. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 23–40). New York, NY: Plenum.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., & West, S. G. (1994). Coping, stress and psychological symptoms of children of divorce: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Child Development, 65, 1744–1763.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schorr, L. (1988). Within our reach: Breaking the cycle of disadvantage. New York, NY: Doubleday.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1998a). Building human strength: Psychology’s forgotten mission. APA Monitor, 29(1), 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seligman, M. E. P. (1998b). Building human strength: Psychology’s forgotten mission. APA monitor, 29(#4), 2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, D. S., & Vondra, J. L. (1993). Chronic family adversity and infant attachment security. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1205–1215.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1994). Coping during childhood and adolescence: A motivational perspective. In D. R. Lerner & M. Perlmutter (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 91–123). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Psychopathology as an outcome of development. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 251–268.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tarter, R. E. (1988). The high-risk paradigm in alcohol and drug abuse research. In R. W. Pickens & D. S. Svikis (Eds.), Biological vulnerability to drug abuse (NIDA Research Monograph, Vol. 89, pp. 73–86). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tarter, R., & Vanyukov, M. (1994). Alcoholism: A developmental disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 1096–1107.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tiet, Q. Q., Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Hoven, C., Cohen, P., Jensen, P. S., & Goodman, S. (1998). Adverse life events and resilience. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191–1200.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. British Journal of Social Work, 38, 218–235.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Census. (2000). Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.censusus.gov

  • Werner, E. E., & Johnson, J. L. (1999). Can we apply resilience? (pp. 259-268). In M. D. Glantz & J. L. Johnson (Eds.), Resilience in development: Positive life adaptations. New York, NY: Kluwer/Academic/Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1993). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (2001). Journeys from childhood to mid-life: Risk, resilience and recovery. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, J. L., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A. (1989). A prospective replication of the protective effects of I.Q. in subjects at high risk for juvenile delinquency. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 719–724.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolchik, S. A., Schenck, C. E., & Sandler, I. N. (2009). Promoting resilience in youth from divorced families: Lessons learned from experimental trials of the New Beginnings program. Journal of Personality, 77, 1833–1868.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Worsham, N. L., Compas, B. E., & Ey, S. (1997). Children’s coping with parental illness. In S. A. Wolchik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 195–215). New York, NY: Plenum.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., Hoyt-Meyers, L. A., Magnus, K. B., & Fagen, D. B. (1999). Caregiving and developmental factors differentiating young at-risk urban children showing resilient versus stress-affected outcomes: A replication and extension. Child Development, 709, 645–659.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wyman, P. A., Sandler, I., Wolchik, S., & Nelson, K. (2000). Resilience as cumulative competence promotion and stress protection: Theory and intervention. In D. Cicchetti, J. Rappaport, I. Sandler, & R. Weissberg (Eds.), The promotion of wellness in children and adolescents. Washington, DC: CWLA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoshikawa, H. (1994). Prevention as cumulative protection: Effects of early family support and education on chronic delinquency and its risks. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 28–54.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. (2002). Statistics on risk factors in youth. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/index.htm

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sam Goldstein .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Goldstein, S., Brooks, R.B. (2013). Why Study Resilience?. In: Goldstein, S., Brooks, R. (eds) Handbook of Resilience in Children. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3661-4_1

Download citation